CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Solutions Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class Sociology Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions

Long Type Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you mean by society? Explain the characteristics of society.
The term “society” is derived from the Latin word ’socius’, which means companionship means sociability. As George Simmel pointed out, it is this element of sociability which defines the true essence of society. It indicates that man always lives in the company of other people. ‘Man is a social animal’, said Aristotle centuries ago. Man lives in towns, cities, tribes, villages, but never alone.

Loneliness brings him boredom and fear. Man needs society for his living, working and enjoying life. Society has become an essential condition for human life to arise and to continue. Human life and society always together.

(1) According to Maclver and Page, “Society is a system of usages and procedures, authority and mutual aid of many groupings and divisions, of control, of human behaviour and of liberties”.
(2) According to F.H. Giddings, “Society is the union itself, the organisation, the sum of formal relations in which associating individuals are bound together”.

Characteristics of Society:
In its broadest sense society means the whole human society, the community of all human beings. A very large section of the humanity may be called a society. The Western Christendom; the people of Islam, the Indians, the English and the French are some such societies because they belong to very large social communities.

A society, thus, means a large social community having many things in common in the way of living of its members for a closer and better understanding we have to discuss the characteristics of society. Society is composed of people, without the students and the teachers there can be no college and no university. Similarly, without people there can be no society, no social relationships, and no social life at all.

Society is a group of people in continuous interaction with each other. It refers to the reciprocal contract between two or more persons. It is a process where by men interpenetrate the minds of, each other. An individual is a member of society so long as he engages in relationsihp with Other members of society. It means that individuals are in continuous interaction with other individuals of society.

The limits of society are marked by the limits of social interactions. Social interaction is made possible because of mutual awareness. Society is understood as a network of social relationships only where the members are aware of each other. Society exists only where social beings ‘behave’ towards one another in ways determined by their recognition of one another. Without this awareness there can be no society. A social relationship, thus implies mutual awareness.

The principle of likeness is essential for society. It exists among those who resemble one another in some degree, in body and in mind.
Likeness refers to the similarities. People have similarities with regards to their needs, works, aims, values, outlook towards, and so on. Just as the ‘birds of the same father flock together’, men belonging to the same species called homosapiens, have many things in common.

Society, hence rests on what F.H. Giddings calls consciouness of kind. “Comradeship, Intimacy, association of any kind or degree would be impossible without some understanding of each by the other and that understanding depends on the likeness which each apprehends in other”. Society in brief, exists among like beings and likeminded.

Society also implies difference. A society based entirely on likeness and uniformities is bound to be loose in socialites. If men are exactly alike, their social relationships would be very much limited. There would be little give-and-take, little reciprocity. They would contribute Very little to one another. More than that, life becomes boring, monotonous and uninteresting, if differences are not there.

Hence, we find difference in society. Family for example, rests on biological difference between the sexes. People differ from one another in their looks, personalities, ability, talent, attitude, interest, taste, intelligence, faith and soon. People pursue different activities because of these difference.

Thus we find farmers, labourers, teachers, soldiers, businessmen, bankers, engineers, doctors, advocates, writers, artists, scientists,- musicians, actors, politicians, bureaucrats and others working in different capacities, in different fields in society. However, difference alone cannot create society. It is subordinated to likeness.

Society is not static, it is dynamic. Change is ever present in society. Changeability is an inherent quality of human society. No society can Over remain constant for any length of time. Society is like water in a stream or river that forever flows. It is always in flux. Old men die and new ones are born.

New associations and institutions and groups may come into being and old ones may die a natural death. The existing ones may undergo changes to suit the demands of time or they may give birth to the new ones. Changes may take place slowly and gradually or suddenly and abruptly.

Primarily likeness and secondarily difference create the division of labour. Division of labour involves the assignment to each unit or group a specific share of a common task. For example, the common task of producing cotton clothes is shared by a number of people like the farmers who grow cotton, the spinners, the weavers, the dyers, and the merchants.

