Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Solutions Unit 4 Process of Thinking Long Answer Questions Part 2.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Psychology Unit 4 Process of Thinking Long Answer Questions Part-2
Long Questions With Answers
Define meaning, the definition of motivation, and the goals of motivation.
All these motivational terms regulate the behavior of a person. When we say one is motivated, we mean to say that he is driven or moved to an act by an inner control urge or force as in the case of the writer just discussed. In any action, except a simple reflex, the ‘O’ is guided by certain underlying internal conditions.
They direct the ‘O’ toward specific goals. In the opinion of Bunch (1958) a drive or a motive is a “persistent behavior which appears to be dominated by the time being by a relatively limited group of stimuli acting on the organism.” Motivation is derived from the Latin word “Movere” which means to move.
In the literal sense, it is a process that arouses the energy or drives in the individual to proceed in an activity. The activity aroused, fulfills the need, and reduces the drive or tension. Until it has not fulfilled the need, the drive is not reduced. P.T. Young has defined motivation as the process of arousing an action, sustaining the activity in progress, and regulating the pattern of activity.
Let us take the case of hunger which is a common biological motive. When one is hungry, the need is food. This need creates internal physiological changes in the ‘ O’ which induces a drive. This drive goal or directs the ‘O’ to search for food: When the food is available, the hunger needs is fulfilled and the drive is reduced and the activity ceases then and there.
A motivated act is completed When the goal is reached. Take the case of Thomdike’s eats. Only when the cat is hungry or has the need to escape out ofthe problem box, it tries to open the door. Otherwise, the cat may simply sleep inside the problem box very peacefully. Lashley (1938). He indicated that motivated behavior does not consist simply of chains of stimulus-response sequences.
Conditions within ‘O’ change his response to a particular stimulus at a particular moment. That is why the same person may show different types of responses to the same stimulus on different occasions. Motivation also varies from person to person. Freud, Young, Woodworth, and McDougall, all are of opinion that every action has an underlying cause behind it.
Every learning goal-oriented. Motivation is the superhighway to learning. So Thompson remarked, “All our behaviors are controlled from within the organism by primary motives and the secondary motives are determined by external stimuli.” McDougall and Freud both treated motivation in terms of energy, a conception That has persisted in the psychology of motivation down to the present time.
Freud stated that this energy is derived from a general reservoir of sexual motivation, the libido which is further supplied to all other behavior. McDougall said that all motives are purposive and directed towards a goal. “He led the foundation stone to the idea of motivational energy, the varieties of its expression, and the physiological mechanisms through which it operates.” (Kimbel and Germany 1980).
According to Atkinson (1958), the term motivation refers to the arousal ofthe tendency to act to produce one or more effects. Murphy considered motivation as the general name for the fact that an organism’s act is partly determined by its own nature and internal structure. N.R.F. Maier says that motivation is the process by which the expression of behavior is determined or future expression is influenced by consequences to which such behavior leads.
According to Guilford (1960), all the internal conditions that stir up activity and sustain activity come under motivation. Internal stimulation for motivation is essential while external stimulus may be of secondary importance. Like, if you are hungry, you will definitely search for food. Otherwise, food in the external environment will not motivate you.
Underwood (1968) gives the following operational definition of motivation. The classes of operations used to produce and measure changes in performance and changes in energy output. Maslow held that motivated behavior is need-related and need-based. I Ic also talked about the hierarchy of motives.
Maier defined motivation as a goal-directed activity. Young tried to define motive in a wider sense. He believed that “motivation is the process of arousing the action, sustaining the activity in progress, and regulating the pattern of activity”. New Comb has defined motive as “a state of the ‘O’ in which bodily energy is mobilized and selectively directed towards parts of the environment”.
According to Morgan and King (1975), “Motivation refers to states within a person or animal that drives behavior towards some goal”.
Thus, in the process of motivation, the following stages have involved
- a state that drives behavior or drives
- arousal of behavior by this physiological state, and
- the direction of the behavior toward a specific or selective goal is found. This definition more or less deals with the aspects of the motivational process.
Drive is a psychological state, a tateWhjph leads one to activity. This State of the body leads the ‘O’ to a certain specific and selective activity that produces tension. When one is thirsty, if he is given food instead of water, it may not reduce his driving state. His activity is specifically directed towards getting a glass of water for the reduction of thirst drive. Drive is pure energy that is mobilized and made available for activity. Drive is further a consequence of unsatisfied needs. Only art unsatisfied need generates a drive.
Goal Or Incentive:
According to Ruch (1970), “A goal refers to some substance, objects or environmental initiated action. “Skinner and Bugelski have shown symbolic incentives in rats temporarily eliminating the complexity of internal conditions which initiated action, “Briefly, a goal is a reward, an incentive, or a motivation towards which behavior is directed.
