Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions
Very Short-Answer Type Questions
From the remote past, the Indian villages are seen as which type of unit and which unit was strong in every village?
From the remote past, the Indian villages are seen as small republics. The Economic organization was strong in every village.
Regarding village economy which view was given by English Historian Eiphiiie stone?
According to the view of Elphine stone “The village clans were more or less capable of using all necessary things within their small Republics”.
What was the Chief necessity of villagers and what was their Chief Occupation?
The chief necessity of villagers was food and cloth. Their Chief occupation was cultivation and knitting.
Before the British era crores of people in India were dependent upon which cottage industry?
Before the British era crores of people in India were dependent upon the knitting cottage industry.
In the remote past, Muslim and velvet dresses were widely demanded by which country’s eminent people?
In the remote past, Muslim and velveteen dresses were widely demanded by the royal, family of Egypt and eminent people of Rome.
When and where flying shuttle and steam Engine was invented?
In 1760 Flying shuffles and in 1768 steam Engines were invented in England.
In 1780 which Governor-general has given the calculation that in every year near about how many amount’s gold was supplied to England.
In 1780 Governor-general warren Hastings has given calculation that every year about 40 lakh amounts of gold were supplied to England.
Which English personality was aware of the Govt, that the construction of the railway in India would lead to the economic prosperity of Great Britain? At the time which Governor-general railway construction began in India?
English personality Sir Row land Macdonald Stephenson was aware of the Govt, that the construction of the railway in India would lead to the economic prosperity of Great Britain. At the time of Governor-general Lord Dalhousie, railway construction began in India.
When the first railway in the world was opened and when the railway construction began in India?
The first railway was opened in England in 1825. The railway construction began in India in 1850 A.D.
When was the first railway introduced in India and it connected from which place to which place?
the first railway was introduced in India in 1853 A.D. It was the first railway track in Asia. It was connected from Bombay to Thane.
Which scientist Engineer took charge of the telegraph in India and by which A.D. the experimental telegraph lines were established?
The scientist Engineer O’Shaughnessy took charge of the telegraph of India. By 1852 the experimental telegraph lines were established.
By which A.D. which gifted man of England introduced penny postage?
By 1840 A.D. a gifted man named Rowland Hill introduced in England the system of penny postage.
On which A.D. India got permission to introduce the postal system at which cost?
In 1852 A.D. India got permission to introduce the postal system at the cost of half-anna.
When Cornwallis introduced permanent settlement in India and which English administrator helped him?
In 1793 A.D. Cornwallis introduced permanent settlement in India. In this work, the English administrator Sir John Shore helped him.
Which A.D. personnel introduced the Rayatwari system in the Baramahal district on an experimental basis?
In 1792 A.D. English personnel Thomas Munro and captain Reed introduced the Rayatwari system at the Baramahal district on an experimental basis.
At the time of which Governor general and in which A.D. Mahalwari System was introduced in India?
At the time of Governor-general William Bentick in 1833 A.D., the Mahalwari system was introduced in India.
What was defined regarding the “Drain of wealth” by Dadabhal Naroji?
The drain of wealth means a part of India’s national wealth was being exported to England for which India got no adequate economic or material returns.
Regarding the sanyasi revolt which the famous novelist elaborately described and what was the name of his book?
Regarding the sanyasi revolt, the famous novelist Bankim Chandra Chatterjee has elaborately described in his novel. The name of his book is “Anand Math’’.
When paik Revolt was constituted and who was the chief architect of this revolt?
The paik Revolt was constituted in 1817. The Chief Architect of this revolt was Buxi Jagabandhu.
Who was the king of Khurda at the time of the Khuda revolt and when the British captured khurda and took administration?
Mukunda Dev II was the king of Khurda at the time of the Khurda Revolt. The British captured khurda and took administration in 1805 A.D.
Who was the magistrate of Cuttack at the time of the Khurda Revolt and after the Revolt who inquired regarding it?
