Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 3 Education and Society Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Foundations of Education Unit 3 Education and Society Long Answer Questions
Long Type Question With Answers
Discuss the interrelationship between society and education. Discuss the scope of education in society.
The world itself and everything are dynamic. Society is dynamic Man is a social being and he needs and formed a society in a democratic way. Education is an activity, which goes on in the society in which it takes place. The Republic of Plato, Politics of Aristotle, and Democracy of Education by John Dewey prove that education is a dimension of politics.
Hence society and education are intimately related to society and education. People living together are said to live in a society or a community. The two words community and society are used same sense they differ from each other. the words of R.G Collingwood, A community is everybody, adult and children, social and non-social persons living in a certain territory where all share a mode of life, but not all are conscious of its organization or purpose.
A society is a kind of community or a part of a community whose members have become socially conscious of their mode of life, and are united by a common set of aims and values. This distinction between community and society relates education to society. Children are members of the community.’ It is education that prepares them for full membership in society.
They remain as members of the non-social community, during student life. When they develop social consciousness through the impact of education, they, become a potential member of society. This study of relations between education and society is known as the sociology of education. The Scope of Education Every society has some set of aims and values.
In order to achieve these aims and values, education plays a double role. First, it attempts to develop the personality of the child and then prepares him for membership in society. Thus a person plays a dual role in his life as an individual and as a member of society. So we can not think of an individual without society and vice versa.
He needs education for the development of his personality and for the adjustment to the human environment Throughout this life, a man tries to make an adjustment to his physical universe and the social world around it. He also creates his own environment in order to feel at home and fries to master them. The situation calls for creative adjustment.
That is why the change in society goes on in a never-ending way. So education and society are interrelated and education is aimed at building a modem society. Society is dynamic because education is dynamic to the growth in science and. technology.
What is social change? Discuss the factors affecting social change?
As social change refers to the movement of social progress, social interaction and social organization. To K. Device, social change alteration occurs in social organization, the structure and function of the society. To us, social change means a change in the culture and in its chief factors, material and non-material culture. Factors that determine social change are a continuous process. Change in one aspect of society affects to other aspects for example change in the political system affects religious and economic aspects of the society.
The factors that affect social change are as follows:
The action of the exceptional individuals :
History recalls the personal influences of exceptional individuals have brought about changes in political, economic, social, and religious fields. For example, scientists like Galileo, religious reformers like Shankaracharya, Lord Budha and Jesus Christ and Social reforms like Gandhi, Gopabandhu and Lenin had a profound influence on society.
The personal Qualities of those personalities affect society and brought a change in the social traditions, and customs and brought a change in society such customs are Sati rights, the early marriage system and untouchables etc. During the period Lord Bentick, Raja Rammohan Ray brought a change in Sati Right.
The widow has not have to sacrifice in the burning fire of his husband and can have the right to marry for a second time. The social reformer Gandhi brought a change in Untouchables in India. He claimed the South Africa equal rights of Black people with white. The slavery system in South Africa was abolished.
Impact of Ideas and Ideologies :
In the energy age ideas and ideologies proved to be a powerful instrument of social change. The world-famous revolution of France resulted in liberty equality and fraternity. Besides, the ideologies of socialization, communism, fascism, democracy, secularism, humanism etc. have a very powerful influence on the change of society.
Effects of cultural diffusion :
A society isolated from other contacts remains static. So relations with other countries bring cultural diffusion. With the coming of British rule, India was influenced Western Technology and Western culture and there is cultural diffusion. For example, English language and literature and science and technology etc.
Impact of changes in the physical environment :
Changes in the physical environment bring a change in society. For example, food, drought, earthquakes can bring about radical changes in food, clothing, houses and ways of learning, living style of the people. Geographical and environmental factors like climate, topography, means of communication, and availability and non-availability of resources affect the people. If the physical environment wholesome people lead a hopeful life and if there is obstruction, the life patterns differ from country to country
Impact of Science and Technology:
Social change occurs through the interaction of technological techniques and social values. All those two factors change society. Techniques means by which members of society satisfy their basic human needs for food, shelter, clothing, communication, social organizations, reproduction etc.
The development of these factors and techniques depends on inventions and discoveries. Social inventions and the development of social techniques satisfy, to needs of living together in a group. Values are concerned with the religion, philosophy, and ideology of the people aimed at truth, beauty and goodness. All these things make human life dynamic successful and purposive.
Change through collective actions:
These can be rapid social change through planned group action. The legislators can change the society by majority rate in the parliament and state legislative assemblies.
Role of war in social change :
World war twice has brought a change in the political, economic, and ideologies of the people. An agency of social change it brings new values and problems. The enemies never hesitate to destroy hospitals, schools, temples, churches and mosques. They also go against traditions and customs. The population also transfer from one place to another. Transfer and migration cause a lot of economic and political problems which leads to social change.
Contribution of Heredity and environment to social change :
Humanity is the result of heredity. Both heredity and environment influence man’s behaviour. Heredity theory is supported by Galton, and Freud, whereas environmentalists like Karl Marx. Opined social change brought in two ways. The relationship like painter and brush, Heredity has potentialities and the environment offers a change a bringing them out. the interplay of both Heredity and environment contributes to social change.
Discuss the characteristics of social change?