Similarly, at home work is divided and shared by the father, mother and children. Division of labour leads to specialisation. Division of labour and specialisation are the marks of modem complex society. Division of labour is possible because of co-operation. Society is based on cooperation. It is the very basis of our social life.

As C.H. Cooley says, cooperation arises when men realise that they have common interests. It refers to the mutual working together for the attainments of a common goal. Men satisfy many of their desires and fulfil interests through joint efforts. People may have direct or indirect co-operation among them. Thus co-operation and division of labour have made possible social solidarity or social cohesion.

Society has its own ways and means of controlling the behaviour of its members cooperation, no doubt exists in society. But side by side. Competitions, conflicts, tensions, revolts, rebellions and suppression are also there. They appear and re-appear off and an. Clash of economic or political or religions interests is not uncommon. Left to themselves, they may damage the very fabric of society.

They are to be controlled. The behaviour or the activities of people are to be regulated. Society has various formal as well as informal means of social control. It means society has customs, traditions, conventions and folkways, mores, manners, etiquettes and other informal means of social control. Also it has law, legislation, constitution, police, court, army and other formal means of social control to regulate the behaviour of its members.

Social relationships are characterised by interdependence. Family, the most basic social group, for example, is based upon the interdependence of man and woman. One depends upon the other for the satisfaction of one’s needs. As society advances, the area of interdependence also grows.

Today, not only individuals are interdependent upon one another, but even, communities, social groups, societies and nations are also interdependent. Each society has its own ways of life Culture. This distinguishes one society from another. Culture refers to the total range of our life. It includes knowledge, belief, art, morality, values, ideas, ideologies, sciences and philosophies.

A society has a comprehensive culture. It is culturally self-sufficient. It may carry on trade with other societies, but the cultural patterns involved in this trade are the part of the culture of the society itself. For example, the pattern of extending credit, the recognized rates of exchange, the means of payment, the form of contacts all these cultural patterns are the parts of the culture of each society involved in interaction.

The members of a society share a common and unique culture. In our society we share such cultural symbols as the August Fifteen, January Twenty six and so on. We also share cultural values of collectivism and spiritualism. Collectivism means the economic theory and industry should be carried on with a collective capital and spiritualism is the philosophical doctrine that nothing is real but soul or spirit.

Me Dougall, say that man is social because of the basic human instinct called the gregarious instinct. Gregariousness refers to the tendency of man to live in groups. Man always lives amidst, men. He cannot live without it. This internal nature of man has forced him to establish social groups and societies and to live in them.

Human life and society almost go together. Man is born in society and bred up in society, nourished and nurtured in society. From childhood to adolescence, from adolescence to youth, from youth to maturity, from maturity to old age, from old age up to death, man lives in society. He depends on society for protection and comfort, for nature and education.

Participation in society is necessary for the development of personality. Various cases show that man can become man only among man. Society makes our life livable. It is the nurse of youth, the arena of manhood and womanhood. Society, is therefore, as Maclver puts it, more than our environment. It is within us as well as around us, Society not only liberates the activities of men, but it limits their activities also. It controls their behaviour in countless ways.

It shapes our attributes, our beliefs, our morals and our ideals. Emotional development, intellectual maturity, satisfaction of problems needs and material comforts are unthinkable without society. Society is a part of our mental equipment and we are. a part of society, stimulates the growth of our personality. It liberates and controls out talents and capacities.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions

Question 2.
Examine the importance of the functional pre-requisites of society.
Preservation of human society requires the fulfilment of certain functional necessities, which we may call as functional pre-requisites. There are certain pre-requisites of a harmonious and active social system. A tension ridden social system cannot function efficiently. As a healthy body works if there is no disorder in its parts.

Similarly, a society system can function efficiently if there is order among its parts. There are so many needs or requisite, which society needs. It is impossible to analyse all the requisites society needs. Yet some of the important pre-requisites of society are discussed here.

The basic needs are food, clothing, shelter and security. Every man needs food for very survival. Without it life is impossible. As a civilized being clothing is also another bare necessity of human being. Similarly for his rest, to avoid rain, cold and other hazards of environment he needs shelter.