Impe was the magistrate of Cuttack at the time of the Khurda Revolt. After the Revolt magistrate water inquired about the cause of the Revolt.
When death occurred to Mukunda Dev II and after his death which son of him got permission from the English to settle at puri palace?
In 1817 A.D. Mukunda Deva II was dead. After his death his son, Rama Chandra Dev II got permission from the English to settle in Puir Palace.
The zamindar or Land Lords of Bengal levied more taxes on the Santhals according to which policy and in which portion of the product they had to give as taxes?
The zamindar on landlords of Bengal levied more taxes on the Santhalas according to the policy of permanent settlement. They had to give two third of the product as tax.
Who was the leader of the Santhal Revolt what belonged to which ‘village and what was the name of their revolting force?
The leader of the Santhal Revolt was siddhu Murmu belonged to the village of Bhagradiha, He constituted a new “Guerilla Force”.
After how many years of the Plassey war which eminent revolt has broken in 1857 AD.
After exactly on 100 years after the Plassey war, eminent revolt simply muting was broke in 1857 A.D.
After an eventful reign when Governor-general Dalhousie left India and in nis place who came?
After an eventful reign, Governor-general Dalhouse left India on 1856 A.D. In his place, Lord canning came as Governor-general.
Which policy of Dalhousie created terror among the homely kings and which sons of the kings lost their kingdom?
The policy “Doctrine of Lapse” created terror among homely kings. The adopted sons of kings lost their kingdoms.
Previously when Hindus were initiated to Christianity, they were debarred of getting hereditary health but in which Governor-general’s time it was reformed by law?
Previously when Hindus were initiated to Christianity, they were debarred of getting hereditary wealth but at the time of Governor-general Dalhousie, it was preferred by law.
By the prevailing of which rifle revolt spanking emancipated within the sepoys and which numour continued against this?
By the prevailing of Enfield rifle revolt spanking emancipated the sepoys. A rumor continued that in that rifle cow and pig fats assembled.
Where the first symptom of revolt was marked by sepoys early in 1857 and on which date did the open revolt of the sepoys force breaks out at Meerut?
The first symptom of the revolt was marked at Barrackpore in Bengal early in 1857. On 10th May 1857, the open revolt of the sepoy force broke out at Meerut.
The rebels quickly captured which palace at Delhi and they proclaimed whom as the Emperor in India?
The rebels quickly captured the Mughal palace at Delhi. They proclaimed the old Bahadur Saha II of the Mughal dynasty as the Emperor of India.
In sepoy muting which Rajput warrior directed the course of revolt in Bihar and which warrior gave direction his forces from Kanpur?
In sepoy muting, the Rajput warrior Kunwar Singh directed the course of revolt in Bihar. Nana Saheb gave direction to his force from Kanpur.
The sepoys and the revolted people declared who as their Peshawar and followed his leadership how many English soldiers at Kanpur fought for somedays & lastly surrendered?
The sepoys and the revolted people declared Natta Sahid as their Peshawar and followed his leadership. There were 400 English soldiers at Kanpur who fought for some days and lastly surrendered.
Which famous Maratha Brahmin where took the leadership of twenty thousand noble sepoys?
The famous Maratha Brahmin Tantia Tope at liwalior took the leadership of twenty thousand rebel sepoys.
For which cause Rani Laxmi Bai became the agitator in sepoy mating?
After the death of the husband of Rani Laxmi Bai, no permission was given to enthrone her adopted son of her. To agitate this Rani Laxmi Bai entangled herself in mutiny.
Which British General resisted Tantia Tope and was defeated and at last the forces of Tantia Tope joined with which forces?
British General Windham resisted Tantia Tope and was defeated. At last, the forces of Tantia Tope joined with the forces of Rani Laxmi Bai.
At the time of the fall of Delhi which able administrators were in charge of Punjab and Bombay’s presidency and made their areas calm and quiet?