The phenomenon of social change is complex and the characteristics of such social factors are as follows :
Social change is a continuous process:
Social change is a continuous process. Society is ever-changing phenomenon, undergoing endless changes, an ongoing process. Recall the past ancient civilization and cultures and compare them with the modem civilization and cultures. There is a radical change of science and technology. The social relationship is not permanent and there is no museum to save it from the ravages of time.
Social change is universal :
The social structure of social organization change is the law of nature and social institutions are all dynamic. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. Society remains static.
Social change is social :
Society is a ‘web of social relationships’ and social change means a change in the social system of social relationships, and it is the social process and social change, which influence the community.
Social change occurs as an essential law :
Change is the law of nature. Social change also natural change is an unavoidable and unchangeable laws of nature. By nature we desire change and to satisfy these needs social change becomes a necessity.
The rate and tempo of social change are uneven :
Though social change is a must and every society the rate, tempo speed and extent of change are not uniform. It differs society to society. In some society its speed is rapid, in another, it may be slow, for example in modem industrial society its speed and extent of changes is faster than in traditional agriculture and rural society.
Social change is bound by time factors :
Social change is tempered in nature. The caste system is a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society is now undergoing considerable changes in the modem India. In the 19th century, India become more industrialized and the speed of social changes increased.
Social change due to multi factors:
Social change is due to a multinumber of factors such as war, conquest, natural calamities, like earthquakes, Sunami, industrial development and political ideologies etc.
Social change may be violent or peaceful:
The social change may be violent, rapid or peaceful. The term violence frequently refers to the threat or use of physical forms that violently affect emotions, values and expectations.
Social changes involve non-value judgement:
Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral. The study of social change involves no judgement but is ethical.
Social change may be planned or unplanned :
Social change may occur in the natural course unplanned change refers to change resulting from natural calamities such as Famine, and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions etc. It is known as the unchangeable law of nature.
Social change may be endogeneous or Exogeneous :
Endogeneous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of society. Conflict, communication regionalism etc. are some examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous social change is the impact of forces externally such as technology transfer and brain drain, political and cultural, imperialism and diffusion of cultural traits etc.
What is social change? Discuss the factors affecting social change?
Social change refers to the movement social progress, social interaction, social organization. To K. Device, By social change alteration that occurs in social organizations, the Structure and function of the society. To obtain, social change means a change With cultural good in its chief factors, material and no material cultures.
Factors that determine social changes :
Social change is a continuous process of change in one aspect of to society, that affects other aspects for example change in the political system affects religious change are as follows.
The action of the exceptional Individuals :
History recalls the personal influences of exceptional individuals has brought about changes in the political, economic, social, and religious field. For example scientists like Galileo, religious reformers like Shankaracharya, Lord Buddha and Jesus Christ and social reformers like Gandi, Gopabandu and Lenin had a profound influence on society.
The personal Qualities of those personalities affect society and brought a change in the social traditions, customs and brought a change in social traditions, customs and brought a change in the society such customs are Sati rights early marriage system and untouchables etc.
Impact of ideas and ideologies :
A powerful instrument of social change. The world-famous revolutions of France resulted in liberty, ability and fraternity. Besides ideologies of socialization, communism, Fascism, democracy, secularism, Humanism etc. have a very powerful influence on the change of society.
Effect of cultural diffusion :
A society isolated from other contacts remains static. So die relationship with other countries brings cultural diffusion. With the coming of British Rule, India was influenced by western technology and western culture and there is cultural diffusion. For example, English language and literature, science and technology etc.
Impact of changes in the Physical environment :
Changes in the physical environment bring a change in society. For example, Food, drought, earthquakes can bring about radical changes in food, clothing, houses and ways of learning, living style of the people. Geographical and environmental factors like climate, topography, means of communication, and availability and non-availability of resources affect the people. If the physical environment is wholesome people lead a happy life and if there is obstruction, the life patterns differ from country to country.
Impact of science and technology:
Social change occurs through the interaction of technological techniques and social values. All these two factors change society. Techniques means by which members of society satisfy their basic human needs for food, shelter, clothing, communication, social organization, reproduction etc.
The development of these techniques depends on inventions and discoveries. Social inventions and the development of social techniques satisfy the need of living together in a group. Values are concerned with religious philosophy and ideology of the people aimed at truth, beauty and goodness. All these things make human life dynamic, successful and purposive.
Change through collective actions:
There can be rapid social change through planned group action. The legislators can change the society by majority rate in the parliament and state legislative assemblies.
Role of war in Social Change :
World war twice has fought a change in the political, and economic ideologies of the people. As an agency of social change, it brings new values and problems. The enemies never hesitate to destroy hospitals, schools, temples, churches and mosques. They also against traditions and customs. The population also transfer from one place to another transfer and migration cause a lot of economic and political problems which leads to social change.
Contribution of Heredity and environment to social change :
Humanity is the result of heredity. Both heredity and environment influence man’s behaviours. Heredity theory is supported by Galton, and Freud, whereas,-environmentalists like Karl Marx opined social change is brought by two ways. The relationship is like painter and brush. Heredity has potentialities and the environment offers a change bringing them out. Thus, the interplay of both heredity and the environment contributes to social change.
Discuss the role of education in social change?
Education is a strong and powerful device to change human nature in a desirable way. The process of education helps an individual to know himself and others and recognizes and intensifies the feeling of others.
The main role of education is social change are as follows:
Conservative role of Education :
The supporters of conservation claim that education should conserve the existing social culture and transfer it to the next generation. The conservative role of education in respect of social change should be creative in nature to maintain stability to instability, and security to insecurity. Building new institutions out of old ones and opening new institutions is a problem. So education should take the lead to solve the problem.