Therefore, food, clothing and shelter are regard as the most human being is security. No human being or human society can survive without protection from its members. Therefore, human being needs protection from every front for his survival.

Another important need of human society is the human actions and systematic social relationship. For this there must be division of labour. Every society has a clear division & labour among men and women, the young and the old and on the basis of ability. Division of labour and division of responsibility if necessary for every society. Similarly, systematic of relationship rests upon the likeness among the people,

There should be sufficient number of people in a social system so that it may function efficiently. The number should not be too much or too less. In a society there should be a definite system of procreation to maintain the continuity. Procreation is the means through which new members come and old members are replaced.

The new members of society learn social values and systems of behaviour because of which continuity of society is maintained. Therefore, replacement of population is the need of society. Socialization of the young is very much necessary. Not only young but also other members go through the process of socialisation.

Through the process of socialisation the cultural norms of a society is transferred, to the next generation. Socialisation plays a very important role in this regard. Because no new generation is not a new beginning. The new members of society learn social values and systems of behaviour because of which the continuity in society is maintained.

Attainment of goal is another prerequisite of society. There must be flow among the members, a continuous stream of meaningfulness and goal without which the survival of society comes into question. Each social system has some norms of conduct. These are socially approved ways of behaviour which the members are expected to observe or to follow. If these are violated social system cannot function effectively

Sometimes individuals knowingly or unknowingly deviate – the existing social order for which it becomes impossible to maintain order in the society. Therefore, control should be exercised over individuals to observe the, norms of society. As a result of which the social system may function in a satisfactory manner. Social control helps members to learn and preserve value oriented behaviours;

The actors of a society should accept the social system instead of showing resentment against it. Even they should have eagerness towards positive action.

Question 3.
Analyse the characteristics of Community.
Community consists of a group of people without a group of people community can not be formed. Every community has a definite geographical territory. This territory can be changed according to the growth of population. The members of a community have a sense of community sentiment and degree of we-feeling.

The customs, traditions, folkways, mores, language and many other things of the members of a community are very, similar. Like crowed community is not temporary or short lived. It is a natural and permanent organisation. A community may be big or small in size. The small community exists within a big community.

Every community has certain rules and regulations which members compulsorily obeyed Community fulfils all the fundamentals needs of its members. Community is not deliberately or purposively created. It is a spontaneous and naturally and group. It group naturally develops spontaneously. Each and every community has a particular name by which one community is distinct from another.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions

Question 4.
Analyse the characteristics of Association.
An association is formed or created by people. It is basically a social group. Without people there can be no association. An association is not merely a collection of individuals. It consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. An association is based on the cooperative spirit of its members. People work together to achieve some definite purpose.

Association denotes some kind of organisation. An association is known essentially as an organised groups. Every association has its own ways and means of regulating the relations of its members. Associations, are means or agencies through which their members seek to realise their similar or shared interests.

Such social organisations necessarily act not merely through leaders, but through officials or representatives, as agencies. An association may be permanent or temporary. There are some long-standing associations like the state, family, religious associations etc. some associations may be purely temporary in nature.

Question 5.
Analyse the characteristics of Social Institution.
The main characteristics of social institutions may be described here:
Institutions come into being due to the Collective activities of the people. They are essentially social in nature. Social institutions are ubiquitous. They exists in all the societies and existed at all the stages of social development. An institution must be understood as standardised procedures and norms.

They prescribe the way of doing things. They also prescribe rules and regulations that are to be followed. Marriage, as an institution, for example, govern the relations between the husband and wife. Institutions are established by men themselves. They cater to the satisfaction of some basic and vital needs of man.

Institutions like religion, morality, state, government, law, legislation etc., control the behaviour of men. These mechanisms preserve the social order and give stability to it. Institutions are like wheels on which human society marches on towards the desired destination. Institution normally do not undergo sudden or rapid changes.

Institutions are not external, visible or tangible things. They are abstract. Institutions may persist in the form of oral and or written traditions. Institutions may have their own symbols, material or non-material. Institutions, though diverse, are interrelated.

