CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Solutions Unit 5 Intelligence Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1:
Creativity is a kind of cognitive activity that results in a new way of solving problems. The concept of creativity needs special attention.

Question 2:
Artificial Intelligence
In the stage of information technology and computer science artificial intelligence. The computer’s performance is done by artificial intelligence.

Question 3:
Hereditary factors
Several studies have been conducted on identical twins to determine the role of hereditary. Holzinger identicals this twins.

Question 4:
Age and Intelligence
I.Qs tend to be erratic in the first few years of life, whole intellectual ability. Binet’s intelligence tests were first administered to individuals of different age groups.

Question 5:
Emotional Intelligence
The concept of emotional intelligence is quite a novel one. Current researchers have started recognising that in the world.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Question 6:
Distribution of intelligence in the population
When intelligence test is administered to thousands of children of the same age the population. In the OX axis, the amount of I.Q. is presented.

Question 7:
Sternberg’s briarchic theory of approach.
Sternberg (1985) has attempted to explain the concept of intelligence. Componential intelligence. Experiential intelligence emphasizes insight and involves the ability to formulate new 7 ideas. Contextual intelligence it is 3rd aspect. Sternberg’s view of intelligence is purposive adaption.

Question 8:
Emotional intelligence
The concept of emotional intelligence is quite a novel one. Current researchers have started recognising that in the practical world. This is in fact very encouraging and illuminating research in the finding in the area of intelligence. Intelligence is the capacity to adapt and adjust quickly to-varied circumstances of life. This is more necessary and required in life than theoretical or abstract intelligence.

Question 9:
Artificial Intelligence
In the age of information technology and computer science, artificial intelligence demonstrates intelligent performance. Intelligence is created by human beings. Examples computerisation, calculations perceptual tasks etc. We can solve problems and play complex games on computers. We can plan everything easily through the computers.

Question 10:
Mental age (M.A.)
Mental age is a measure of the absolute level of intelligence. A 6-years old child who performs the intelligence test of a 5-year-old child is said to have mental age, of 5 years. In short, mental age refers to a type of norm. The Stanford-Binet test result indicates that mental ability increases as the child grows older. In the case of children with normal intelligence mental age increases at the same rate as chronological age.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Question 11:
Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.)
The ratio which states the relationship between mental age and chronological age is called I.Q. The I.Q. or the intelligent Quotient is computed by the formula. The I.Q. as a ratio gives a figure for any person that remains more or less constant for a period of years. An intelligent person is referred to in the term I.Q. Children who are above average will receive an I.Q. above 100.

Question 12:
Infant intelligence tests
Some intelligence tests have also been constructed to measure the intelligence of infants and babies. Most of these are meant to measure sensory motor skills. Arnold GeseU’s development schedules like Binet and Wechsler Scaler indicate a clear age progression. The age levels vary from one month to two years. At each age level, the tests are divided into four categories such as motor, adaptive, and language.

Question 13:
Contextual intelligence
This is the 3rd aspect of stemborg’s theory. If centres around that intelligence which deals with the inter environment and external world. Persons who rate high on the dimension of contextual intelligence. Stenberg’s, theory puts emphasis on the basic knowledge about cognition. Sternberg’s view of intelligence is purposive adaptation.

Long Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Define intelligence and its definitions.
Nature and operational definition of Intelligence.
Geeta is the brightest child I ever saw. Look at her big black eyes; how sharp and 1 expressive they are! She learns a thing almost before you have told it to her. Oh! see how smart Sushil is, you would think he was two years instead of one year. He is S-0-0 intelligent and sharp. These are the common expressions we hear from parents, teachers, neighbours and friends regarding various children.

Brightness, sharpness, and cleverness all refer to some sort of intelligence, which is recognized universally as one of the most important attributes of any person at any age. Those who are most alert mentally, who can react and respond very quickly to any stimulation and cap grapes at the earliest and can understand things before you complete your sentence are l said to be very intelligent.

An intelligent person is always in an advantageous position in society. He can adjust to various circumstances of life in the most appropriate way, can solve problems quickly, can achieve things at a greater speed, can perceive the relationship between different things in the field and can give shape, an organisation to any perception.