Progressive Role of Education:
Progressives oppose conservation. To them, education must be a source of new ideas for school programmes that are constantly undergoing reconstruction. One group progressives opined that education should act as an independent critic of states and others agree that the role of education should be direct purposive and progressive. It should form a definite conception of a better social order.
In a mature society education and politics should be one and something. It will help us to manage public affairs effectively and intelligently. So in learning all of social programmes should be studied. In a totalitarian state, the people are subordinate to the state authority. In a pluralistic state, it is also desirable. So education should play an independent role to bring about desirable social change.
Neutral Role of Education :
For social change education also play a neutral role, remains aloof from politics and devotes time to pursuing external values and mastering universal truth. Individuals be compelled to follow a particular ideology. Neutrality leads to academic paralysis. Neutrality in education is not desirable. So education should remain all of from controversial issues and it should be responsible for social progress.
Education for Revolutionary changes:
Social progress should take place through evolution rather than revolution. Sometimes our students should take part in agitation to fulfil their demands. The government remains adamant and opposes their agitation and when Govt, becomes callous and indifferent situation becomes worst.
The tension between the students and the teacher goes against the orderly process of social change. There is social change when capitalism to communalism and firm democracy to fascism etc. The Marxist wants social revolution through physical force to bring about desirable social change.
Education is a tool for social control:
Education plays an important role in social control. As a tool of social control, it plays a dual role. The first role of education is to assimilate, preservation and transmission of useful elements of the patterns of folkway move the institutions. The second role includes the development and promotion of non-cultural patterns. Through the process of teaching and learning, education tries to modify society as a whole, it acts as an important agency for socializing human beings.
The effects of social change in the emerging Indian society:
Mass communication :
Education suffers a lot from a lack of communication. Schools are scattered, at far distances as a result the deserving and desirous students could not be benefited. Some are these populated regions and others are thickly populated. Communication facilities the expansion of transport, telegraph and telephonic services, ideas, the beliefs, undergo revolutionary change. The educationally backward areas have become very close to educationally advanced areas.
Growth of cities and changing population :
The growth of cities and the role of population growth helps in social change. People from rural areas migrate to the urban areas, being attached by the new industries, for employment business and economic needs. Social interaction has a tremendous influence on education of the people.
Social legislation and social awakening :
The development of new social legislation to bring a change in the attitude of the people. The Indian laws and customs religious sanctions. But the new laws have been enacted according to the existing social practice and humanistic philosophy of life. The social, and economic need is determined by the new emerging humanism. By legislation, the minimum age for marriage is fixed.
What do you mean by social satisfaction? Give its nature and characteristics?
Human society is heterogeneous in nature in that there are rich, poor and industrialists, rulers and ruled. The term ‘stratification’ refers to a process by which individuals and groups are ranked in a more or less enduring hierarchy of status. It refers to division of the population into strata. With certain characteristics like qualities, material possessions and performances.
To Raymond W. Murray, “Social stratification is a hierarchical division of society into higher and lower social traits. To Melvia M. Tumin, social stratification refers arrangement of any social group or society unequal with regard to power, and proper social evaluation. To Landry, A stratified society is one marked by inequality by differences among people that are evaluated as being lower and higher.
Society becomes a hierarchy, that is a society which is organized in successive grades. Sociologists have been able to establish several strata in a society. Society is composed of social classes. The social structure looks like a pyramid.
The stratification involves two phenomena such as:
- Differences of individuals or groups, higher rank
- The ranking of individuals according to some basis of valuation
Every society is divided into more and less distinct groups with the scale of value. Such distinction is based on age, sex and kinship and there is economic social and political inequality.
It is universal:
Social stratification is universal. The difference between rich and poor, they have and have not is evident everywhere. Even in non-literate societies, stratification is very much present.
It is in diverse forms :
Social stratification has never been uniform in all societies. Ancient Roman society was stratified into strata – the patricians and Plebicians Any society was divided into four varnas The Brahman, Kshetriya, Vaishyas and the Sudras, the ancient greek society into freeman and slaves, the ancient Chinese society into mandarins, merchants.
It is consequential :
To stratification system has its own consequences. The most important searches things in human life are distributed unequally because of stratification. The system leads to two kinds of consequences such as life changes and lifestyle changes referring to such things as infant mortality, longevity, physical and mental illness, marital housing, residential area, education, means of recreation, the relation between parent and children, modes of conveyance and so on.
Explain the principles or forms of stratification?
Social stratification may be based on a variety of forms or interpenetrating principles such as free and unfree, class, caste, estate, occupation, administrative hierarchy or income level.
Free and unfree:
The population of a society may be divided into free men and slaves. In certain communities, the slaves do not enjoy rights and privileges. The slave is practically at the disposal of his master. He is the property of his master. The slave can always be bought and sold, through his treatment and the degree of protection accorded him very from place to place and from time to time he comes from various sources like war, slave capture, purchase, birth or seizure for debt.
It is a principal basis of social stratification found especially in the modem civilized countries. In a society where Sellman is free before the law, stratification may be based upon accepted and self-estimation of superiority or inferiority. Social classes may be described as partitions of community or collections of individuals standing to each other in relation to Quality and marked from other persons by standards superiority and inferiority.