The term incentive refers demotivational value of reinforcer. Without an incentive or reinforcer, motivation cannot be fulfilled, the incentive may be positive or negative, like food and electric shock or reward and punishment. It may be material, semi-material or non-material. It may also be verbal, non-verbal, biological, or social.
The incentive may be symbolic also when it does not have direct reinforcing power. Token experiments by Wulfe (1936) and Cowles (1937) have proved this, By achieving the goal through I the incentive satisfaction of the motive takes place. The goal or incentive varies with die nature of the drive. For hunger, food is the goal, for thirst water, sex mate and maternal-drive children, etc. are considered as goals.
A goal may be distant or near. It may be a long-range behavior sequence or a short-range behavior sequence or a short-range behavior sequence. Usually, near goals act as a better motivating factor than distant goals. In any process of motivation, we find this need, drive, and incentive (goal) sequence.
These three are indispensable for the process of motivation to operate and to be completed. Without a need, there cannot be a drive and without a drive, the behavior cannot be goal-oriented. Finally, without a goal or incentive, a motive cannot function successfully. Thus, it is aided by Hull that all learnings are purposive.
Define the meaning and definition of emotion and describe the nature or characteristics of emotion.
Meaning, operational definition, and nature of emotion:
The only child of a woman dies in a road accident. She is so disturbed by this, pathetic incident that she sits like a statue for days together, completely motionless. Then one day her dead body is found inside a well. An old man, at last, is ruined by his long-lost son. He just cries and cries, not out of misery but in happiness.
The first incident indicates emotions of sorrow, distress, and unhappiness, and the second one of happiness, joy, and pleasure. Thus, emotions take life interesting as well as distressing pleasant as well as unpleasant, and happy as well as unhappy, sometimes emotions bring distress and disaster in human life, disorganize, and disturb the entire life pattern.
At other times, it rebuilds functions and organizes activities. The emotion of love, happiness, and joy help in uniting and reuniting many friends, relations, couples, and marriage patterns. Without emotions, life would have been dull and colorless, devoid of charm. Emotions are also responsible for the finest human characteristics as well as for the most horrible and mean things in life. Emotion makes life pleasurable as well as miserable.
According, to Ruch (1970), “Emotions play a vital part in our motivational patterns. Life without emotion would be virtually a life without motion. Emotion has also organized and motivational values. When strong emotions arise strong motives are satisfied.” Emotion, a very complex and intricate psychological process has been a matter of discussion by, physiologists and psychologists for the last 100 years or more.
It is quite difficult to give a comprehensive definition of emotion, which is a very complex and intricate psychological process. Different psychologists have defined emotion in several different ways. But the most appropriate definition of emotion so far is given by P.T. Young. According to him, “Emotion is an acute disturbance ofthe organism, as a whole, psychological in origin involving behavior, conscious experience, and visceral functioning.
An analysis of this definition points out four important characteristics of emotion:
Emotion is acute or strong in the body, unlike feelings in which the disturbance is mild. The whole body is strongly disturbed and agitated.
The disturbance due to emotion has always had a psychological origin. That is, a stimulus either external or internal always produces an emotional reaction.
Suppose the person saw a tiger in the forest and became afraid. This very fear is psychological in nature, and it introduces a stirred-up state. Thirdly, the disturbed state produced by an emotional experience creates bodily l changes which are physiological in nature. Physiological changes take place in the entire body system.
Finally, emotion is a conscious experience. The person facing the emotion-provoking situation must perceive it as significant. Then only emotion can be produced. The individual must be aware that the situation is such and such, that it is dangerous for him and hence should be avoided, and so on.
Nature And Characteristics of emotion:
The term emotion has been derived from the Latin word E-mover, which means to move to stir up, to agitate, to excite, and to arouse oneself. This arousal of self creates an art urge towards action. It is a very complex, disturbed state of the organism. That is why emotion has been defined as a stirred-up state of the organism.
The entire organism is disturbed both physiologically and psychologically, activated, and excited. Titchener defined emotion as an affected state of the organism. By affective state, he meant to say joy, sorrow, love, hatred, etc. Emotion has got both integrating and disintegrating roles in life.
According to Carr (1925) emotion is a form of energy mobilization. On a Scale of one end, there is a strong emotion and at the other end, no emotion or sleep will be there. This mobilization of energy helps the individual overcome an obstacle at the time of emergency situation like fear or anger.
The person sees a shake, immediately he is activated by tonnes of energy to run away from that place. Emotion is very brief. It starts very abruptly and ends soon after the incident is over Since emotion involves physiological changes, it disappears after the emotional outburst is over. Emotion deals with both physiological and psychological changes, both Objective and subjective aspects.
It has got feeling or covert aspects as well as overt or behavioral aspects. Some psychologists like McDougall have considered emotions as instincts. But this is only a historical and Controversial issue. Emotions occur as a reaction to some basic biological drives. When the basic needs are not satisfied, the person is frustrated.