On the whole, an intelligent person usually becomes the most successful person, keeping other factors constant. The term intelligence is so commonly used, but it is so complex that it is difficult to give a comprehensive and precise definition of intelligence which would be accepted by most.

As years, pass, volumes of research on intelligence make it so complicated that it becomes difficult to embrace all attributes of intelligence in a single definition. However, psychologists have defined intelligence in their own characteristic way, according to their own conceptions and theories. There still prevails a controversy about its exact meaning although the country’s definitions of intelligence have been there.

The term ‘intelligence’ is derived from a Latin word, framed by Gicepo to translate a Greek word used by Aristotle to include all cognitive processes. This cognitive capacity was called ‘ Intelligence’ and it was thought to be inherited, innate and general to nature. Spencer believes that intelligence is the capacity of the organism to adjust itself to an increasingly complex environment.

Thus, he believed biological adjustment to be a sign of intelligence. Solving complex situations of life means solving the problems of engineering, science, medicine, mathematics, economics, social science, agriculture, business and management”. Galton (1900) was of the opinion that intelligence refers to the general cognitive, innate ability of an organism which was accepted by Binet.

Intelligence is a trait of personality which every living organism possesses to a greater or lesser degree. It is innate, given by birth. Whatever may be the meaning of intelligence, it definitely refers to the individual’s effectiveness or ability to carry on real tasks of day-to-day life successfully and efficiently.

Hence, a person who is able to meet the demands and challenges of life successfully, one who is able to carry out the duties of life effectively is said to be more intelligent than one who does not. According to Binet (1905), the pioneer in the construction of intelligence tests “Intelligence refers to comprehension, intention, direction and criticism”.

Intelligence, therefore, refers to the capacity to comprehend the interrelationship between two things when many other things are present, being more akin to insight. The comprehensive capacity of a less intelligent person or an idiot is superficial, his power to invent is limited. An intelligent person can direct things in a successful manner and can criticise and appreciate things.

Wyatt defines intelligence as the power of apprehending the relationship. According to Stem “Intelligence is a general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions”. In Thorndike’s opinion intelligence is the combination of certain specific abilities. Terman defined intelligence as the capacity to carry out abstract thinking.

Terman is of opinion that we are able to act until gently in proportion we are able to think in abstract terms. But this is quite a narrow definition of intelligence as it does not involve other psychological processes such as perception, imagination etc. Superman (1904) suggested that intelligence is the capacity for constructive thinking, a discovery of appropriate qualities and relations of the ideas that are before us.

Spearman also believes intelligence to be the capacity by which the entire cognitive life is built. According to him, intelligence depends upon the clarity with which he apprehends his own experience, the speed with which he deduces relations and correlations and the complexity of the relation and correlations he deduces.

Most of the modem tests of intelligence are based on these lines. David Wechsler defines intelligence as the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully to think rationally and deal effectively with the environment. Precisely, he says that intelligence characterises the individual’s behaviour as a whole. But acting purposefully is not an intelligent behaviour because it refers to the conative aspects of one’s behaviour, while intelligence is related to the cognitive process.

According to Thurstone (1930), intelligence consists of many primary abilities. Some have also defined intelligence as “flexibility or versatility in the use of symbolic processes”. A person who is more flexible and versatile in his reasoning, understanding of concepts, recall, perception and learning is said to be more intelligent.

The theme of these definitions advanced by different psychologists can be summarized as follows:

  • Intelligence is the ability of the organism to adjust consciously to new conditions and problems of life.
  • It is the capacity to leam, to solve higher kinds of mental activities, to do harder tasks in a shorter time and to profit from past experience.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Question 2.
Critically examine the necessity of infant intelligence tests.
Infant intelligence tests according to Gesell these tests do not measure intelligence but the level of development of the child. Thus, the score obtained by an infant in these tests is called Development Quotient (DQ). This is calculated with the same formula used to calculate I.Qs. Performance is scored in months which becomes D. A. (Development Age) like M. A. That is, if a child of two years is able to perform the tests meant, a baby of one year, his D. A. is one year and C. A. is two years and his DQ=\(\frac{12 \times 100}{24}\)=50.