Social stratification is also based on caste. In an open society, individuals can move from one class or status level to another and equality of opportunity in virtually absent. The Indian class system provides a classic example in that a class system is one in which an individual’s rank, rights and obligations are ascribed in the basis of birth into a particular group.
Hindu society is having five main strata :
four castes and a fifth group, the outcaste whose members were known as untouchables. Each caste is subdivided sub-casts. Untouchables are defined as unclean and impure status affects other social relationships. They must be segregated from members of other castes and live on the outskirts of the village. The Brahmins were custodians of law and the legal system.
the estate provides another system of stratification. The feudal estates were legally defined. Each estate had a status, for example, in the state system of France and Japan, differences in legal status, and civil, and political rights, were not equal, or identical. The feudal estates include political groups. An assembly of estates is an organized collection of several orders, and conditions of man.
Occupation and Income :
Occupation is an aspect of economic stems which influences social class structure. Social stratification in France and United States stressed that for all the criteria mentioned in determining class position, the occupational position is the most which indicates the various strata in both societies occupational achievement and prestige attached to the occupation gives strata. Society is also stratified on the basis of income and difference in income leads to a very unequal standard of life.
Administrative Hierarchy :
There is a system of stratification based on the administrative position. Variations in rank with services and graded hierarchy of the church is the example, of it. In civil services, various grades are distinguished from each other.
What is social mobility? Give its types and sources. Explain the role of education in social mobility?
Social mobility refers to the passage of persons from one social class to another. This is a status movement of persons. Man makes endless efforts to enhance their status in society, moving from lower position to higher position. Sometimes the higher status is also forced to go to a lower status. In this way, the people in society continue to move up and down the social ladder.
This movement is called social mobility. By social mobility, sociologists mean, the movement of persons or groups up or down the making order of a social stratification system which means a change in social status. Sometimes group mobility also takes place. Group mobility is seen when the oppressed group improves its collective social status move. Such mobility may occur, through such structural changes as revolution, modernization and social reforms.
Types of social mobility:
There are two types of social mobility such as:
- Horizontal mobility and
- Vertical mobility
Horizontal social mobility means the movement of an individual from one social group to another movement of the individual, citizenship to another, from one family to another by divorce or marriage, and from one factory to another in the same occupational position.
Vertical mobility :
Vertical social mobility refers to the movement of an individual from one social status to another. There are two types of vertical mobility. Upward and downward. A motor driver’s son when joined as a Bank officer achieved upward mobility. If one loses a job and becomes labour it becomes downward vertical mobility.
Sources of Mobility :
Social mobility may take place through changes in the social structure brought about by industrialization, urbanization and modernization. It may be fostered by struggles, for collective gains by political reforms or by revolution. Modernisation creates mobility a country industrialises.
there is the conversion of labourers and the size of the middle class has increased Urbanisationalso contributes to the degree of mobility. In such cases, mobility seems from lower-class and working-class occupations to middle-class occupations. Mobility also be fostered by struggle for collective gains through organizations like a labour unions.
Role of education in social mobility :
Through education, one is capable of occupying a better job which implies better income and enhance standard of living and social status changed. The social origins of undergraduate women students and students in medical technological management and other professional courses demonstrated that they are predominantly drawn from higher-status families characterized by high educational, occupational and income backgrounds.
The mean family income becomes high and influences admission to urban higher and professional education. The persons acquire skills to improve and imbibe values like national integration, unity, women eQuestion equality, environment conservation and small family norm, are to examples of social mobility. The revised policy of education of 1992 also resolved to assure that free compulsory education of satisfactory.
Quality is provided to all children up to 14 years of age before we enter the 21st century. Education is a major tool for economic education employable by providing them with various skills. It will also help when there is increased investment in agriculture and the setting up of sma|l industries etc.
Explain education for socialization. Or Discuss education for cohesion and social efficiency?
Education for socialization means social cohesion and social interaction which otherwise means the cohesion of education between man and society. John Dewey, the advocate of socialism of education says “He is a citizen – growing and thinking’ in vast, complex of relation and interaction. Socialization is a Quality of man which evokes the Quality of social awareness and social potentiality to become an ideal citizen. Ideal citizenship training is needed for socialization. The home and school is the socializing agency which socializes the child with social potential like cooperation, fellow feeling and social service attitude etc.
It is through active interaction with social experiences and participation in ‘Common activities or life that children develop in him a social consciousness. The social consciousness in education for by providing on social lines. Knowledge is, therefore, acquired through social participation which develops social efficiency and cohesion and enables the individual to join freely and fully in common activities of life. The new educational approach speaks that social efficiency is supposed for national development.
Education must aim at developing the .national powers or efficiency of the man but the real value of efficiency lies in the good that it brings to his social group. The child through the social agencies participates in social agencies like SUPW activities and community work, NSS, social service, NCC, Boy scouts, and Girls Guide and there is social cohesion.
Discuss the globalization tendency in Education?
In most countries, there is a National system of education. Under this system of education, national character and national integration is being emphasized. Nationalism is a narrow concept. There is a trend of humanisation along with nationalism UNESCO has been established for encouraging and organizing educational cultural and scientific programmes at the international level. Internationalisation is one aspect of globalization. It is a broader concept.
Definition of globalization :
Globalization as internationalization :
Globalization describes the growth in international exchange and interdependence. With growing flows of trade and capital investment, there is the possibility of moving beyond an inter-national economy.
Globalization as liberalization :
Globalization refers to a process of removing Govt, imposed restrictions on movements between countries in order to create open borderless world economy.