Question 6.
Distinguish between Society and Community.
Society is a web of social relationship but community consists of a group of individuals living in a particular area with some degree of we filling. A definite geographical area is not an essential aspect of society. A definite locality or geographic area is essential for community.
Society is abstract but community is concrete.

Community sentiment or a sense of we-feeling may be present or may not. But for the community sentiment is an essential element of community. There can be no community in its absence. Society is wider community is smaller than society: There can be more than one community in a society.

The objectives and interests of society are more extensive and valid but community has limited objectives. Society involves both likeness differences, but likeness is more important in community. There is common agreement of interests and objectives on the post of members.

Question 7.
Different between Association and Institution.
An association is a group of people organised for the purpose of fulfilling a need or needs. But institutions refers to the organised way of doing things. It represent common procedure. Association denotes membership but institution denotes only a mode or means of service. We belong to association, to political parties, trade unions, youth clubs, families etc.

We do not belong to institution. We do not belong to marriage property, education or law. Association consists of individuals, institution consists of laws, rules and regulations. Association are concrete but institutions are abstract. An association has a location, it makes sense to ask where it is but an institution does not have location. The question where it is, makes no sense at all.

Thus, a family can be located in space but we cannot locate examination, education, marriage etc. Association are mostly created or established but institution are primarily evolved. An association may have its own distinctive name but institution does not process specific names, but has a structure and may have a symbol. Association may be temporary or permanent but institution are relatively more durable.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions

Question 8.
Discuss the characteristics of Secondary Group.
Large Size:
The first characteristic of secondary group is its large size. The size of secondary group is so large because it is formed by a large number of people. Secondary group have spread all over the country. For example political party which is secondary group, consisting of thousands of members and work throughout the country. Similarly, the members of International Red Cross Society scatter all over the world. Due to large size, all the members of secondary group are indirectly related to each other.

Indirect Relations:
Secondary groups are characterized by indirect relations. All members are indirectly related to each other because a secondary group is bigger in size than a primary group and the members cannot say together. The specialization of functions leads to indirect relation in secondary groups.

For example, in the large scale organizations where division of labour is complex, the members have not only different functions but also different powers, different degrees of participation, different sights and obligations. All these lead to indirect relations. The contacts and communications in secondary group are mostly indirect.

Formal and Impersonal Relations:
Relation among the members of secondary groups are formal and impersonal. The members do not have face-to-face relations. People do not develop personal relations among themselves. In large scale organization, there are contacts and they may be face-to-face, but they are, “as says Kingsley Davis, “the touch-and go variety. The numbers in secondary group are more concerned with their self-centred interests than with other persons. Thus the secondary relations are formal and impersonal.

Voluntary Membership:
The membership of secondary group is not compulsory but always voluntary. People may join secondary groups according to their sweet will. For instance, one may join a political party or may not joint it. Similarly one may or may not join a political party or may not joint it. Similarly one may or may not join a particular recreational club. It is not essential to become the member of Rotary International Club or Red Cross Society. This is no compulsion. This voluntary membership leads indirect and impersonal relations among the members of a secondary group.

Formal Rules:
Secondary groups are regulated by formal rules and regulations. A secondary group exercises control over its members through formal ways. The secondary relation are directly controlled by police, jail, anny, court and various other formal means. Status of Individual depends upon his role. In secondary group the position of status of every member depends upon his role.

Every members in a secondary group plays a role or a number of roles. His status in the group is determined by his role. For example, the status of the president of a political party depends upon the role he plays in the party and not upon his birth or personal qualities. Similarly, in a college, the status of the principal depends upon his role not upon his birth and other traits.

Individuality in Persons:
Secondary groups are sometimes called “special-interest groups”. Individuality develops in the persons in secondary groups because, their relations are based on self-interests. When their interests are satisfied they lose interest in the group. Thus self-interest leads the members to develop their individuality in secondary groups.

Active and Inactive Members: A secondary group is very large in size. Physical closeness and intimacy are totally absent among its members. Owing to this reason, some members of the group become active and some others are quite inactive. For instance, in a national political party, a majority of the members take active interest where as the rest of the members do not take any active interest in the party work.