At the time of the fall of Delhi the able administrator of Punjab was John Lawrence and in Bombay’s presidency was lord Elphinstone. They were capable to make their area calm and quiet.
Which India nucers helped the British in the Revolt of 1857?
The Indian leaders who helped the British in the Revolt of 1857 were the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Begum of Bhopal, the kind of Nepal, and the Maratha leader Sindhia.
Which English General proceeded from Punjab to Delhi and blew up which famous Gate of Delhi?
The English General Nicholson, a brave soldier proceeded from Punjab to Delhi and blew up the famous Kashmir Gate of Delhi.
Lastly, the English took which Emperor as a prisoner, and his two sons and a grandson were shot dead by which English General?
Lastly, the English took Emperor Bahadur Shah II as a prisoner. His two sons and a graton were shot dead by English General Hudson.
The furious wars of which two rebels worried the British Generals greatly.
The furious wars of two rebels i.e. Rani Laxmi Bai and Tantia Tope worried the British Generals Greatly.
When and in which battlefield did Rani Laxmi Bai become dead?
In 17th June 1858 in the battlefield of Kalapitha at the time of war became dead.
In sepoy mutiny which warrior after some defeats was caught and hanged and what happened to Nana Saheb?
In sepoy mutiny, the warrior Tantia Tope after some defeats was caught and hanged. Nana Saheb was defeated and fled away dense forests of Nepal and erased death.
At Orissa in which region the revolt continued for the next four years and which warrior took the leadership of this movement?
At Orissa in the Sambalpur region, the revolt continued for the next four years. In this movement warrior, Bira Surendra Sai took the leadership.
In the furious condition of the revolt who was the only Englishman who showed some kindness towards the people and for this in which name he was famous?
In the various condition of the revolt, Governor-general Lord Canning was the only Englishman who showed some kindness towards the people. For this, he was famous for “Benign canning”.
After the 1857 Revolt, the Indian administration withdrew from whom and entrusted upon with authority?
After the 1857 Revolt, the Indian administration withdrew from the East India Company. The administration was entrusted to the British crown.
After the 1857 revolt, the representative of the British monarch got which designation and who was the first representative in India?
After the 1857 revolt, the representative of the British monarch got designation as a “viceroy”. Lord Canning was the first viceroy in India.
At where viceroy Lord Canning when arranged the grand Durbar and read out the proclamation?
At Allahabad viceroy Lord canning on 1st November. 1858 arranged the grand Durbar and read out the proclamation.
When and where Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi was born?
Mohan das Karam Chand Gandhi was bom on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar of Gujurat.
What was the name of the father of Mohandas and at where he secured the post of Dewan?
Karamchand Gandhi was the name of the father of Mohandas. He sourced the post of Dewan at Porbandar.
Which author’s English translation of Geeta had a deep impact upon the mind of Mohandas and which great man’s life and message created a deep impression upon him?
English author Edwin Arnold’s English translation of Geeta had a deep impact on the mind of Mohandas. Great men like Gautama Buddha’s life and Jesus Christ’s message created deep impressions upon his mind.
By whose request Gandhi went to South Africa and when he proceeded to South Africa?
By a Muslim gentleman’s request, Gandhi went to South Africa. He proceeded to South Africa in 1853.
Where their public address of Gandhiji was the first in his life?
The public address of Gandhiji at Pretoria in South Africa was the first in his life.
At South Africa, the English Government oppressed the Indians in which A.O. which law was declared?
At South Africa the English Government oppressed the Indians in 1906 A.D. “Black Law” was declared.
At first which Indian enforced which title to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi?
At first Rabindra Nath Tagore enforced the title of “Mahatma” to Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi.
The English Government appointed a committee under which justice and when?
The English Government appointed a committee under justice Rowlatt on 1919 A.D.
Where and when the Jalliana-walating Massacre occurred?
In the city of Amritsar of Punjab, Jallianawalabag Massacre occurred on the Hindu New years day i.e. 13th April 1919.
When Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms was declared and it came in which shape?
On 1919 Montague Chelmsford Reforms was declared and it came in the shape of the Government of India Act 1919.
When by the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi which movement declared?
On September 1920 the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi “Non-Co-operation, Movement”, was declared.
For which cause did the Indian – Muslims wage a Revolt against the British and this Revolt was famous as which Revolt?
After the first world war, the victorious British Government prepared to punish Turkey’s Sultan. For this cause, the Indian Muslims wages a Revolt against the British and this Revolt was famous as the “Khilafat Movement”.
When and where at the session of congress the decision of the country vide non-cooperation movement was accepted? On that eventful session how many Odisha representatives joined?
On 1920 last week of December at the Nagpur session of congress, the decision of the country-wide Non-cooperation movement was accepted. In that eventful session, 35 Odisha representatives joined.
In which session of congress “Utkal state congress committee” was formulated and who was the first president of this committee?
In the Nagpur session of congress “Utkal state congress committee” was formulated. Gopabandhu Das was the first president of this committee.
When Mahatma Gandhi came to Odisha and what was the reason behind his coming to Odisha?
Mahatma Gandhi came to Odisha in the last week of Mach 1921. One week staying at Odisha he urged his anticipation to all people of Odisha to involve in the Non-cooperation movement.
On which year Simon Commission entered in India and all over India which shout accelerated?
In the year 1928 A.D. Simon commission entered in India. All over India the shouts “Simon, go back” accelerated.
On 1929 December 29 where an important session of congress was arranged and in that session who was the president?
On 1929 December 29 at Lahore in Punjab, an important session of congress was arranged. In that historic session, Jawaharlal Nehru was the president.
At the last date of the Lahore session i.e. on 31st December 1929 who waged on an important proposal regarding which?
At last date of the Lahore session i.e. on 31st December 1929, Mahatma Gandhi waged an important proposal of “ Pooma Swaraj” or complete independence.
At the beginning of the New year i.e. on 1930 A.D. January 26 was declared as which day? Who raised the National Flag?
At the beginning of the New year i.e. on 1930 A.D. January 26 was declared as “Pooma Swaraj” on Independence Day. Congress president Jawaharlal Nehru raised the National Flag.
After how many years of the Non-cooperation movement which new movement began under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi?
After 10 years of Non- cooperation movement civil disobedience movement began under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
On which year and on which date a long foot journey was held from Sabarmati Ashram to beach Dandi? What was the name of that historic journey?
On 1930, March 12 a long foot journey was held from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi. The name of that historic journey was “Dandi March”.
At which sea coast place of Baleswar District of Odisha the agitators broke civil law under whose leadership?
At the sea coast place of Inchudi of Baleswar District of Odisha, the agitators broke civil law under Acharya Harihar Das’s leadership.
On which year the only representative of congress joined in the second Round Table conference?
On 1931 the only representative of congress Mahatma Gandhi joined in the second Round Table Conference at London.
By disappointment, Mahatma Gandhi returned from London. On his way to India he met which French thinker and author and great dictator of Italy?
By disappointment, Mahatma Gandhi returned from London. On his way to India, he met Roma Rolla, the famous French thinker, author, and great dictator of Italy Benito Mussolini.
After a judicial discussion in between Gandhi and Ambedkar which pact was signed? This pact was famous as which pact?
After a judicial discussion in between Gandhiji and Ambedkar on 1932 September 24, a pact was signed. This pact was famous as the “Poona Pact”.
During the last part of 1932 at England once again a Round Table conference was held and that was which Round Table? In this conference a law was signed and what was that?
During the last part of 1932 in England once again a Round Table Conference was held and that was Third Round Table Conference. In this conference, a law was signed as the 1935 India Administration Act.
Where and when at the Muslim league conference did Mohammad Ali Jinnah wage the proposal of Pakistan country?
At Lahore in the Muslim League conference on 1940, Mohammad Ah Jinnah wages the proposal of Pakistan country.