Studies, however, indicate that D.Qs found during infancy do not correlate with I.Qs. achieved at maturity level (16-20 years). The most outstanding study to support this assumption is the Berkeley Growth Study by Bayley and Schaefer (1964) in which children were tested from the first month to the age of 16,17 and 18 years and their D.Qs were compared.

The lack of correlation between these studies explained the fact that the two scores reflect different abilities. This study also strongly supports the assumption that intelligence is not a single capacity growing with age; but rather a collection of several abilities some found in the young child and others found in the older child.

In one study by Hotstaetter(1954) early test scores were found to depend mostly on sensory-motor alertness whereas measures of persistence were important in determining test scores from ages 2-4. Verbal reasoning ability increased rapidly through the pre-school years and as the child grew they became the more important determinants of test scores. All these results suggest that with the growth of intelligence, mental functioning changes qualitatively as well as quantitatively.

Mental Age (M.A.):
Mental age is a measure of the absolute level of intelligence. A 6-year-old child who performs the intelligence test of a 5-year-old child is said to have a mental age of 5 years. When a child of 10 years passes all the tests of a 6-year-old child and half of the tests of 7 year old and none for those of 8 years, his mental age is calculated as 6 years + 6 months + 0 = 78 months.

His chronological age is 10 years. Thus, the mental age is calculated by first finding the age level at which the child passed all the test items, this is called the basal age and then adding up the values for the I remaining items correctly answered. In short, the mental ages refer to a type of norm.

The Stanford-Binet test results indicate that mental ability increases as the child grows older. In the case of children with normal (average) intelligence mental age increases at the same rate as chronological age. But in the case of bright children, there is a more rapid increase in mental ability as a result of which their mental age becomes greater than their chronological age.

On the other hand, in the case of less intelligent (slow) children, the mental age increases at a slower rate in comparison to their chronological age. Thus a six-year-old who performs the tests of a three-year-old only is said to be dull or an idiot. When a 5-year aid is able to answer the test of 10-year-old children, he is said to be very bright. For the calculation of I.Q. mental age is necessary.

Intelligence Quotient (I.Q):
The ratio which states the relationship between mental age and chronological age is called the I.Q. or the Intelligent Quotient. The I.Q. is computed by the following formula :

I.Q=\(\frac{M \cdot A}{C \cdot A}\)x100 if the M. A. and C. A. of an individual are the same, say 10, his I.Q. would be 100 which refers to the average intelligence: (M.A.=10, C.A.=10; I.Q.=\(\frac{10}{10}\)x100=100). Thus normal persons have an I.Q. of 100. If M.A. is 6 and C.A. is 5, I.Q. will be \(\frac{6}{5}\)x100=120, which means better than average intelligence.

Similarly, if one’s M.A. is 10 and C.A. is 15, his I.Q. would be \(\frac{10}{5}\)x100=66.66. This refers to the intelligence level of a moron. The I.Q. as a ratio gives a figure for any person that remains more or less constant for a period of years. Children who are above average will receive an I.Q. above 100. Those below the average will receive an I.Q. below 100.

The I.Q. is not only a measure of relative brightness, but it is also a measure ofthe individual’s rate of intellectual development. Usually, tire levels of intelligence of a person are referred to in terms of I.Q. ranges. The following table show levels of intelligence in terms of Stanford-Binet I.Q. ranges:

                   I.Q. Range
Idiot 0-25
Imbecile 25-50
Moron 50-70
Borderline 70-80
Low normal 80-90
Normal 90-100
Superior 110-120
Very Superior 120-140
Near genius 140 and over

In general, it can be assumed that the higher the economic standing of an occupational group, the higher would be the average I.Q. keeping other factors constant. It is a comparative rather than an absolute measure of intelligence. It is relative to the standardization group and the condition under which the groups were tested. If the individual’s I.Q. remains the same at yearly age levels it cannot be said that he maintains his relative position in the group.

Distribution of I.Qs. In The Population:
When an intelligence test is administered to thousands of children the same age as the population, their I.Q. can be represented graphically in the following manner: In the Ox axis, the amount of I.Q. is presented. In the OY axis percentage of children in each category of I.Q. is presented.