For example, fear is associated with danger. Similarly, joy is felt when a long-cherished need is satisfied. Certain emotional experiences also help in the satisfaction of some biological needs. During anger, we are able to make use Of more energy in fighting the obstructing situation. Thus, emotions have biological values. Strong emotions help the individual tO be less sensitive to pain.
Discuss the common emotional patterns and describe the cause of fear. Prevention and Elimination.
Common Emotional Patterns:
As Bridges (1932) says, at first fear is generated more like a state of panic, and excitement than of any specific form. Gradually with the development of language, fear increases and is expressed in many other linguistic expressions than by crying alone. Fear appears clearly at the age of six months.
It is supposed to be a very early emotion and in most cases very dangerous for normal personality development. The arousal of fear depends upon different situations. Loss of support, the sudden approach of anything, or loud noise lead to inherent fears. A five-year-old child has a fear of dogs, doctors, machines, etc. death, fainting persons, dead bodies, being left alone, deep water, etc.
All these are not natural but acquired fears. Fear for animals and fire etc. occurs because of conditioning and habit, says Watson, children also may develop certain imaginative fears or symbolic fears like fear for rats, and spiders. Fear for the parents may be expressed in fear for the teacher who resembles a parent.
However, before the age of 5, symbolic fear does not arise. Fear for animals is more found in childhood, but for non-animals, it increases with age such as fear of disease, illness, dentists, and doctors. Boys usually show more fear towards school work and girls towards illness, disease, darkness, and night. The stimulus itself does not create fear, the way it is presented determines a fear, response.
Causes Of Fear:
Suggestion and imitation:
Dreadful stories narrated by the parents or grandparents, particularly at night cause dangerous fear in them. Mother suggests the baby certain feared objects like Ghost, Tiger, and Demon, and sleeps peacefully, while the baby spends the night with horrible experiences and nightmares without being able to sleep.
In a particular case, whenever the mother sees a rat she screams in fear as if she is facing a lion. The child at the early stage had no such fear of rats. But when he saw several times his mother screaming, at the sight of a rat, he also gradually developed this fear of rats. Most of our childhood fears are partly due to imitation and partly due to suggestion.
For Getting Attention:
One shows fear of getting attention also. In order to escape an unpleasant task or experience one develops a fear response.
Overprotected and sheltered home life prevents emotional maturity. Wien the mother or other family members make it a point to accompany the child whenever he goes, wherever he goes, to protect him, in future he cannot go anywhere alone, let it be the latrine or bathroom. If we say, don’t go in the dark, you will fall down, don’t go alone, somebody will kidnap you. Don’t touch the switch, you will get shocked, don’t go to high places, you will fall down, and the child will be afraid of everything and every place.
Symbolic and Imaginary fears:
Phobias are of this type. To repress fear for one tiling, they show fear for other things, such fear for spiders, a bunch of hair, and small rats, which are mostly symbolic fears. Since these are harmless stimuli, one should not normally show fear of these stimuli. But when these objects stand for some other feared objects because of repression, such fears become unhealthy for normal personality development.
Dreams about ghosts, demons; dangerous animals give rise to various fears.
Prevention and Elimination of Fear:
Jones found two broad techniques for preventing fear.
- social Imitation
- Direct Conditioning
Just as fear develops by imitation, it can also be eliminated by imitation. Suppose the child is afraid of a cat. The mother or somebody whom the child loves, respects, and obeys, should bring the cat, hold it, and show the child in a gradual process that the cat is not harmful. Similarly, fear of different domestic animals, dark places, open places, high places, rivers, water, and crowdy places can be removed by imitation. Thus far can be removed by allowing the child to learn from others.
By associating the feared object with a stimulus that the child wants or desires to get, fear can be eliminated. By associating with a stimulus that the child likes or wants to get, say with a chocolate or ice cream or with the mother or some near and dear one the child’s fear can be eliminated. However, the prevention of fear by the conditioning method cannot be done in a day or two. It is a gradual and slow process, which requires patience, time, and understanding of the child, his current needs, and desires.
Fear can also be prevented by other techniques :
Prevention of useless and needless fear like goats or big fish. Many persons develop an aversion to fish or meat by visualizing the killing of these stimuli. This should be discouraged. The child must not be told or allowed to hear horrible and dreadful stories as they imagine these stories in reality and develop tremendous fears. Stories of ghosts and witches should be avoided completely.
Reconditioning of fear by gradually familiarising the child with the fearful object, say water or any animal. This has been discussed earlier. By having someone with whom he has got confidence. Fear of a dog increases when the child is taken to the dog by a stranger. But when he approaches the dog with his mother or father, the fear gradually subsides.
