CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Book Solutions

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Book Solutions

Unit 1 Sources of Indian History

Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC

Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries)

Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.)

Unit 5 Colonial Cities

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Syllabus

2nd Year (Paper-II)
History of India

UNIT-1

  1. Sources of Indian History: Archaeological, Literary, Foreign Accounts and Archival
  2. Foundation of Indian Culture:
    a) Harappan culture: Discovery, Geographical extent, Town planning, Structures, Agriculture, Domestication of Animals, Technology and Craft, Trade, Contact with distant lands, Scripts, Weights, Measurement, Religious beliefs, and Seals.
    b) Rig Vedic and Later Vedic Age – Socio-Economic life, Political organization, Religious
    Beliefs, Position of Women.
  3. The Earliest states: Sixteen Mahajanapadas.

UNIT-II

  1. Religious Movements of Sixth Century B.C. – Jainism and Buddhism: A critical evaluation of the Teachings, Contribution to Indian culture.
  2. Kalinga War – Causes and Effects; Mauryan Administration.
  3. Cultural Attainments of the Gupta Age.

UNIT-III

  1. Perceptions of society through the eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th centuries).
    (a) Al-Biruni, (b) Ibn Battuta, (c) Francois Bernier
  2. Delhi Sultanate: Nature of State, Social structure, Position of Women.
  3. Culture of Mughal Age: Social structure, Position of Women, Art and Architecture, Paintings, Din-i-Ilahi.
  4. Sufi and Bhakti Movements: Tenets, Impact on Indian Society.

UNIT-IV

  1. British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.): Commercial Policy, Drain of Wealth, Development of means of Transport and Communication; Revenue Policy.
  2. Revolts against British Colonialism – Sanyasi Rebellion, Khurda Rebellion of 1817, Santal Rebellion (1855-56), The Great Indian Revolt of 1857.
  3. Mahatma Gandhi and National Struggle for Independence:
    a) Non-Cooperation Movement and its response in Odisha, b) Civil Disobedience Movement and its response in Odisha, c) Quit India Movement and its response in Odisha.

UNIT-V

  1. Colonial Cities – Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture:
    a) Towns and Cities in pre-colonial times, b) Changes in 18th century, c) Trends of changes in the 19th century, d) Ports, Forts and Centres for Services, e) A new urban milieu, f) The First Hill Stations, g) Social life in new cities, h) Colonial Architecture in Calcutta (Kolkata), Bombay (Mumbai) and Madras (Chennai).
  2. Formation of the Province of Odisha.
    a) Movement for Linguistic Identity, b) Events leading to the formation of the province
  3. Contributions of (a) Madhusudan Das, Gopabadhu Das, Krushna Chandra Gajapati, (b) Sarla Devi, Rama Devi and Malati Devi.
  4. Framing the Indian Constitution:
    a) Making of the Constituent Assembly, b) Vision of the Constitution, c) Salient features

BOOK PRESCRIBED:
Bureau’s Higher Secondary (+2) History, Published by Odisha State Bureau of Textbook Preparation & Production, Bhubaneswar.

Must Read:

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Very Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
From the remote past, the Indian villages are seen as which type of unit and which unit was strong in every village?
Answer:
From the remote past, the Indian villages are seen as small republics. The Economic organization was strong in every village.

Question 2.
Regarding village economy which view was given by English Historian Eiphiiie stone?
Answer:
According to the view of Elphine stone “The village clans were more or less capable of using all necessary things within their small Republics”.

Question 3.
What was the Chief necessity of villagers and what was their Chief Occupation?
Answer:
The chief necessity of villagers was food and cloth. Their Chief occupation was cultivation and knitting.

Question 4.
Before the British era crores of people in India were dependent upon which cottage industry?
Answer:
Before the British era crores of people in India were dependent upon the knitting cottage industry.

Question 5.
In the remote past, Muslim and velvet dresses were widely demanded by which country’s eminent people?
Answer:
In the remote past, Muslim and velveteen dresses were widely demanded by the royal, family of Egypt and eminent people of Rome.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 6.
When and where flying shuttle and steam Engine was invented?
Answer:
In 1760 Flying shuffles and in 1768 steam Engines were invented in England.

Question 7.
In 1780 which Governor-general has given the calculation that in every year near about how many amount’s gold was supplied to England.
Answer:
In 1780 Governor-general warren Hastings has given calculation that every year about 40 lakh amounts of gold were supplied to England.

Question 8.
Which English personality was aware of the Govt, that the construction of the railway in India would lead to the economic prosperity of Great Britain? At the time which Governor-general railway construction began in India?
Answer:
English personality Sir Row land Macdonald Stephenson was aware of the Govt, that the construction of the railway in India would lead to the economic prosperity of Great Britain. At the time of Governor-general Lord Dalhousie, railway construction began in India.

Question 9.
When the first railway in the world was opened and when the railway construction began in India?
Answer:
The first railway was opened in England in 1825. The railway construction began in India in 1850 A.D.

Question 10.
When was the first railway introduced in India and it connected from which place to which place?
Answer:
the first railway was introduced in India in 1853 A.D. It was the first railway track in Asia. It was connected from Bombay to Thane.