That is 2.15 percent of children’s scores. I.Q. between 0-70, 13.59 percent between 70 to 85 and 34.13 percent between 5 to 100, and 34.13 percent of children score between 100 and 115 I.Q. In short, the maximum number of children has an I.Q. between 85-115 population.

Critically examine the necessity of infant intelligence tests Q2

Constancy Of I.Q.
The entire concept of I.Q. suggests that an individual will maintain the same relative position in his group as he grows. I.Qs. are constant throughout childhood and adolescence. For one thing, I.Qs. are not very stable during pre-school years (Sontagetal, 1958). The findings of several studies indicate that on the whole I.Q. remains essentially constant.

When other conditions like health, type of education, home situation and other situational facilities do not have a significant change. But in the case of very young children, there may be some deviation from this general rule as their potentialities may still be more variable. Among many studies on the constancy of I.Q., the typical study by Hirt (1945) supports the view that the I.Q. remains relatively constant.

Although a few cases show a change of 50 or more I.Q. points, most studies, comparing the I.Qs. obtained after the pre-school years indicate an average fluctuation of about 5 points plus or minus. Adverse physical conditions like deficient thyroid gland, and insufficient food rand-nutrition may affect them. I.Q. level, though there is no clear-cut evidence in support of these views.

Unusual environmental conditions and lack of normal educational opportunities may lead to the decline in I.Q. to a limited point. But when normal educational opportunities are provided improvement in I.Q. is again found. Good enough (1940) has, however, found a progressive change in the I.Q. of children. The I.Q. changed at yearly intervals like 133,150,143,147 and 151. The child’s school progress also indicated arise.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Question 3.
Sternberg’s approach to intelligence.
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Approach:
Sternberg (1985) has attempted to explain the concept of intelligence through his Triarchic theory or Triarchic model of intelligence. This theory holds that there are three types of human intelligence.

Componential Intelligence:
It emphasizes effectiveness in information processing. Persons who score high on this dimension are able to think analytically as well as critically. Meritorious students come under this category. These persons generally do excellent on standard tests of academic potential. Componential intelligence includes 3 types of components:

  • Knowledge acquisition component
  • Performance components for problem-solving methods or strategies
  • Metacognitive components for selecting a strategy and monitoring programmes towards success.

Experimental Intelligence:
It emphasizes insight and involves the ability to formulate new ideas. Persons scoring high on this dimension of intelligence excel in knowing what information is important in a given situation and they also succeed at combining unrelated facts into a related one. Great scientists and inventors like Einstein, Newton, Freud etc. come under this category.

Various Nobel prize winners in science and medicine come under this category. Experiential intelligence helps in learning new things and then doing them in reality. It is reflected in creative works. It involves the ability to picture the external world by using and manipulating very different experiences in a unique and original manner. Artists, scientists, and fashion designers score high in this type of intelligence.

Contextual Intelligence:
This is the third aspect of Sternberg’s theory. It centres around that intelligence dealing with the outer environment and external world. It means man’s adjustment to his environment and outer or practical world. How we select our external world, how we change or manipulate our environment as per our needs and requirements and finally how capable we are to adjust to it, all come under conceptual intelligence.

This, in short, refers to practical intelligence. Persons who rate high on the dimension of contextual intelligence are highly adaptive in the practical field. They can adapt very quickly to their surroundings and environment. They can perceive quickly what is required from them in a particular situation and what type of behaviours or responses will bring them success and act accordingly.

People who prove to be very successful in their respective fields of life score very high in this component of intelligence. In a party or in a formal or informal meeting these people become the “man/woman of the day”. They succeed in making their presence felt by everybody. Practical management of day-to-day work come under this category. They shape the environment as per their needs.

Successful professionals and businessmen score high in this category. Stenberg’s theory thus puts emphasis on the basic knowledge about cognition. But if only the I.Q. scores are taken into consideration contextual and experimental intelligence will not be traced. Along with I.Q. tests observation of the behaviour of persons in day-to-day life are also essential. While solving mathematical problems a person also uses his past experience which is part of the intellectual ability according to Sternberg.