By introducing counter motives by presenting the feared stimulus with attraction and pleasant ones. Curiosity and heroism should be developed to avoid fear. A sense of curiosity is required to avoid symbolic fear. Security in the family decreases fear response (Jersild and Homes).
Verbal appeal and reassurance combined with practical demonstration reduce fear. By developing good health. Self-expression and self-criticism also reduce fear (Conn). Acquaintance with the environment. According to Slater, Beekwitn, and Behnke fear of the unfamiliar disappears as the child becomes acquainted with his environment.
Define Anger and discuss the causes of treatment and jealousy.
Anger is said to be a negative emotion like fear. In the beginning, generalized undifferentiated and mass anger response is found. But gradually it is distinguished and differentiated. Anger is a more frequent emotional response in children than fear, as anger-provoking stimuli are more than fear-provoking stimuli in the child’s environment. When the natural desires and motives are not freely satisfied, but obstructed, anger is shown.
Causes of Anger:
The cause of anger is interference or restriction of any type or it may be due to frustration. This frustration may be due to personal, physical, or social causes. Ricketts has pointed out certain other causes of anger like conflict over playthings, conflict over toilet and dressing, interruption of interesting activities like pressurizing the child to leave play and study, etc.
Jones has found that in 3-5 years children’s anger is created over their daily toilet, habits, dressing, going to school, etc. But by and large, the main cause of anger both in children and adults is interference in the fulfillment of wishes and desires.
Treatment or Anger:
Checking or repression of anger is undesirable. Anger should be channelized in socially acceptable Ways rather than being suppressed, repressed, or restricted. In general, anger can be treated by obtaining a clear picture of all factors, removing the irritating factors which annoy the child, substituting a different goal, and redirecting its motives.
Jealousy is an outgrowth of anger. It is an attitude of resentment directed towards other people only while anger can be directed towards people, self, and others. It is a negative emotion. The arousal of jealousy depends upon training and the treatment that one gets from others. Child-rearing practices have got a lot to do with the development of jealousy.
Clinical studies of jealousy in young children show that it is a common emotional experience, originating with the birth of younger siblings. Children also show jealousy towards parents, especially towards the father when they see him showing affection towards their mother. The characteristic expression of jealousy includes hurting others, reverting to infantile behavior like bed wetting, thumb sucking, and attention-catching.
In older people jealousy is directly expressed in verbal quarrels, gossiping, name-calling, and making sarcastic and taunting jokes. Jealousy is indirectly expressed in daydreams. Girls are found to be more jealous than boys as found by Foster. More Jealousy is found in children of higher intellectual levels.
Define the bodily changes and eternal expressions of emotion.
Bodily changes from individual to individual. In spite of these variations, there are some common bodily changes, which can be divided into overt and covert, as external and internal bodily changes.
External Expressions of :
The face is the most expressive organ of the human body. It is thus said to be the barometer of emotion. The muscles in the forehead, head, around the eyes, nose, and mouth are used differently with each emotion. Facial expressions vary from emotion to In anger the facial expression is different than when one is happy or afraid or sony. But it is not always easy to judge accurately one’s emotions from these facial expressions, particularly of adults.
Besides, some do not show any definite pattern of facial expression for a particular emotion. Munn states that it is much easier to differentiate facial expressions of pleasant and unpleasant emotions than it is to differentiate expressions of specific emotions, say joy versus love or sorrow versus fear. In a study to relate the different facial expressions of emotion. Schlosberg (1952) obtained certain pictures of the same face posed to express different emotions.
These pictures were given to observe to sort out into one of the following six categories:
- Love, happiness, mirth
- Fear, suffering
- Anger, determination
Schlosberg found a high correlation in the judgments of different observers but found that in several cases pictures posed to express love were confused with those posed to express contempt. Nevertheless, looking at someone’s face we can say whether he is happy, angry, or afraid. The many parts of the face like eyes, nose, lips, cheeks, forehead, etc. reflect the emotional pattern of anger.
In joy, the eyes may shine. In grief, they get dimmed. In anger the face becomes red, and the nostrils may expand or contract, in happiness the bps may smile. The cheeks may be red in anger or when one blushes because of shyness. In fear, the mouth gets dry, the face is full of sweets, the body shakes and the hair stands.
Different emotions arouse different postures. Fear involves flight violent anger involves not flight but aggressive movements, which may either be abusive or involve an actual attack. In grief we bow, we stiffen in anger, and we lean forward when we are anxious and expect something.
In the emotion of love, there is movement in the direction of the beloved. In sorrow, there is a general slumping posture while in joy the opposite is involved, i.e. the head is he Id high and chest out, and there is the movement of hands. Gestures as expressions of bodily changes are to what extent influenced by culture is not known.