After the acceptance of Mount Batten’s plan when the British Parliament recommended that plan and what was the name of that planning Law?
After the acceptance of Mount Batten’s plan in 1947 July, the British Parliament recommended that plan. That plan came to be regarded as the “1947 Indian Independence Law”.
Regarding British sovereignty and the willingness of princely states what was written in “1947 India Independence Law”?
In the “1947 India Independence Law” it was written that for all times to come England last its sovereignty of India. Regarding the princely state, it was noted that if. they want they can assemble with either to India or Pakistan or remain independent.
For the solution of princely state problems which leader’s bold step worked accurately? He was renowned as which name?
For the solution of the princely state’s problems, Sardar Ballavbhai Patel’s bold steps worked accurately. He was renowned as the “Iron man of India”.
On August 7 Mohammad Ali Jinnah flew form Delhi to which place and he was coronated to which post?
On August 7 Mohammad Ali Jinnah flew from Delhi to Lahore. After seven days he was coronated to Governor general of Pakistan.
Before independence, Mahatma Gandhi declared to whom as his political successor. After independence who got the portfolio of Prime Minister in the largest democracy of the world?
Before independence, Mahatma Gandhi declared Jawaharlal Nehru as his political successor. After independence Jawaharlal Nehru got the portfolio of Prime Minister in the largest democracy of the world.
Which time is regarded as the “Gandhi Era” and in which important revolts was he involved?
The time from 1920 A.D. to 1947 A.D. is regarded as the “ Gandhi Era”. By his leadership important revolts like the non-cooperation movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement was organized.
Short-Answer Type Questions
The precondition of permanent settlement in India.
Clive, the founder of the British Empire, could not give to Bengal a good land system. The revenue was collected from peasants through oppressive agents. Warren Hastings tried his best to bring a better system. He established a Board of Revenue. He appointed European District collectors to remain in charge of revenue collection.
But still, the difficulties continued. The real problem of the Government was how to go to the countless villages and get land revenue from millions of peasants according to the size and nature of their lands. It was impossible for the European District collector, who was only one for each district to do that work through his subordinate officers.
Sir Johan shore and active participation in introducing permanent settlement.
In this work, the Governor General was helped by an able administrator of that time, John Shore. He justified the need for a permanent class of landlords or zamindars for the security of government with respect to its revenues and the security and protection of its subjects. In Bengal before the British conquest, there were old zamindar families who enjoyed hereditary rights on lands for a long.
But after the country was conquered by the English those zamindars disappeared. Their lands were taken over by the Government and the Government collected revenues by various methods as already discussed. Cornwallis and Shore wanted to receive that class and give them the responsibility of revenue collection. So at last Cornwallis issued a proclamation in 1793, introducing the permanent settlement.
An important episode in Sanyasi Rebellion.
The sannyasi and Fakir Rebellion is an important episode in the early colonial rule in Bengal, The rebellion started in 1750 onwards but took a violent turn in 1773 when warren Hastings assumed the Governor Generalship of Bengal. The Movement covered a wide range of Bengal and Bihar and continued for a long time. There is also a distorted reflection of rebellion in Bankim Chandra’s Anandamath for which Bankim Chandra has been accused.
The present article implores how the sannyasi is and Fakirs launched their campaign in an anti-colonial attitude against the British Raj and their trusted zamindars. It was only possible due to their wide range of activities and networks. The religious pilgrimage was no doubt a factor in combining the sanyasis and Fakirs to launch a spontaneous movement for a long time.
Involvement of Bihar region in Sanyasi Rebellion.
Bihar was situated in such a geographical location that it was not difficult for the Fakirs and sannyasis to establish close links with Morung and the territories adjoining Nepal. This explains why the Fakirs and Sannyasis were chased, in northern or eastern Bengal by the company’s forces, they took shelter in Bihar and from there they escaped either to northern India or to Nepal.