Globalization as Universalization:
Global is used in the sense of being worldwide and globalization is the process of spreading various objects and experiences to people at all comers of the earth. A classic example of this would be the spread of computers, television etc.
Globalization as westernization or Modernization :
Here globalization is understood as a dynamic by the social structures of modernity capitalism, rationalism, industrialism, bureaucratism etc. are spread the world- over, normally destroying the pre-existent cultures and local self determinded in the process.
5. Globalization of Deterritorialization (or spread of super territoriality) :
It means the social spot of globalization is no longer mapped in terms of territorial places territorial distances and territorial borders. So globalization is the intensification of worldwide social relations. To David Held, globalization is a process which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations transactions.
What is Globalization? Give its characteristics and features?
Globalization is commonly used as a short-hand way describing the spread and connectedness of production, communication technologies across the world. That spread has involved the interlacing of economic and cultural activity. IMF and world bank is to create a global free market for goods and services. Globalization involves the diffusion of ideas, practices and technologies. It is something internationalization universalization. It is not simply modernization or westernization. Globalization is thus, has powerful economic political, cultural and social dimensions. It focuses on four things.
- De-localization and supraterritoriality
- The speed of technological innovation.
- The rise of multinational corporations
- The creation of global free markets lead to instability and division.
Delocalization and supra territoriality It means the significant de-localization in social and economic exchange activities and relationships has been uprooted from local origins and cultures. Businesses are organized around a network of production, management and distribution, sophisticated information systems are essential in such globalization.
Globalization and the decline in the power of national government :
The major casualty of the process has been a decline in the power of the national government to direct and influence their economies. the process of the shift in economic activity of Japan and the USA is felt in countries all over the globe. The internationalization of the financial market of technology and of some manufacturing and services brings with them a new set of limitations upon the freedom of action nation-states. It creates the conditions for effective international governance. In short, globalization adopts policies in shaping and reshaping social relations within all countries.
Risk, technological innovation and globalization :
A particular feature of globalization is the momentum and power of the change involved in the interaction of extraordinary technological innovation. Development in life science and in digital technology opened up new possibilities for production and exchange innovations of the internet have made it possible to access information end resources across to the world and to coordinate activities.
Globalization and the knowledge economy :
Because of globalization’s success knowledge economies have to take a democratic approach to the spread Of knowledge. We must breed an ambitious society. There is significant growth by large corporations to claim intellectual rights over new discoveries. For example, in genetic research.
Globalization and the impact of multinational local communities:
Multinational corporations establish production sales and services in countries and regions where they can exploit cheaper labour resources. Multinationals constantly seek out new or under-exploited markets. They look to increase sales by creating new needs among different target groups.
Example The activities of tobacco companies in southern countries. Multinational companies have significant influences on policy formation in many national governments. The World Bank has also profited from privatization and the opening up of services.
Globalization and multinationals :
In globalization, there is growth in the scale and scope of multinational corporations. Multinationals have played a very significant role in the growth of globalization. capitalism is essentially disruptive and ever-changing and takes very different forms across the world while produces wealth for significant numbers of people, many others have suffered.
There is a difference in income per head between the richest nation and the poorest non-industrial country. The development of markets, and the expression of economic activity is experienced by populations as a whole. Education, land reform and legal framework for activity deeply influenced by public policies.
Discuss the role of globalization in Education?
The role of globalization in education is as follows.
The educational policy must be efficiently diversified must be so designed as not to become another contributory cause of social exclusion. The socialization of individuals must not conflict with personal development. It is therefore necessary to work towards a system that strives to combine the virtues of integration with respect of individual rights. Education can not solve the problems raised by social ties.
It can, however, be expected to help to foster the desire, to live, together, which is a basic component of social cohesion and national identity. Schools cannot succeed in the task unless they make their own contribution to the advancement, integration of minority groups mobilizing loosely concerned while snowing due regard for their personality. Democracy appears to be progressing, taking forms and passing through stages that fit the situation in each country.
Education for conscious and active citizenship must begin at school. Democratic participation, a matter of good citizenship, but it can be encouraged and stimulated by instruction and practices adopted to the media and information society. It is the role of education to provide children and adults with the cultural background that will enable them, as far as possible, to make sense of the changes taking place.
Role of international education commission (1993-96) :
UNESCO appointed an international commission in 1993 and the commission submitted its. the report in 1996 entitled. “Learning the treasure within”. It seeks to answer “How to plan for education for the 21st century. Jacques Delores was the chairman of this commission. The commission included 15 members. The commission report was four pillars, such as:
- Learning to learn or to know
- Learning to do or perform
- Learning to live together and
- Learning to be
The commission has used the term Teaming’ both as a process and product which in education and teaching is an activity and action and learning is its product.
A brief discussion of the pillars is given below:
Learning to know:
Combining sufficiently formatted general knowledge with the opportunity to work in-depth and a small number of subjects means learning to learn, so as to benefit from the opportunities education provides throughout life.
Learning to do:
In order to acquire notarially occupational skills but also, more broadly, the competence to local with many situations and work in teams means learning to do in the context of young people. Various social and work experiences may be informal as a result of the local or national context, and formal, involving courses, alternating study and, work.
Learning to live together:
Developing an understanding of other people and an appreciation of interdependence – carrying out joint projects and learning to manage conflicts – in a spirit of respect for the values of pluralism, mutual understanding and peace mean learning to live together.