The importance of postural reaction in emotional experience has been emphasized by James Lange’s theory. It holds that stimulations produced by assuming different postures contribute to the feeling aspect of emotion. For instance, it holds that if we put our hands on our cheeks and sit lowering our faces, we will feel sorry.
Voice is a powerful organ for indicating different types of emotional experiences. The modulation of voice, change in loudness, and pitch may represent different types of emotion. A loud sound with enough variation in pitch indicates excitement, a rising inflection usually indicates a feeling of surprised doubt, and loud laughter indicates joy and happiness. A slow monotonous voice expresses defeat and dejection.
A higher pitch indicates anger. In anger the increase in body tension leads to more tension in the vocal cords which leads to a rise in voice, similarly, in fear there is suffering. Though the high pitch associated with anger is inborn these vocal expressions in most cases are also colored by cultural training. The word can be uttered differently to express different emotions. Say “COME” C…O…M…E‘come’.
Therefore from the verbal expression of a person, his emotional state can be easily detected in addition to his facial expression, postural and other reactions. Merry by recording the speaking and singing voices of actors and singers has shown how different emotions are expressed through them. In addition to these bodily expressions of emotion Ruch(1970) has stated four other emotional behavior patterns.
Destruction is found mostly in anger reactions. In anger, the most typical physical reaction is overt aggression or attack. The type of attack varies from culture to culture. In the case of uncivilized people, the attack is more of biting, hitting, shooting, and piercing with a knife. In the case of civilized people, the attack is more symbolic. This implies that in place of physical injury attack is made through language, i.e., sarcastic remarks, taunting words, abuses, etc.
In happiness, joy, delight, pleasure, and love, the response made by the experiencing person can be said to be one of the approaches. The approach leads to further stimulation. Success in life produces elation. This is also an approach reaction. Even anticipation of success brings some pleasant emotion and ultimately an approach response.
Retreat or Flight:
The emotion erf fear, the typical bodily response observed universally is the flight from the emotion-provoking stimulus or retreat. By withdrawing from the fearful or dangerous situation the person saves himself. Flight is said to be the best medium of adjustment in dangerous situations.
In civilized people, the retreat may also be through symbols and withdrawal reactions like daydreaming. Ruch remarks “In civilized life, however, we often retreat symbolically through words, apologies, compromises, discussions, and various psychological mechanisms of withdrawal”.
Stopping of Response:
In sorrow, gloom, and depression, there is no destruction, no approach, no flight, but by and large a stop of unusual response. The person in such emotional experiences never shows any behavior. Even a strong stimulus does not bring any response in him.
Discuss bodily or organic Or physiological changes in emotion.
Bodily changes mean physiological changes. Because of the excessive activation of different organs during emotional states, physiological changes occur.
They are discussed below:
- External expressions of emotion.
- Physiological changes.
- Glandular responses
- The Galvanic skin responses
- Gastro-Intestinal functions
External Expressions of Emotion:
The face is the most expressive organ of the human body.
Different emotions arouse different postures, fear involves a flight. Violent anger involves not flight but aggressive movements.
Voice is a powerful organ for indicating different types of emotional experiences.
In our day-to-day experience of emotion, we find the body undergoing various physiological changes like the rate of breathing increases, the rise of heart palpitation, sinking feeling in the stomach, general feeling of weakness, sweating, trembling, rise in blood pressure, and similar physiological changes.
The symptoms of fear reported by thousands of soldiers during the second world war are given below:
|Some felt symptoms of fear of Violent|
|the pounding of the heart||86%|
|The sinking feeling in the stomach||75%|
|Feeling sick in the stomach||59%|
|Trembling and shaking||56%|
|Tense feeling in my stomach||53%|
|The feeling of weakness and tenseness||51%|
|Vomiting (Quoted from Munn M.L. 1953)||24%|
A large number of researches have been undertaken to objectively measure the physiological concomitants of emotion to discover how the different physiological processes change during emotion and whether there are different patterns of physiological change underlying specific emotions like fear, rage, and disgust.
In such studies changes in blood pressure, heart-best, and respiration are recorded during emotional states by different instruments. The activity of the heart during an emotional state is studied by examining the shape of the curve recorded by an electrocardiograph.
Glands play an important role during different emotional states. In anger, the module of the adrenal gland secrets excessive amount of adrenaline and non-adrenaline and pours them into the bloodstream. Adrenaline is responsible for many characteristics of strong emotional experiences. The level of sugar in the blood rises because of excessive secretion of this hormone.
This increases heartbeat, and blood pressure increases due to the release of glycogen from the lever. The pulse rate also rises. Blood clots more quickly, more air enters the lungs, pupils enlarge and the body sweats profusely. The skin temperature also rises. Non-adrenaline constricts the blood vessels at the surface of the body as a result of which more blood is sent to other parts of the body.