Sternberg (1985) divides this experience into two parts:

  • Ability to deal with the new situation
  • Development of autonomic mechanisms for processing information.

To emphasise this point Sternberg says “I propose that intelligence involves not merely the ability to learn and reason with new concepts, intelligence is not so much the ability to learn and within familiar conceptual systems as it is the ability to learn and think with new conceptual systems which can then be brought to bear upon already existing knowledge.”

In Sternberg’s view, Intelligence is a purposive adaptation to the appropriate environment and selection of an external environment required for living successfully in the environment. The knowledge acquisition component of Sternberg’s theory deals with adjustment to the external world of the organism.

Thus, intelligent people not only adapt to their existing environment but also make changes in their environment and shape it as and when necessary like social reformer Raj a Ram Mohan Ray or famous novelist Prem Chand, who have brought changes in society through their revolutionary works.

Question 4.
Define the Gardener multiple intelligence approach.
Recently a few psychologists working in the area of intelligence have attempted to explain intelligence from different angles. These approaches may also be called models of intelligence.

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Approach:
According to Gardner (1983) intelligence includes numerous abilities and each one is equally important. The value of each ability is culturally determined as per the need of society. Thus, Gardner has attempted to explain intelligence in terms of culture. Gardner’s theory of intelligence has seven separate abilities. They are briefly discussed below.

  • Linguistic Ability:
    The verbal ability or the ability of a person to deal with grammar, speech and language etc. refers to linguistic intelligence.

Socio-Mathematical Ability:
It refers to the numerical ability of a person or the ability to deal with numbers and digits, solving arithmetic or problems related to mathematics and logical puzzles. According to this approach, good logicians are also good mathematicians. Logic and mathematics both deal with reasoning ability also. So there is a positive correlation between logic and the manipulation of symbols.

Spatial Ability:
It deals with orientation or ability in space reading. People having good spatial ability are hence good at map reading, visual arts, and playing different games like chess “Passa” which require good spatial ability.

Musical Ability:
The ability to be a good musician refers to musical intelligence which is a kind of very specialized ability. This ability is not found in all persons. Hence every one cannot be a good musician.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Ability:
Dancing, athletics, running, mountaineering, swimming activities and specialisation related to bodily movements even surgery depend upon the above ability. These intellectual abilities are located in the motor cortex. But whether these are abilities or skills is still controversial and needs further research in the area.

Inter-personal Ability:
It refers to the ability to deal with and understand others. Inter-personal intellectual abilities deal with understanding others’ behaviour, intentions, attitudes and temperaments. It is held that a successful salesman or a good sales representative, a politician, a doctor, a public relations officer, an insurance agent or a postal agent etc.

Who prove successful in their job and have good interpersonal abilities. These are commonly called skills, but in Gardner’s opinion, they are abilities by birth. So this type of ability determines the relationship between self and outsiders. But some people.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Question 5.
Discuss the studies on the role of the environment in intelligence development.
Some studies have been conducted in Odisha on the role of the environment on intellectual development. Das, jaw chuck and Panda (1968) conducted a study on the high and low economic groups of Brahmin and Ilarijan children (High and low castes). They found that the poor Haorijan children scored lowest in the cognitive tests in comparison to children of all other groups.

Though the rich Harijan children performed better than the poor Harij children, they scored lower scores than the Brahim (High caste) children. Rath, Dash, and Dash (1973) conducted a comparative study on the cognitive and intellectual development of some Brahmin, Adivasi and Harij children of Odisha.

Das and Singh’s (1976) study on rural and urban Brahmin and Harijan children indicated that there was no difference in the intelligence of urban grade, Brahmin and Harijan children. But the rural Brahmin children scored higher in intelligence tests than the rural Harijan children. Jack and Mohanti (1974) conducted a study on Low Socioeconomic status and progressive Retardation in cognitive skills.

They found that children of high SES performed better in every respect in cognitive skills. Surprisingly, they found that lower SES children of higher age groups showed poor performance in comparison to lower age groups. Thus they found that children of higher age groups of low SES show slower progress in cognitive development in comparison to higher SES groups.