Self-dependence Among the Members: The members of a secondary group are self-dependent. They want or desire to fulfil their self-interests. For this purpose, the members of a secondary group depend upon themselves in order to safeguard their own interests.

Goal Orientation:
Lastly, the main purpose of a secondary group is fulfill a specific aim. That means each secondary group is formed to achieve a specific goal. The members are not interested in maintaining close and personal relations but they are only interested in achieving the aim or which they have joined the group.

For example trade union is formed for the better working conditions of the workers. Similarly, a teacher’s association is formed for securing better conditions of service for teacher.

Question 9.
Describe the characteristics of Primary group.
According to C.II. Cooley, following are the important and essential characteristics of a primary group.
Physical Proximity:
The members of primary group must be physically close to one another. They develop intimacy on account of close contact among themselves. It will be very difficult to exchange ideas and thoughts in the primary group unless its members are in close physical proximity to one another.

So that there exists a physical proximity among the members of a primary group which leads to the exchange of thoughts among them. Therefore, physical closeness is an essential ingredient of a primary group.

Small Size:
The primary group is always small in size. It is so small, that the desired intimate relationship can be developed among its members. Due to its small size, the members of a primary group know each other personally and develop a group character.

Continuity of Relationship:
The relations among the members of the primary group are direct, close, intimate and personal. These relations are continuous and permanent. The members of the primary group meet and discuss with each other frequently. The continuous and frequent relations bring stability in the primary group.

There a is strong “We- Feeling” among the members of a primary group. They are always motivated by unique slogan that ‘we are all the members of a particular group’. They treat the members of their own group as their near relatives or friends and the persons belonging to other groups their own group and all of them protect their interest unitedly.

The members of a primary group stand each other for the welfare of their group. For instance, the parents often sacrifice their interests for the sake of the family.

Personal Relations:
The relations among the members of primary group are personal, spontaneous and inclusive that means all the members of the primary group personally known each other. Member of primary groups have personal relations and this is why the gap of one member’s absence is not filled completely by the other.

For instance, in the family after the death of wife, a person may marry again but the memory of the dead wife does not end with it. No other person can take the place of a particular friend or a family member. Thus Maclver says that “in the primary group-life our relations with other are always, to some extent, personal”.

Common Aims and Objectives:
In a primary group all the members have common aims and objectives. For example in family the pleasure and pain of every member is shared by the whole family and all the members work for some common aim. Thus in primary groups, the aims and objectives are the same for all the members. In other words, all the members of a primary group work collectively for the fulfilment of their common aims and objectives.

Similarity of Background:
The members of a primary groups always have similar background. They should be equally experienced so that each member can either give or take something from other members. According to Maclver “A level on which every group must dwell and the person who is too far above or below it, disturbs the process of group participation”. In the primary group each member presents his own view point and accepts the view-point of others.

Limited Self-interest:
The member of a primary group have their own interest but self-interest of the members is subordinated to the common interest of the group as a whole.

They must come together in spirit to participate co-operatively. The common interest must predominate in their mind. It introduces the element of common cause among the members of a primary group. The common interest provide mental pleasure and contentment to the members.

A primary group is more stable than other groups. To promote closeness and intimacy of relationship, the primary group should be stable and permanent to some extent. The stability of nature of primary groups brings unity and integrity among the members.

Maximum Control over the Member: Due to the intimacy, spontaneity, physical proximity, small size and stability of the group, all the member of a primary group can know each other personally. In the primary group, it is very difficult for any person to avoid the other. Therefore, primary group exercises Maximum control over the members.

In a primary group, the younger members are directly controlled by the elder members. For instance, in a family, the parents control the younger ones. The primary group does not permit anybody to follow a wrong path and stops him from doing any action contradictory to group customs, traditions, more, norms, values and ideals.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions

Question 10.
Distinguish between Primary and Secondary Group.
Size of the primary groups is usually very small. It is because the big size of the group defeats the very purpose of a primary x group whereas the size of secondary groups is very large and runs into many thousands in many cases. Membership of a primary group are spread in a limited area whereas the members of the secondary group can be found all over the world.