Evidence also indicates the role of the thyroid and pituitary gland in emotional response. Research shows that adrenaline by itself may not necessarily arouse emotional experience or behavior. In a study done jointly by Cantril and Hunt (1932), 22 normal subjects were injected with adrenaline, 3 out of 22 reported unpleasant experiences, one pleasant experience, and ten no emotional experience, and the rest had different kinds of emotions.
Though subjects injected with adrenaline report that they feel as if they are going to have an emotional experience, they do not experience it. This suggests that in addition to adrenaline, probably emotion-provoking situations arid-related postural activities are necessary to produce emotional states.
The Galvanic Skin Response:
The galvanic skin response is measured with an apparatus called a psycho-galvanometer. It measures the electrical resistance in the skin; technically called electrodermal changes. These changes result from the activity of the sweat glands. The galvanic skin response associated with blood pressure and respiration is a highly sensitive objective indication that an emotional experience is taking place.
In addition to its presence in manual and mental work, its presence is evident in upsetting emotional conditions. According to Munn (1953), changes in the galvanometer following emotional stimulations are due to the lowering of electrical resistance between the two electrodes on the skin. Munn further adds that the GSR may be studied in terms of its latency, its amplitude, its duration, and some derivative of such indices.
Pupillometry is a novel technique for measuring physiological changes during emotional studies. The pupil of the eye during emotional states dilates in response to stimuli that arouse a favorable reaction and contracts in response to unpalatable and disliked stimuli. Thus pupillometry is based on Darwin’s view of the eyes widening and narrowing during emotion.
In 1960, Eckhard Hess rediscovered this fact in an incidental observation. Hess made further laboratory study on this and found the size of the pupil changes with die favorable or unfavorable nature of the stimulus, which may be taste, sound, or sight. It is assumed that pupillometrices are of immense value in psychotherapy as a diagnostic tool, in particular.
By looking at pictures loaded with emotional complexes the patient can without his knowledge hint at the stresses in his personality. Precisely, the reactions of his eyes will reveal this. Pupillometrics can also be used in lie detection, as pupil contracts only to unpleasant stimuli.
There is also a change in gastrointestinal functions during emotional behavior. Gastro¬intestinal functions are usually measured with the help of balloons inserted into the stomach or intestines. By observing the stomach directly gastric functions can also be measured. Munn (1953) has given an example of this connection.
The patient suddenly experienced fear one morning amid a phase of accelerated gastric function. An errata doctor entered the room muttering imprecations about an important protocol that had been lost. The patient had misled it and feared that he had lost the record and his job. He lay motionless on the table and his face became pale.
Prompt and decided pallor occurred also in his gastric mucosa, and associated with it there occurred a fall in the rate of acid production. A minute later the doctor found his paper and left the room. Forthwith the face and the gastric mucosa of the patient regained their former color”.
What is the motive? Describe biological motive.
Motivational terms like line desire, wish aim, drive, purpose, goal-oriented activity, urge, incentive and so on which go to mean motive. All these motivational terms regulate the behavior of a person. Motivation is derived from the Latin word “movere” which means to move.
Types of motive:
Motivation has been classified by psychologists into some categories. These are:
- Biological motives
- Social motives
- Psychological motives
We discussed the
The biological motives are rooted in the physiological state of the body, hunger, thirst, sex is the most obvious biological or physiological motives. They are physiological because they are associated directly with physiological systems. Other physiological motives include temperature regulation, sleep, pain avoidance, and a need for oxygen.
Earlier Experimental literature on hunger reveals that the source of hunger drive is stomach contractions. The experiments were simple. The observers used subjects who were trained to swallow small balloons with rubber tubes attached. The balloons were inflated in the stomach and the rubber tubes were connected to kymographs recording mechanisms.
Here each spasm of the stomach muscles could cause a mark on the smoked drum. On different occasions, the subjects were also asked to press the key when they felt hunger pangs. As a result, a mark was made on the drum just below the record of stomach activities. Further, the abnormal breathing of subjects was also recorded.
The investigator, here, could decide very well whether the spasms represented in the record were due to the stomach or abdominal movements. It was observed that the hunger pangs coincided with stomach contractions, but these pangs were not related to movements of the abdominal muscles. But the recent works on hunger reveal a different story.
The conclusions depict that the relationship between stomach contractions and hunger is weak. A joint venture of both psychologists and physiologists tried to find out some other conditions of the body which trigger hunger. Recent research also has shown that people report normal feelings of hunger even when the nerves from the stomach have been cut or the stomach has been entirely removed.
Physiologists believe that changes in the metabolic functions of the liver when fuel supplies are low provide the body’s stimulus for hunger. The liver can give a signal to the hypothalamus that more fuel is needed which triggers the hunger drive. Further experiments on the functions of the hypothalamus revealed that two regions of the hypothalamus are involved in the hunger drive-lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial area.