From their centers in Northern India like Allahabad, Benaras, and Mirzapur, their routes to their principal spoliation in Bengal ran through Bihar, and herein lies the importance of Bihar in the history of Fakir and Sannyasi uprising. Besides they had to fortify their subsidiary centers in various parts of Bihar and maintained active contacts with Nepal for purpose of trade and religious pilgrimage.
Introduction of paik movement.
The paiks were the traditional landed militia of Odisha. They served as warriors and were charged with policing functions during peacetime. The paiks were organized into three ranks distinguished by their occupation and the weapons they wielded. These were the Paharis the bearers of shields and the khanda (sword), the Banuas who led distant expeditions and used matchlocks, and the Dhenkiy as archers who also performed different duties in Odisha armies.
The conquest of Odisha by the East India Company in 1803 and the dethronement of the Raja of Khurda began the fall of the power and prestige of the paikas. The attitude of the company to the paiks was expressed by Walter Ewer on the commission that looked into the causes of the Rebellion, thus.
Now there is no need for the assistance of paiks at Khurda. It is dangerous to keep them in the British armed forces. Thus they should be treated and dealt with as common Ryots and land revenue and other taxes should be collected from them. They must be deprived of their formed Jagir lands (rent-free land given to the paiks for their military service to the state).
Within a short period of time, the name of paik has already been forgotten. But still now where the paiks are living they have retained their previous aggressive nature. But still now where the paiks are living they have retained their previous aggressive nature. In order to break their poisonous teeth the British police must be highly alert to keep the paiks under their control for a pretty long period, unless the paik community is rained completely the British rule cannot run smoothly.
Cause of paik Rebellion.
The paik rebellion had several social, economic, and political reasons. The paiks were alienated by the British regime who took over the hereditary rent-free lands granted to them after the conquest of Khurda. They were also subjected to extortion and oppression at the hands of the company government and its servant.
Had conciliatory measures been adopted towards the paiks from the beginning, it is possible that they would have become a source of strength to the company rule in Odisha. The extortionist land revenue policy of the company affected the peasants and the zamindars alike. A source of much consternation for the common people was the rise in price of salt due to taxes imposed on it by the new government.
The company also abolished the system of courier currency that had existed in Odisha prior to its conquest and required that taxes be paid in silver. This caused much popular hardship and discontent. In 1804 the Raja of Khurda planned a rebellion against the British in alliance with the paiks. But the plot was soon discovered and the Raja’s territory was confiscated.
Leader and participants in paik rebellion.
The paiks were led by Bakshi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar Mohapatra, Bhramarabar Ray the formed Bakshi or commander of the forces of the Raja of Khurda. Jagabandhu’s familiar estate of killa Rorang was taken over by the British in 1814, reducing him to penury. When the Rebellion broke in March 1817, paiks came together under his leadership.
Raja Mukunda Deva, the last king of Khurda was another leader of the Indian rebels. The rebellion enjoyed widespread support in Oriya Society with feudal Chiefs, Zamindars, and the common people of Odisha participating in it. The Zamindars of Haripur, Mrichpur Golra, Balarampur, Budnakera, and Rupsa Supported the paiks – while the revolt started from Banapur and Khurda.
It quickly spread to other parts of Odisha such as Puri, Pipili, and Cuttack and to several remote villages, including Kanika, Kujang, and Pattamundai. The Rajas of Kanika, Kujang, Nayagarh, and Ghumusur aided Jagabandhu and Dalabehera Mirhaidar Ali of Jadupur was an important Muslim rebel.
The effects of Paik Rebellion.
In May 1817, the British Posted Judges to Khurda to sentence the captured rebels. The rebels were awarded sentences of death, transportation, and long-time imprisonment. Between 1818 and 1826, the company’s forces undertook combing operations in the jungles of Khurda to capture and put to death rebels who had managed to escape.