Relations between the members in a primary group are very intimate, close and direct whereas the relations between members are neither very close nor direct but indirect and formal. Members in primary groups cooperate spontaneously with each other. They meet on long-term basis and solve their problems and differences.

Whereas in secondary groups deliberate efforts have to be made to organise and the members meet only for particular purpose and as soon as that purpose is achieved, the group is dissolved. In primary groups all the members have common interest They struggle and work hard to achieve those interests. Efforts are collective and combined.

In secondary groups the members have no direct interest. They have selfish aims and try to achieve them by joining this type of group. Therefore, efforts are not collective and combined. There is no formal code of conduct for the working of members ofprimary group. But in the case of secondary group a detailed code of conduct is required for the smooth working of the group.

A formal authority is also needed to regulate conduct and behaviour of members of the group. In primary groups no such authority is needed. In the primary group, all the members take active part formatting the group self-sufficient. But in the Case of secondary groups many members are not active but take only passive interest with the result that only few are leaders and all others are followers.

The primary groups are found in rural areas while secondary groups are found in urban areas. The size of the primary group being small, it does not include any other group in it. But the secondary group being large, many other small groups are included in it. A primary group sees that there is an allround development of personality of an individual.

It see that personality of an individual finds fullest expression in the group. The second any groups do not care for all sided development of its individuals. It is concerned with only one aspect of his life and tries to develop that one.  In primary groups, the co-operation of the members is direct and willing.

where as co-operation of members in the secondary groups is indirect and even that is not willing forthcoming. Thus it is clear that the primary groups were most suited in the primitive societies where social structure was neither complex nor complicated. But these groups cannot function smoothly in modem times because of our complicated social arrangement. It does not mean in any way that the need of primary groups has decreased.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions

Question 11.
Explain the Cultural Lag.
The concept of cultural lag has come to occupy an important place in the writings of eminent sociologists. It is a concept that has a particular appeal in an age in which technological inventions and innovations of many other kinds are constantly disturbing the elder ways of livings. Ogburn was the first sociologist to elaborate upon the idea of cultural lag and to formulate a definite theory, though in the writings of other sociologists particularly Sumner, Muller-Lyer, Wallar and Spencer the existence of a cultural lag is implied.

Ogburn distinguishes between ‘material’ and ‘non-material’ culture. By material aspects of culture he means things like took utensils, machines, dwellings, the manufacture of goods and transportation. In the non-material aspects he includes family, religion government and education. When changes occur in the material aspects, those in turn simulate changes in the non-material aspects.

The non-material culture, according to Ogbum is often slow to respond to the rapid inventions in material culture. When non-material culture does not adjust itself readily to the material changes it falls behind the material and gives rise to cultural lag: In Ogbums words. “The strain that exists between two correlated parts of culture that changes as unequal rates of speed may be interpreted as a lag in the part that is changing at the slowest rate, for the one lags behind the other”.

In material culture, discoveries and inventions are rapidly made to which the non-material culture is to adjust itself and if it cannot, a lag culture. If society is to maintain an equilibrium, both the parts of culture, material and non-material should be properly adjusted. Ogburn, therefore concluded that the problem of adjustment in Modem society is chiefly one of enabling the non-material aspects of culture to catch up with the material aspects.

In other words, man should adopt his ways of thinking and behaving to the state of his technology. Ogburn gave examples to substantiate his thesis. The patriarchal type of family, adapted to agricultural conditions, is continued in a largely industrial urban society. The major problems faced by the modem family come from the persistence in any obsolete form.

Similarly, the old concepts of sovereignty are still held despite the obvious changes that have brought nations close to each other and made them much more interdependent than in the past. Another instance of a lag is the discrepancy between the number of police official and the growth of population.

The growing cities have not increased their police force fast enough, nor the decreasing cities have reduced their soon enough. The change in the number of police officials lags behind the change in the population. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century industry changed first, and the family lagged behind in its change.