The lateral hypothalamus is the excitatory area. Animals eat when this area is stimulated. When this area is damaged, animals stop eating and die of starvation. On the other hand, the ventromedial area is located in the middle of the hypothalamus, which is otherwise known as the ‘ hunger-controlling area’. Experts consider this area as the inhibited region of the hunger drive.
Studies revealed that when this ventromedial area is dangered, animals develop voracious appetites. They went to take a huge amount of food and they also overeat. Experimental literature also reveals that cessation of eating or satiety is controlled by a hormone called Cholecystokinin (cck), which is released into the bloodstream when food reaches the intestine (Gibbs Smith, 1973).
Injections of cck into food-deprived rats who are eating causes them to stop eating and start grooming and other behaviors which are part of satiety in animals (Smith & Gibbs, 1976). But the role of ‘cck’ as a satiety hormone has been questioned. Both the hypothalamus and blood chemistry are, no doubt, responsible for hunger.
Thirst serves as a strong drive mechanism in both animals and humans. Humans can live for weeks without eating, but they can not live only for a few days without replenishing their supply of fluid. When human beings experience fluid deprivation, their mouths and throats become dry, cooling them to drink.
Previously it was believed that drinking is triggered by a dry mouth. But physiologists revealed that dry mouth does not result in enough drinking to regulate the water balance of the body. Thirst and drinking are controlled by processes within the body itself. Since maintaining the water level is essential for life itself.
The body has a set of complicated internal homeostatic processes to regulate its fluid level and drinking behavior. Our body’s water level is maintained by physiological events in which several hormones play a vital role. One of these hormones is the antidiuretic hormone (ADII). It regulates the loss of water through the kidneys.
Experts feel that thirst drive and drinking of water are mainly triggered by two mechanisms. The first one is that when the water level of the body goes down, certain neurons located within the hypothalamus begin to give out water. The thirst which results from this mechanism is known as “cellular dehydration thirst.”
Some experimental results also revealed that the loss of water from the cells in a particular region of the hypothalamus might initiate the drinking behavior. The experiments view that the neurons in the preoptic regions of the hypothalamus (Known as osmoreceptors) are responsible for controlling the drinking behavior of the organism.
Thirst triggered by the loss of water from the osmoreceptors is called “cellular-dehydration thirst”. The second mechanism which is responsible for triggering drinking behavior is known as t ‘hypovolemia’ or the condition of low blood plasma volume. Loss of water in the body results in hypovolemia or a decrease in the volume of the blood.
When blood volume goes down, so does blood pressure. The drop in blood pressure stimulates the kidney to release an enzyme called ‘renin’. This enzyme is involved in the formation of a substance known as ‘angiotensin’ which circulates the blood and may trigger drinking.
Partially sexual behavior depends on physiological conditions. So it may be considered a biological motive. But sexual motivation is far more than a biological drive. Sexual motivation is social because it involves other people and provides the basis for social grouping in higher animals.
Sexual behavior is powerfully regulated by social pressures and religious beliefs. Sex is psychological because it is an important part of our emotional lives. It can provide intense pleasure, but it can also give us agony and involve us in many difficult decisions. Till now, physiologists are trying to find out the exact location of the internal control of the sexual drive.
No doubt, the intensity of sexual urges is dependent upon chemical substances circulating in the blood known as sex hormones. Studies confirmed that this urge is profoundly influenced by the presence of hormones produced by tests in males and ovary cases of human beings, socio-cultural and emotional factors seem to play pivotal roles.
Sleep is a basic necessity of life. About one-third of our life is spent sleeping. It is a dramatic alteration of consciousness and it also happens spontaneously. The ordinary fluctuations in consciousness are part of the rhythmic. All creatures in this world are influenced by nature’s rhythms.
Human beings are at least a time cycle known as circadian rhythms. These rhythms are bodily patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours. About one-third of the circadian rhythm is devoted to the period of energy-restoring rest called sleep. The most significant discovery after EEG technology in sleep research was that of rapid eye movement (REM).
These are the bursts of quick eye movements under closed eyelids, occurring at periodic intervals during sleep. The time when a sleeper is not showing REM is known as non-REM or NREM sleep (NREM). Dreams are possible during REM sleep. But NREM reports were filled with brief descriptions of ordinary daily activities, similar to waking thoughts.
Research evidence indicated that over the course of the night, our sleep cycle crosses several stages, each of which shows a distinct EEG pattern. It takes about 90 minutes to progress through the first four stages of sleep (NREM sleep). The first period of REM sleep last for about 10 minutes. In a night’s sleep, an individual passes through this 100-minute cycle four.
What are social motives?
Social motives are otherwise known as secondary motives. These are also known as acquired learned motives. These motives are complex in nature. Social motives are called secondary because they involve interaction with others and are learned due to social conditioning in a social context.