There is very little empirical study on the influence of culture on the development of intelligence. But it has been observed that different cultures lead to the development of different patterns of ability. This is because a particular type of environment requires a particular type of adaptive behaviour. For this adjustment, one has to accelerate the development of certain abilities.

In another culture, certain other abilities are developed. ?Comparison of abilities necessary in different cultures proves this fact. In this connection, the study conducted by Straus (1951) is notable where intelligence test scores of college freshmen in Ceylon and the United States were compared. The Ceylonese students scored consistently higher scores than the United States students.

Secondly, the Ceylonese students scored higher in the language items compared to the Americans, although the test was given in English. This higher score on the Ceylonese people intelligence test is attributed to the emphasis on verbal achievement in Ceylonese culture. The influence of cultural factors on intelligence was also proved during I World War. In general, blacks did poorly than whites.

Sex Differences:
Although early studies do not point out any striking difference in the I.Q. of boys and girls, some recent studies indicate several interesting sex differences in intelligence. By using modem measuring instruments primary mental abilities have been measured. In a study by Hobson (1947) primary mental ability tests were conducted on three successive junior high classes in Brookline.

Results showed boys being superior in spatial intelligence, and in rote memory, reasoning and word fluency. Boys did better than girls in verbal comprehension. But no significant difference in numerical ability was noticed. Havighurst and Breese (1949) administered the Thurstone battery of primary mental abilities test to all thirteen years old children in amid western community of 6,000 persons.

Girls surpassed boys in number, word, fluency, reasoning and memory. Boys did better than girls in spatial ability. No significant difference was found in the verbal comprehension test. A study on college students by Sweeney (1953) showed men surpassed women in solving problems which required logic and ingenuity. All these studies indicate that girls show superiority in some abilities and boys in others.

These differences cancel each other when general tests are used leading to no general difference between the two sexes in the overall level of intelligence. However, the sex differences in these specific abilities are attributed by some to basic constitutional differences partly and partly to socio-cultural training. A study by Deborah (1977) indicates that the better spatial ability of men may be related to their physiological differences from women.

Innumerable studies show that health is positively correlated with intelligence. In other words, keeping other factors constant, good general health goes with high intelligence, because superior heredity is related to physical and mental superiority as pointed out by Terman (1925). The relationship between secretions from the endocrine glands and intelligence is not yet clearly established.

As such, there is no evidence, for the common belief that pituitary disorder lowers intelligence. Scholar (1938) has found that persons with a severe pituitary deficiency may actually be above average intelligence. The belief that intelligence does not improve by improving the diets of undernourished children has been supported by investigations on the effects of nutrition on intelligence.

But it has been found that a child’s intelligence may be affected by the quality of the mother’s diet during pregnancy (Harrell, Woodyard and Gates, 1955). The view of some that children suffer from tonsils and adenoids, decayed teeth and rickets have how intelligence is not supported by recent studies.

Family Size:
A low negative correlation has been found between intelligence and the number of siblings particularly in lower-income groups as found by Gille (1954), and Heuyer (1950).

Social Deprivation:
According to some, social experiences are of tremendous importance to intellectual development and this socio-cultural deprivation lowers I.Q. An investigation conducted by Skeels (1966) supplies evidence for this. He found that when the social environment of some children was changed, they received additional stimulation in the new environment.

Their average I.Q. increased by 28 points while the I.Q. of the children who remained in the deprived social environment (orphanage) dropped by 20 points. But this study has raised certain controversial issues regarding the relationship between social deprivation and intellectual development.

It has, however, been concluded that “the effects of social deprivation on the development of intelligence depends in part on how long it is endured”. When children live under deprived circumstances, it may not have any visible effect on their intellectual development, but deprivation for a longer period is assumed to have permanent and significant detrimental effects on intellectual development.

Socio-economic status:
People belonging to upper-class families get more intellectual stimulation and enriched environmental facilities in comparison to persons belonging to the lower class. This is believed to influence their intelligence level in a positive direction. Data collected during Second World War by Harrell and Harell (1945) show that people with higher I.Qs usually fill up professional posts.