Women were slow in following their jobs outside the home. Thus after citing various examples Ogbum concluded that “the many and frequent technological innovations of our modem age by occurring prior to the social changes they precipitate, are the causes of many cultural lags in society”.

Among the various technological developments and inventions that are producing cultural lags in contemporary society Ogbum included the telephone, motor-car, wireless, cinema, power-driven agricultural. machines, printing, photographs, alloys, electrical goods, welding, the aeroplane, air conditioning, artificial lighting contraceptives, television etc. These are resulting in a terrific impact on society its social institutions, its customs and its philosophies.

The result is a vast accumulation of cultural lags. Thus, in the modem age, cultural lag is visible in the various elements of culture. Lumley has beautifully written that “It seems as if many pedestrian soldiers or a complete army are marching out of step or as if some of the performers of an orchestra are playing last year’s music and still others last century’s music or even more ancient music at the same time.

Ogburn’s hypothesis of cultural lag has been accepted by many of sociologist but there are a few critics who point out that the distinction between material and non-material culture is not a workable one. It we cling to the old fashioned way when under new conditions our needs could be better served by changing them we cannot properly say that the lag is between the material and non-material.

Nor should it be assumed that it is always the material that is in advance of the non-material or that the main problem is of adjusting non-material to the material culture. Maclver observes that the term lag is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural pattern of between the various components of the culture pattern itself.

He regards “technological lag” a better term than “cultural lag”. According to Meuller, “Cultural lag is artificial and imaginary.” Coming to the influence of cultural factors on social relationships it has been acknowledged by all that there is an intimate connection between our beliefs and our institutions. Our valuations and our social relationships.

The social and cultural factors are closely interwoven that all cultural change involves social change. New ideologies causes significant changes in the modes of group life. It was the social philosophy or Marxism, wrought into a dynamic evangelism and finding its opportunity in the suffering.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 2 Basic Concepts Long Answer Questions

Question 12.
Define Culture and discuss its features.
What is Culture? Analyse the characteristics of Culture.
Culture is one of the most important and basic concepts of sociology. In sociology culture has a specific mean. The anthropologists believe that the behaviour which is meant is called culture, hi other words the behaviour which is transmitted to as by some one is called culture. The way of living, eating, wear, sing dance and talk it are all parts of a culture.

In common parlance the word culture is understood to mean beautiful, refined or interesting. In sociology we use the word culture to denote acquired behaviour which are shared by and transmitted among the members of the society. In other words, culture is s system of learned behaviour shared by and transmitted among the member of the society.

In other words, culture is a system of learning behaviour shared by and transmitted among the members of a group. Definitions of Culture“Culture has been defined in various ways by sociologists and anthropologists. Following are the important definition of culture”. E.B. Tyler defines “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”.

Edward Spiro says that “Culture is any socially inherited element the life of man, material and spiritual”. Malinowaski defines “Culture the handiwork of man and conventional understanding manifest in art and artist which persisting through which he achieves his ends”. Redfiled remarks that “Culture is an organised body of conventional understanding manifest in art and artifact which characterizes a human group”.

Maclver is of view that “Culture is the expression of our nature in our modes of living and our thinking. Intercourse in our literature in religion, in recreation and enjoyment”. According to E.S. Bogardus “Culture is all the ways of doing and thinking of a group”. Characteristics of Culture For a clear understanding of the concept of culture it is necessary far as to know its main characteristics. Culture has several characteristics. Following are the main characteristics of culture.

Culture in Learnt:
Culture is not inherited biologically, but learnt socially by man. It is not an inborn tendency. There is so culture instinct as such culture is often called learned, ways of behaviour, unlearned behaviour such as closing the eyes. While sleeping the eye blinking reflex and so on are purely physiological and culture sharing hands or saying namaskar or thanks and sharing and dressing on the other hand are culture.

Similarly wearing clothes, combing the hair, wearing ornaments, looking the food, drinking from a glass, eating from a place or leaf, reading a newspaper, driving a car, enacting a role in drama, singing worship etc. are all ways of behaviour learnt by culturally.