Need for affiliation:
Seeking other human beings and waiting to be close to them both physically and psychologically is called affiliation. It refers to keeping contact with other people, in other words, affiliation refers to the need that people have to be with others. This motive is aroused when individuals feel helpless or threatened and also when they are happy.
Research findings indicate that fear and anxiety are closely related to affiliation motives. Where the degree of anxiety and threat is very high, such affiliation behavior is often absent. Studies also revealed that early learning experiences influence this motive. The first-born or the only child in the family had stronger affiliation motives than those bom later.
Studies have also shown that children who are brought up to be dependent or raised with closed family ties show a stronger affiliation motive than those coming from more closely-knit families which encourages early independence. Cultural differences were also found. Affiliation needs are stronger in some cultures than in others.
Need for Power:
The need for power is an independent motive. It expresses itself in behaviors, which tend to control and influence the course of events including the behaviors of others. History reveals that mankind has always struggled for power. Power was desired by the individuals as an instrument to satisfy other motives like aggression, greed, affiliation, etc. But in recent years, emphasis has been placed on the power motive as independent in itself. This view was emphasized by McClelland.
In his theory, David Me Clelland (1975) has expressed that power motivation can be revealed in four general ways:
People do things to gain feelings of power and strength from sources outside themselves. For example, children express power motivation by reading stories. Individuals gain strength fry reading the activities of past leaders. People do things to gain feelings of power and strength from sources within themselves.
For example, a college student may express power motivation by building up the body and by mastering urges and impulses. People do things to have an impact on others. For example, an individual may argue with another individual or may have a competitive attitude in order to influence that person. People do things as members of organizations to have an impact on others.
For example, the leader of a political party may use the principles of his party or an army officer may express the need for power through the chain of command to influence others. Studies reveal that for any individual, one of these ways of expressing power motivation may dominate. But a combination of power motives can not be ruled out.
With age and life experiences, the dominant mode of expression often changes. Studies have also shown that women seem to have less strong needs for power than men. They choose indirect ways to impact and influence. For example, women prefer to express their power motivation by being counselors, advisors, and resource persons for other people.
Depending on motive:
Shortly speaking dependency refers to interpersonal relationships where an individual behaves in a way in order to gain attention, assistance, comfort, and support from fellow men. For example, children use to spend more time with parents or intimate friends in difficult situations. People appear to be more dependent on social interactions and approval. Studies reveal that girls and women tend to be more dependent and affiliative than boys. In stress, people want to resort to dependency.
Co-operation is an acquired motive. Moreover, it is a condition manifested when two or more individuals or groups work together to achieve a common goal. It signifies a lack of mutual disagreement and opposition among fellow group members and the absence of rivalry. Research evidence indicates that the citizens of Zuni of New Mexico are found to be extremely cooperative.
Being wealthy in Zuni brings no status. Status is derived not from power, but from friendship. A happy and successful Zuni has many friends. Different studies on altruism among children provide evidence that helping behavior can be fostered through the use of models (Paulson, 1974).
Conformity refers to the tendency to allow one’s opinions, attitudes, actions, and even perceptions to be affected by prevailing opinions, attitudes, actions, and perceptions. Very often people act in ways consistent with the majority. This tendency to ‘go along with the group is popularly known as behavioral conformity.
Changes in attitude and belief also take place due to pressures from others. It is known as ‘ attitudinal conformity’. There is also conformity of personality traits i.e. underlying characteristics of a person changes according to the norms of society. With the help of a conformity curve, F.H. Allport (1935) described the conformity motive phenomena.
He related that most people exhibit complete conformity to social norms with fewer and fewer people having deviations. Our submissiveness to social influences is due to conformity motives to the norms of the society in which we live. Norms refer to behavior that is usual or expected, acceptable, and socially prescribed.
Points to remember:
Define the meaning and definition of thinking.
Thinking is a very often used psychological term in our daily life. The importance of thinking is evident not only for the wide use of the term but also because thinking helps in the solution of all our day-to-day problems. Thinking is the most complex of all psychological processes and it is thinking that normally differentiates man from lower animals.
Define the sensory-motor period.
The sensory-motor period is the period that starts before the language development of the child. Piaget distinguished between two major stages in cognitive development i.e. sensory-motor intelligence (0-2 years) and conceptual intelligence (0-to Maturity). During the sensory-motor period, the child’s adaptations and activities do not involve extensive use of symbols or language.
Describe the stages of cognitive development by Piaget.
Piaget is a development theorist who believes that cognitive development occurs gradually phase by phase.
Piaget has divided the entire period of cognitive development into four basic stages.
- A sensorimotor period is 0-2 years approximately.
- Preoperalionalperiod 2-7years approximately.
- The concrete operational period is 7-12 years approximately.
- The formal operational period is 12 years above approximately.