The enriched environment included varied factors such as greater availability of educational and instructional materials like books charts, diagrams, and instruments and high parental aspirations. Moreover, the study by Yando, Seitz and Zigler (1979) indicates that children of higher and lower SES bring different attitudes and styles to problem-solving that could affect their performance in intelligence tests.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Question 6.
The determinants of intelligence or factors influencing intelligence.
The determinants of intelligence also refer to the factors related to mental development. It is found that in the general population some are of superior intelligence, most are of average intelligence and some are below normal intelligence or are mentally retarded. What are the factors which lead to such variations in human intelligence?

Obviously, heredity and environment are two chief variables which influence the growth and development of intelligence. Intelligence varies with varying influences of heredity and environment. As observations and empirical findings show intelligence is determined by both heredity and environment.

Hereditary Factors:
Several studies have been conducted on identical twins to determine the role of heredity in the development of intelligence. Two important studies may be mentioned in this connection. Newman, Freeman and Ilolzinger (1937) took 19 pairs of identical twins, who were reared separately through adaption into different foster homes.

The findings showed that the intelligence test scores of identical twins reared separately were almost as similar to two scores achieved by the same person at different times. Besides, they were mostly like identical twins reared together. Thus, these investigators concluded that the possession of identical heredity was a factor operating system to determining the development of similar intelligence.

Another recent study was done by Shields (1962). He took 88 pairs of identical twins of which half were reared together and the other half were reared in different homes. The correlations between their intelligence test scores were 77 for those reared together and 76 for those brought up separately. This proves the role of heredity and not an environment in the development of intelligence.

In some other studies, the I.Q. of the child is studied by keeping him in a separate environment, particularly at an early age (pre-school age). But it retains its constancy thereafter even when there is a significant change in the environment. The constancy of I.Q, in spite of the change in the environment, supports the role of strong hereditary influences. A study by Blewett (1954) indicates that intelligence is largely determined by heredity.

Jensen’S Theory:
Prof. Arthur Jensen’s article “How much can we boost: I.Q. and Scholastic achievement” published in Harvard Educational Review (1969) brought a revolution and led to a lot of debate on the role of heredity in the development of intelligence. Jensen has evaluated the findings of ‘Project Head Start’ conducted as a compensatory project to help the socially disadvantaged Negroes and Asiatic origin lower class people.

By means of special education programmes, provision of different incentives, enriched environmental facilities etc. In Jensen’s opinion because of these programmes, there has been no improvement in the intelligence Of disadvantaged and underdeveloped children. Since there has been no cognitive development, it is no use of continuing these developmental programmes, he opined.

But many thought this was an attack on the developmental work of the minority groups, or more correctly, an attack on the minority groups themselves. Jensen states that the I.Q. of Blacks is always less than that of Whites, the reason being that, the standard of living of black people is always lower than that of whites.

Low socio-economic status and deprived environmental facilities for ages have been responsible for this genetic difference in the I.Q. of blacks and whites, Jenson stated. Taking the help of several investigations Jensen has shown that abstract reasoning differs significantly on the basis of class and caste. Jensen’s theory has been severely criticised by many.

Whitten and Kagan (1969) have viewed this theory as “Jensen’s dangerous half-truth”. They hold that there are many other basic factors responsible for the difference in I.Q. of the Negroes and whites than actual intelligence itself and one of them is the cultural variation undoubtedly, they say. Secondly, they say that at least this compensatory project has been very successful in Israel. If it is not successful in other places it is due to organisational defects, they assert. More research in this area is necessary.

Environmental Factors:
Although strong hereditary influence on the growth of intelligence is obvious from these studies, they do not necessarily conclude that poor environmental facilities don’t retard the development of intelligence.

Question 7.
Define intelligence tests and individual tests and verbal or non-verbal tests.
Intelligent tests:
Alford Binet (1867 -1911) is the first person who devised systematic tests to measure the intelligence of children the lie was particularly interested in the intellectual differences among individuals. Binet (1905), a french psychologist designed the very first test of intelligence at the request of the Paris school authorities to help them to select children of low intelligence, who could not gain from attending the gene classes in school.