In these operations, numerous paiks were killed. Their leader Jagabandhu surrendered to the British in 1825 and lived as their prisoner in Cuttack until 1829 when he died. On capturing Puri, Jagabandhu offered to rain state Raja Mukunda Deva. Whom the British had dethroned in 1804 and exiled to Puri as the Raja of Khurda.
Although the turned down the other and asked for British assistance, he was arrested when the British retook the town and was imprisoned at Cuttack. The Raja died a British prisoner in November 1817. The East India Company also appointed a commissioner of Cuttack Robert Ker to ensure. Such a rebellion would not repeat itself.
These attempts remained half-hearted at best, the British viewing Odisha largely as a convent land link between their presidencies of Madras and Bengal. Odisha continued to be wracked by localized insurgencies including at Tapanga in 1827 and the Banapur Rebellion of 1835. The revenue policies of the company in Odisha, which was a major cause of hardship to the people, remained unchanged.
The background of the Santhal Rebellion.
The uprising of the Santhals began as a tribal reaction to and despotic British revenue system, usury practices, and the Zamindari system in India, in the tribal best of what was then known as the Bengal presidency. It was a revolt against the oppression of the colonial ruse propagated through a distorted revenue system, enforced by the local Zamindars, the police, and the courts of the legal system set up by the British.
Before the British advent in India, residing in the hilly districts of Manbhum, Barahum, Chhotanagpur, Palamu, and Birbhum. They lived an agrarian lifestyle by clearing forest patches, cultivating, and hunting for subsistence. But as the agents of the new colonial rule. Claimed their rights on the lands, the Santhal retreated to the hills of Rajmahal. After a brief period, the British operatives with their native undersigns i.e. the local landlords lay claim on this new land as well.
Zamindars and the money lenders all used them for goods lent to them on loans, through corrupt practices of the money lenders, the loan grew to prohibitive proportions, for repaying which entire families had to work as bonded laborers. This dispossession turned the Santhals into nebess and finally, they took on oath to launch an attack on the ruling authority i.e. the British.
Mangal Pandey and Nana Sahib.
He was spray served under the English East India Company. He provided the immediate spark to the revolt of 1857. He shut at the chief of the 34th regiment at Barrackpore. Nana Saheb was a rebel in the revolt of 1857. He was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He remained in charge of the Kanpur center during the Revolt of 1857.
Reason for modern means of communication.
In order to facilitate the shipment of raw material at a low cost facilitate the shipment of raw materials at a low cost, the British constructed roads, and railways so that goods could be sent to ports quickly. In order to promote their own commercial interest in India.
Ryotwari and Mahalwari system.
It was a land revenue system introduced by the British in the Madres region. Under this, the govt made settlements directly with the ryots or cultivators to pay the revenue for a period of 30 years. It was a land revenue system. In the northern part of India, the British introduced the malware system. The settlement was made between the govt and the mahals or groups of villages.
Laxman Naik was a hero of the Quit India movement in Odisha. He was the leader of the tribal groups of Koraput. The tribal people under the leadership of Laxman Naik defied the Govt, most heroically while the course of the revolution of 1942 was in full swing in other places of Odisha.
Non-cooperation Movement in Odisha.
Utkal Pradesh congress committee was formed and Gopabandhu Das became its president. The Utkal Pradesh Congress committee prepared grounds in Odisha for the Non-Cooperation movement.
The immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857.
An immediate cause was provided by the introduction of cartridges that had greased paper covers. At that time a new rifle called the Enfield rifle was supplied to the soldiers. The cartridges to be used in die rifles were greased with fat. Before fitting in the cartridges in the refile, the soldiers had to bite off their ends with their teeth. A rumor spread that the cartridges were greased with the fat of cows and pigs.
The soldiers easily believed that it had been intentionally done by the British to defile their religions. It is clear that it was taboo for a Hindu Soldier to bite the Fat of a cow and for a Muslim soldier to bite the fat of a pig. Both refused to use these cartridges. When force was used against them they were further angered by the British.