Learning to ‘be’:
To develop one’s personality and be able to act with even greater autonomy, judgement and personal responsibility education must riot disregard any aspect of & a person’s potential memory, reasoning aesthetics & senses physical capacities and communication skills. The aims of education can be achieved by generating. the following situations for learning.
If means all-around development.
- There should be full freedom for working or learning
- There should be autonomy for taking decisions.
- There should be training for performing their role and responsibility.
- Some situations should be given for developing values and feelings of commitment.
The following abilities are to be developed.
- Communication competency
- Reasoning abilities
- Memory abilities
- Physical capacities
- Social and cultural efficiency and
- Moral and aesthetic values.
Discuss and explain the new trend in education in advanced countries?
There is a rapid change in the education system of different countries due to nationalism and globalization. A brief description of new trends in education has been provided in following ways. USA – For many years the education service has been characterized by change. Much of the post-II war period was in independent nations and the post-independence period.
India has been marked by tremendous growth, a large increase in the number of pupils, the expansion of higher education and increased expenditure. Recent years have been increasing easement, consolidation and curricular changes. U.K. – In the UK, the Govts. Policies for raising standards in schools were set out in a white paper titled “Better schools published in March 1985. In 199:1, the Govt, published three white papers to transform education.
USSR – The public discussion on the integration of education science and production began in the USSR in 1984. Humanization and democratization education was emphasized. After the disintegration of the USSR, liberalism in education is the dominant factor in India – The National Education Policy 1986 and the programme of Action (POA) 1986 were emphasized.
Discuss the International education programme in globalization?
After the second world war, every country wanted international peace, For this UNO was established in 1945 at the international level. It has formed other sub-organizations related to different areas. UNESCO was established in 1946 for educational, cultural and scientific programmes. The committees and council were established some of them are as follows.
- National Education Association
- Fulbright Scheme
- Exchange in International Education
National Education Association:
The association was formed by the teachers and education offers in 1920. The purpose of this committee was to establish international relations. This committee was undertaken by UNO in the form of UNESCO. It is the international body for educational, cultural and scientific programmes.
The 110 countries were members of UNESCO in 1994 and 2500 branches in the whole world 34,000 Indian students were studying in the USA, UK,- Canada, China and France. A world conference was organized in 1951 in Paris on the curriculum of teacher education programmes for developing international cooperation and understanding.
It was 12 years scheme 6 regional countries were established and 2 years training programme was developed. Textbooks and educational materials were also published. The programme UNESCO for teacher training was organized by the USA. These programmes were financed by the UK, USA had given full cooperation to UNESCO in achieving the objectives.
The teachers were invited from different countries of the world. After training, were assigned the responsibility of developing international cooperation feelings -among the students of their own countries. this way, UNESCO has been attempting5 to develop feelings international cooperation and understanding.
Fulbright Scheme (1946):
According to this scheme, some programmes were organized on international education. It was realized that American students should go to other countries to study and understand culture, civilization, knowledge and science. The students of other countries should understand the culture civilization, knowledge and science of America. The state departments should provide financial assistance to students other countries.
Exchanges in international education:
This type of programme is organized by UNESCO. Students and teachers from other countries should come to America for knowledge and training. The technician mechanics and scientists and Govt, employees should come.to America. They should be exchange programmes for the interaction among different fields. Their type of exchange programme will improve vocational and industrial efficiency for the economic growth of the countries.
There are 12800 foreign institutions for extending educational facilities. Scholarships are given to scholars. In USA two lac. Students are studying from other countries. Now the main emphasis is on international cooperation and understanding. Thirty thousand students from America and studying in other countries. A country can go and develops through interaction and interchange programmes with other progressive countries of the world.
How can integration be set up between Nationalism and globalization? Explain?
Nowadays great educationists and great thinkers object to the use of education for fostering national sentiment because they have come across many bad effects of narrow nationalism in many countries of the world and have seen that education for nationalism has stood in the way of the growth of internationalism. The education for nationalism that was given in Italy and Germany, for example, was completely opposed to internationalism.
It is in connection with this one-sided education. Bertrand Russell pointed out that children are taught to exhibit complete devotion worship to the state in which they are citizens. The lesson taught to them is that the workshop of the state consists of as directed by the state. For this, they are taught distorted, versions of history, politics and economics so that they should not be critical of the blind national faith expected of them.
They are acquainted with the evil actions of other nations but not of their own, although the truth is that each nation has been unjust to other nations. It is unquestionably true that the facts of history are distorted in order to propagate the sentiment of nationalism alone. It is true of most human beings and that they impede the growth of any liberal latitude.
If for example, an individual has an intense love for his family this may come in the way of his loving his nation, but this does not imply that love for the nation can exist only at the cost of love for family. A proper and healthy love for family does not impede love for the nation, it helps it to grow. In the same way, healthy nationalism also does not preclude the possibility of internationalism.
As Louise, has said that it is essential to strengthening one’s love for one’s motherland, but it does not make it proper to violate the canons of humanity, for the external benefit of one’s own nation. It is obvious, therefore, that education must not only propagate nationalism but must also encourage internationalism. The plan for national education was prevented by such eminent educationists as Mahatma Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo, Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore etc.
have kept this in view nationalism and internationalism should grow harmoniously. That is the reason Rabindranath Tagore’s Shantiniketan turned into an ideal institution for education in internationalism. According to Tagore, education’s aim is to reach the level at which there is no distinction between nationalism and Internationalism. To develop the informational outlook of children he developed it with a new name Biswa Bharati University, which bears the culture of the 140 countries.