Lewin Terman (1877 -1956) of Stanford University revised Binet’s scale intended for school children in the United States. Tennant, in fact, is responsible for bringing the Binet Test into the mainstream of academic life in America. This revised test was known as Stanford Binet Test. This test was similar to Binet’s 1911 version except that Terman made some changes and added the age placement of many items according to the performance of children in the United States. The test was standardized for the U.S.A. children. This Stanford-Binet test became the model for many intelligence tests developed after that.

Individual Tests:
Particularly those non-verbal tests which require the use of apparatus, become individual tests because it is not possible to conduct tests on 50-60 people using 50-60 pieces of equipment simultaneously. Since most of the non-verbal tests need paper and pencil, they are usually conducted in groups.

Verbal And Non-Verbal Tests:
All verbal tests require tire use of language, understanding and literacy. To avoid the limitations of verbal tests, when the person is illiterate and is of a different language, non-verbal or performance tests are applied. In non-verbal tests, some kinds of motor activity are involved. Motor activities of different difficulty levels are prepared so that they could measure different levels of intelligence. Some examples of verbal and non-verbal tests are given below:

Verbal Tests:

  • Opposition in a fixed time limit – Opposite of certain words are to be given.
  • Verbal comprehension – Meaning and short explanations have to be given for the words presented in the test.
  • Analogies
  • Classifications
  • Reasoning Test
  • Following directions

Non-Verbal Tests:

  • Form Board
  • Picture completion
  • Drawing test
  • Alexander’s Pass long test
  • Cube Construction test
  • Block design test, picture arrangement test
  • Progressive matrices test
  • Chatteijee’s non-verbal test of intelligence.

Bhogle, Sudha and Jai Prakash Indira (1992) in a study called the performance of Indian children on the Coloured Progressive Matrices developed norms for Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) for Indian children by administering it to 248 male and 252 female subjects in the age range of 5-12 years. Age-wise norms and working percentiles have been reported. Comparisons with original norms have been made. The performance of the children in the present sample is found to be comparable to that of the standardized sample.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Question 8.
Discuss theories of intelligence.
There are several theories that explain the components of intelligence. There are:
Two-factors theory of spearman:
Spearman (1904) one of the greatest British Psychologists initiated the two-Tractor theory of intelligence. lie held that intelligence consisted of two factors, a general factor (G) and several specific factors (S). Spearman said that there was a general ability employed by people while adjusting to different sorts of intellectual tests. This is a general factor-specific ability called specific factors.

Theory of intelligence by Thorndike:
Thorndike an American Psychologist of eminence holds a different opinion regarding the theory of intelligence. In place of holding a single general factor common to all mental activities, he considers different kinds of mental activities as highly specific in themselves, though they have certain elements in common. These common elements are responsible for the correlation between different performances shown by the same person.

Thorndike holds that the common elements don’t make the whole of intelligence and intelligence into different kinds

  • the ability to deal with ideas and symbols
  • concrete intelligence or the ability to handle concrete things and situations
  • social intelligence or the ability to get on with people.

Theory of Intelligence by Cattell:
According to Raymond B called general intelligence can be divided into two independent parts fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

Points to remember

Question 1.
Nature and operational definition of Intelligence.
Geeta is the brightest child I ever saw. Look at her big black eyes; how sharp and expressive they are! She learns a tiling almost before you have told it her. Oh! see how smart Sushil is, you would think he was two years instead of one year. He is S-O- 0 intelligent, so sharp. These are the common expressions we hear from parents, teachers, neighbours and friends regarding various children.

Question 2.
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Approach.
Sternberg (1985) has attempted to explain the concept of intelligence through his Triarchic theory or Triarchic model of intelligence. This theory holds that there are three types of human intelligence.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Unit 5 Intelligence Questions And Answers

Question 3.
Intelligent tests.
Alfred Binet (1867 -1911) is the first person who devised systematic tests to measure the intelligence of children. He was particularly interested in the intellectual differences among individuals. Binet (1905), a french psychologist designed the very first test of intelligence at the request of the Paris school authorities to help them to select children of low intelligence, who could not gain from attending the general classes in school.

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