Queen Victoria’s proclamation.
Queen victoria’s proclamation was made by lord canning in a grand Durbar at Allahabad on 1st November 1858. According to it. The decision was taken to end the company’s rule in India. Henceforth the Indian territories would not be annexed to the British crown. The Indian princes were given the right to adopt sons and successors.
The people of India would be eligible for all Public offices. People were guaranteed full religious freedom. Henceforth; the GoVt. would not interfere in their religious beliefs and practices. The last not the least, the proclamation promised that the Govt, of India, would do its best to benefit and benevolence of the Indians.
Development of communication.
The British built a network of roads and railways in order to promote their own commercial interest in India. The vast network of roads and railways and postal system helped the British to maintain rigid administrative control over India. The first railway line ran between Bombay and Thane. Lord Dalhousie promoted this system, which benefited the British administration and business.
On the contrary, people living in faraway places could travel freely and mix with one another. Regional feelings began to disappear and people felt for the first time that they belonged to one country. Thus, it made it possible to mobilize public opinion on a national scale, Indeed it was a factor in the rise of Nationalism in India.
Drain of wealth.
Drain of wealth means a part of India’s national wealth was being exported to England for which India got no adequate economic or material returns. It was the root cause of poverty in India. Dada Bhai Naoroji the grand old man of India, was the first person who propounded this theory. The Indian wealth was siphoned of to the British municipality drain. The moderate leaders drew the attention of the mass.
They emphasized that the drain was not only the loss of wealth but also the loss of capital. The drain caused a loss of employment and income. It was responsible for the slow growth of modern industry in India. The drain of wealth also affected the peasants directly. The high rate of land revenue was due to the drain. Thus, this drain theory created awareness among the common people later on.
Jalianawalla Bagh Massacre.
On 13 th April 1919 people organized a peaceful general meeting in a small garden in Amritsar, Punjab against the proclamation issued by General Dyer which, forbade public meetings and processions. People were not adequately informed of this proclamation. The meeting place was an enclosed plot of ground known as JalianawaflaBagh.
General O Dyer came with troops blocking the only exit of the compound and ordered his troops 40 open fire on the crowd without warning. A large number of people were killed and wounded in cold blood. This mass killing is known as the Jalianawalla Bagh massacre in history.
The policy of non-violent, noncooperation was used in India for the first time is the Khilafat movement. Turkey had fought against the British in the First World War. At the end of the war, Turkey was defeated. The British divided the Turkish empire and abolished the epithet ‘khalifa’ who was regarded as the spiritual head of the Muslim world. Asa an impact of it Turkey started a movement against the British.
To support the people of Turkistan, Gandhiji started Khilafat Movement in India. Undoubtedly the khilafat movement launched by Gandhiji strengthened national feeling, fostered sentiments of Hindu – Muslim unity, and led afresh to political awakening. Thus, this movement prepared the ground for Non-Cooperation Movement in India in 1921.
Chouri Chaura incident.
While Noncooperation Movement was going on violence broke out at Chori Chaura – a village near Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 1922 in the month of February, where evident mob stormed and burnt a police station and killed twenty-two policemen Gandhiji was the opposite of violence. He was, therefore, visibly moved and very disappointed. He realized that the country was not yet ripe for a non-violent struggle. Suddenly, he announced the suspension of the Movement.
Utkal Pradesh congress committee.
The Utkal Pradesh congress committee prepared grounds in Odisha for the Non-Cooperation Movement Gopabandhu Das was its president. The committee served twin purposes. First to make a grand success of the Non-Cooperation Movement and second for the linguistic unity of the Oriya people.
It directed the people to total Non-Cooperation with the Government, Hundred Oriyas enrolled in to the committee as volunteers to become congress workers. Most parts of Odisha came under the spell of the Gandhian Struggle due to the effects of the Utkal Pradesh Congress committee.
The civil Disobedience Movement began with the Dandi march of Mahatma Gandhi. He began his historic movement.