Students from different countries of the world read here and lecturers were engaged from different countries. It east-and-west relationship. In Biswa Bharati there is a union of nationalism and internationalism. Harmony is set up between the two in Shantiniketan and Biswabharati university. Tagore is considered an Internationalist.
Explain Education for citizenship and socialization?
India is a vast democratic republic in the world which needs ideal citizens. With the development of democracy, training for citizenship is being advocated in many quarters as the aim of education. Education should offer such experiences as would make one a good citizen of a democratic state. This view is mostly the outcome of the sociological approach to education. Education is to prepare the individual for the different roles he has to perform in life.
In a democratic society, the political role to be played is very complicated and at the same time important. A citizen and individual have certain rights from it. Education for citizenship should train him to discharge his duties and make him conscious of his rights. The practice, of education for citizenship results only in training to work out the political machinery of democracy such as election, responsible executive to carry on public business, legislation by discussions and debates etc.
It is because of this, that democratic machinery is introduced to regulate the group’s life in school. The pupils run their own union by electing office bearers for it, they are trained in debates. In progressive schools. The library, the school discipline, etc are also managed by the pupils through their elected self-governing councils.
But, if the aim of education for citizenship is only the training in running the political machinery of a democratic society, it is a very limited aim. It may be noted that the political role is not the only role which a citizen has to play in life his economic, social and religious roles are nonetheless important.
Besides, an individual is not only a member of society, but he is also an autonomous entity himself, no doubt he is a social being but he is an individual all the same. Hence, if education caters only to his social side neglecting his individual one, it is necessary to have a wider and more comprehensive aim for education.
Education for socialization :
Man is a social being. He fulfils the needs of or within society. Socialization is a virtue, Qualities of man to share the joins and Sooners with others. Socialization is training for ideal citizenship. In participating in social service programmes, Red-cross unit, SUPW activities community work and community participation the child is endowed with such Qualities.
In schools and colleges community service programmes, are arranged to inculcate such potentialities in children. A socialized individual is an ideal citizen. Ideal citizenship training is performed through social activities. Social awareness is evoked education for citizenship socialization, now become an essential part of education. Gender disparity & the role of education
Discuss Gender disparity in work, paid work, and work in the organized sector?
Women run households, rear children, care for the aged and the sick, foil on farms and in the factories and in performing economic and non-economic activities. Now they are seen working in official, factories and farms. But most times, their working hands remain invisible. Their participation in the economy is undermined.
Most of the tasks within the home were done by the mother, grandmother, and sister and soon involved no payment. Workers for which payment is received include economic activity and national income. But these tasks for which no payment is made like kitchen gardening, post harvesting, processing, livestock maintenance unpaid labour in family farm etc.
non-economic activities are performed by women. Women’s work participation is lower in comparison to men’s. According to the 1991 census, 22.27% of women were in the workforce. Apart from this, there is the existence of a wide difference in the participation of women and men in the economy. In the 2001 census 30.9% of women in rural areas and about 11.55% of women in rural areas and 50% of men in urban areas.
Through the female work participation rate increased from 19.7% in 1981 to 25.7% in 2004, but still it is much lower than the male work participation rates in both urban and rural areas. The disparity in work participation across rural and urban areas is also large. Participation of adult women in the work force is much lower than men.
Type of work:
The women perform seven categories of work in rural and urban India. These are:
- Wage and salaried employment
- Self-employment outside the household for profit
- Self-employment in cultivation and household industries and household industries for profit.
- Self-employment in cultivation for own consumption,
- Other subsistence activities in allied. sectors such as dairying, fishing and cultivation of fruits etc.
- Activities are related to domestic work such as repair of dwelling, fetching, fuel, fodder, making cow dung cakes etc.
- Domestic work such as cooking, cleaning, care of children etc.
Women also work for wages in fields, forests, mines, factories, offices, and small-scale and household industries. The nature and extent of such work differ according to the location, of the family in the social hierarchy. In the rural sector, the subsistence work burden falls heavily on women while in higher castes and higher income groups on women while in higher castes and higher income groups non-work of women is given more value.
In the middle-class families:
In middle-class families, women work for improving or maintaining the standard of living of the family or to provide a cushion against rising, cost of living. Performing family responsibilities does not guarantee a better status for Women.
Women’s work in unorganized sectors :
In rural areas, women work in the sectors of agriculture, plantations, fisheries, and dairy. In urban areas, they work for manufacturing units of garments and food processing and household-related activities. Agriculture confines to be a major field for women’s employment.
Women work harder and for longer houses and contribute to the economy:
Working for long hours in the assembly line of small electronics manufacturing units or the beedi, tobacco, and cashew nut, factories women live in fear of retrenchment, exploitation and inadequate ways. In informal sectors, there is no redress for problems, no maternity or other leave benefits and little security of service.
Women’s work in the organized sector:
It includes Govt, services at the central, state and local levels, public sector undertakings such as agriculture, industry, credit financing, and public services the women cannot perform duty successfully. So, only a negligible number of women is employed in the organized sector. But the number of women workers in industries such as textiles and mining has reduced.
In modem industries also such as food, textiles, and pharmaceuticals employed a substantial number of women for three decades. Women are interested inflexible jobs like clerks, typists telephone and nursing but in harder skilled jobs like engineering defence, airline services etc the performance of the work by men is successful.