Culture is Social:
Culture does not exist in isolation neither is it an individual phenomenon, it is product of society. It originates and develops through social interact. It is shared by the members of society. No man can acquire culture without association with other human beings. Man becomes man only among men. It is the culture which helps man to develop human qualities in a human environment deprivation is nothing but deprivation of human qualities.

Culture is Shared:
Culture in the sociological sense, is something shared. It is not something that an individual alone can possess. For example customs, traditions, beliefs, ideas, values, morals etc. are shared by people of group or society. The invention of Arya Bhatta or Albert Einstein.

Charaka or Charles Dante, the philosophical works of Confucious or LaoTse, Shankaracharya or Swami Vivekananda, the artistic work of Kavi Verma or Raphall etc. are all shared by a large number of people, culture is something adopted used, believed, practised or possessed by more than one person. It depends upon group life for its existence (Robert Brerstedt).

Culture is Transmissive:
Culture is capable of being transmitted from one generation to the next. Parents pass on culture traits to their children and they in turn to then- children and so on. Culture is transmitted not through genes by means of language. Language is the main vehicle of culture.

Language in its different forms like reading, writing and speaking makes it possible for the present generation to understand the achievements to earlier generation. But language itselfs is apart of culture. Once language is acquired it unfolds to the individuals it wide field. Transmission of culture may take place by imitation as well as by interaction.

Culture is Continuous and Cummulative:
Culture exists as a continuous process. In its historical growth, it tends to become cummulative culture is growing whole which includes in itselfs, the achievement of the past and present and makes provision for the future achievements of mankind. Culture way thus be conceived of as a kind of stream flowing down through the centuries from one generation to another.

Hence some sociologists like Lotion called culture the social heritage of man. As Robert writes culture or the money of human race. It becomes difficult for its to imagine what society would be like without his accumulation of culture what lives would be without it.

Culture is consistent and inter-related:
Culture in its development has revealed tendency to be consistent. At the same time different parts of culture are inter-connected For examples the value system of a society. A society is closely connected with its other aspects such a morality, religion, customs, traditions, beliefs and so on.

Culture is Dynamic and Adoptive:
Though culture is relatively stable it is not altogether static. It is subject to slow but constant, change. Change and growth are latent in culture. We find amazing growth in the present Indian culture when we compare it with the culture of the Vedic times. Culture is hence dynamic.

Culture is responsive to the changing conditions of the physical world. It is adoptive. It also intervence in the natural environment and man in his process of adjustment. Just as our house shelter us from the storm, so also does our culture help us from natural changes and assist us the service. Few of us indeed could survive without culture.

Culture is Gratifying:
Culture provides proper opportunities and prescribes means for the satisfaction our need and desires. These needs may be biological or social in nature our need for food, shelter and clothing on the one hand our desire for status,’ name formed money mates, etc. are all for example, fulfilled according to the culture ways, culture determines and guides the varied activities of man. In fact culture is defined as the process through which human beings satisfy their wants.

Culture varies from Society to Society:
Eyery society has a culture on its own. It differs from society to society. Culture of every society is quite to itself Cultures are uniform. Culture elements such as customs, tradition, ideals, values, ideologies, beliefs practice philosophic institutions, etc. are not uniform everywhere, ways of eating, speaking, greeting, dressing, entertaining, living etc. of different specialities differ significantly. Culture varies from time to time also.

No culture ever remains constant or changeless. It Manu were to come back to see the Indian society, today he would be bewildered to witness the vast changes that have taken place in our culture.

Culture is super-organic and identical:
Culture is sometimes called the super-organic. By super organic Herbert Spencer meant that culture is neither organic, nor inorganic nature but above those two, the term implies the social meaning may be independent of physiological and physical, properties and characteristics for example the social meaning of a national flag is not just a piece of coloured cloth.

The flag represents a nation, similarly, priests and prisoners professors and professionals, players, engineers are not just biological beings. There social status and role can be understood only through culture.

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