Discuss the factors and causes affecting women’s education?
There are a number of factors that causes and affect the education of women includes:
- Socio-cultural factors
- Economic factors
- Other factors such as
- Distance of school
- Absence of female teachers
- Absence of girls schools
- Insufficient number of teachers
- Lack of basic amenities
- Inadequate childcare facilities
- Insufficient incentives
- Teaching method, school curriculum etc.
The socio-cultural factors play an important role in inhibiting the participation of women in education. The low status of our women is the major cause of low female literacy. Parents are illiterate. They engage the girls in household work, They think that an educated girl would require an educated husband. An educated in-law would demand a higher dowry.
It is not easy to find a suitable match with an equal educational level. Secondly, many parents do not like to send their daughters to co-educational schools and schools without female teachers. Such age-old negative attitudes still prevail towards women’s education. Most parents consider that after marriage the daughter will leave their family and have to take the role of a mother and a housewife.
In certain parts, girls are expected to be given marriage in their early teens. The sociocultural practice of early marriage important reason for dropping out girls from educational institutions. Many parents also do not allow send their daughters for education after they attain puberty. Such attitude of the parents and the community restricts women’s education.
Economic Factors :
An important reason for the low participation of girls, in education, is that girls from a very early age begin to take care of their younger siblings to relieve their parents to go out for work. Again girls in rural areas or in the low-income groups of the urban areas often assist the family either by working in the field or in household work. The parents in such families may be reluctant to send their girls to school and not prepared to lose their working hands.
If the girl can directly earn for example, as a domestic servant, the family may not be prepared to use her by sending her to school. Although no school fee is charged, for girls’ education still certain items like books stationary and uniforms retail costs which poor families sometimes is not able to meet and prefer not to send their daughters to school.
Some parents consider their son’s education as an investment for better employment opportunities in future, where as daughters’ education does not receive such concern and so they do not give priority to their daughter’s education. The parents again think that the cost of education would be incurred in their marriage. If they educate their daughter then they have to look for an equally educated groom and have to spend more during her marriage.
So they educate their daughter till the level where they can find a suitable match. For their daughter. In some families the young girls are engaged in home-based productions of incense, papads beedi, rolling, gem polishing, making paper bags, stitching, making ready-made garments and assembling electrical and electronic goods etc. So the parents of these girls do not take interest in sending their daughters to schools for receiving an education.
Due to some other factors, women are not able to participate in education. Some of the factors are as follows
Distance of school:
Distance of school from home imposes restrictions on girls, particularly after a certain age because parents are unwilling to send their daughters to these schools. They are more concerned about the safety of the girls than their education.
Absence of female teachers :
Many parents want a female teacher too. teach their daughters. But due to the lack of female teachers in the schools, they do not send their daughters to school.
Absence of Girls’ schools :
Due to our cultural and social heritage, parents are often reluctant to send, their daughters to co-education schools, especially from middle level. The lack of an adequate number of girls’ schools or colleges hinders women’s education.
An insufficient number of teachers :
Many schools are run by single teachers and there are many schools where teachers remain absent frequently in such situations parents are reluctant to expose their daughters to a potentially unprotected environment.
Lack of basic Amenities :
In most schools, a minimum study environment is not available. There are schools without buildings and operated in a tent or in open spaces. There are schools where there are no drinking water facilities and no separate lavatory for girls students. Some parents do not want to enrol their girls in such schools.
Inadequate childcare facilities:
Studies have shown that the number of girls attending schools increases where childcare facilities are available in or near the schools. In view of such a situation, various schemes have been advocated. But unfortunately except Tamilnadu, no other state has the requisite provision of childcare services.
Insufficient incentives :
There are various incentives such as scholarships, mid-day meals, free books, free uniforms etc. Which operates to enhance the enrollment of more girls in schools. the studies show that the delivery system is delayed. The parents do not have the resources to support their children in the interim period.
Teaching method, school curriculum:
The school curriculum mostly shows urban with little to no relevance to rural or tribal life and environment. addition, dull teaching methods, and lack of educational support at home lead to low performance. Further, in schools where the Quality of education is low when minimum level of learning is not attained, parents withdraw their children from the school system. These are the barriers to the participation of girls in school. In disadvantaged classes, the girls face socio-economic surveys.
What are the measures for promoting women’s education?
The measures in promoting the education of women are as follows.
Incentives like a free supply of books, stationery, uniform, mid-day meals, scholarships and stipends should be provided in time to all these girls’ students who hail from the poor sections of society. Girls’ schools should be established in the area where there is demand for them.
Some standard of courses should be made available to the students of girl schools.
More committed women teachers should be employed and special facilities should be provided to them. The school environment should be made attractive, adequate basic facilities like proper seats in the class separate toilets and suitable extracurricular activities and games should be made available in the schools, especially in co-educational institutions.
The common and relevant curriculum for boys and girls should be introduced to have equal educational opportunities. Childcare centres should be made available near the school. Schools should be opened within working distance from their homes and when this is not possible adequate arrangements for free or cheap based accommodation for girls should be provided.
Special campaigns should be launched to change pupils’ attitudes in favour of girls’ education. Educated women should be projected through the mass media as a leader, reformers, facilitators or as role method to influence their own group towards education. An educational curriculum should be made relevant to their daily lives and should enable them to run their homes better in later life. The education system should be oriented to generate greater employment opportunities or to help them to enhance their income.