Question 11.
Which scientist Engineer took charge of the telegraph in India and by which A.D. the experimental telegraph lines were established?
Answer:
The scientist Engineer O’Shaughnessy took charge of the telegraph of India. By 1852 the experimental telegraph lines were established.

Question 12.
By which A.D. which gifted man of England introduced penny postage?
Answer:
By 1840 A.D. a gifted man named Rowland Hill introduced in England the system of penny postage.

Question 13.
On which A.D. India got permission to introduce the postal system at which cost?
Answer:
In 1852 A.D. India got permission to introduce the postal system at the cost of half-anna.

Question 14.
When Cornwallis introduced permanent settlement in India and which English administrator helped him?
Answer:
In 1793 A.D. Cornwallis introduced permanent settlement in India. In this work, the English administrator Sir John Shore helped him.

Question 15.
Which A.D. personnel introduced the Rayatwari system in the Baramahal district on an experimental basis?
Answer:
In 1792 A.D. English personnel Thomas Munro and captain Reed introduced the Rayatwari system at the Baramahal district on an experimental basis.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 16.
At the time of which Governor general and in which A.D. Mahalwari System was introduced in India?
Answer:
At the time of Governor-general William Bentick in 1833 A.D., the Mahalwari system was introduced in India.

Question 17.
What was defined regarding the “Drain of wealth” by Dadabhal Naroji?
Answer:
The drain of wealth means a part of India’s national wealth was being exported to England for which India got no adequate economic or material returns.

Question 18.
Regarding the sanyasi revolt which the famous novelist elaborately described and what was the name of his book?
Answer:
Regarding the sanyasi revolt, the famous novelist Bankim Chandra Chatterjee has elaborately described in his novel. The name of his book is “Anand Math’’.

Question 19.
When paik Revolt was constituted and who was the chief architect of this revolt?
Answer:
The paik Revolt was constituted in 1817. The Chief Architect of this revolt was Buxi Jagabandhu.

Question 20.
Who was the king of Khurda at the time of the Khuda revolt and when the British captured khurda and took administration?
Answer:
Mukunda Dev II was the king of Khurda at the time of the Khurda Revolt. The British captured khurda and took administration in 1805 A.D.

Question 21.
Who was the magistrate of Cuttack at the time of the Khurda Revolt and after the Revolt who inquired regarding it?
Answer:
Impe was the magistrate of Cuttack at the time of the Khurda Revolt. After the Revolt magistrate water inquired about the cause of the Revolt.

Question 22.
When death occurred to Mukunda Dev II and after his death which son of him got permission from the English to settle at puri palace?
Answer:
In 1817 A.D. Mukunda Deva II was dead. After his death his son, Rama Chandra Dev II got permission from the English to settle in Puir Palace.

Question 23.
The zamindar or Land Lords of Bengal levied more taxes on the Santhals according to which policy and in which portion of the product they had to give as taxes?
Answer:
The zamindar on landlords of Bengal levied more taxes on the Santhalas according to the policy of permanent settlement. They had to give two third of the product as tax.

Question 24.
Who was the leader of the Santhal Revolt what belonged to which ‘village and what was the name of their revolting force?
Answer:
The leader of the Santhal Revolt was siddhu Murmu belonged to the village of Bhagradiha, He constituted a new “Guerilla Force”.

Question 25.
After how many years of the Plassey war which eminent revolt has broken in 1857 AD.
Answer:
After exactly on 100 years after the Plassey war, eminent revolt simply muting was broke in 1857 A.D.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 26.
After an eventful reign when Governor-general Dalhousie left India and in nis place who came?
Answer:
After an eventful reign, Governor-general Dalhouse left India on 1856 A.D. In his place, Lord canning came as Governor-general.

Question 27.
Which policy of Dalhousie created terror among the homely kings and which sons of the kings lost their kingdom?
Answer:
The policy “Doctrine of Lapse” created terror among homely kings. The adopted sons of kings lost their kingdoms.

Question 28.
Previously when Hindus were initiated to Christianity, they were debarred of getting hereditary health but in which Governor-general’s time it was reformed by law?
Answer:
Previously when Hindus were initiated to Christianity, they were debarred of getting hereditary wealth but at the time of Governor-general Dalhousie, it was preferred by law.

Question 29.
By the prevailing of which rifle revolt spanking emancipated within the sepoys and which numour continued against this?
Answer:
By the prevailing of Enfield rifle revolt spanking emancipated the sepoys. A rumor continued that in that rifle cow and pig fats assembled.

Question 30.
Where the first symptom of revolt was marked by sepoys early in 1857 and on which date did the open revolt of the sepoys force breaks out at Meerut?
Answer:
The first symptom of the revolt was marked at Barrackpore in Bengal early in 1857. On 10th May 1857, the open revolt of the sepoy force broke out at Meerut.

Question 31.
The rebels quickly captured which palace at Delhi and they proclaimed whom as the Emperor in India?
Answer:
The rebels quickly captured the Mughal palace at Delhi. They proclaimed the old Bahadur Saha II of the Mughal dynasty as the Emperor of India.

Question 32.
In sepoy muting which Rajput warrior directed the course of revolt in Bihar and which warrior gave direction his forces from Kanpur?
Answer:
In sepoy muting, the Rajput warrior Kunwar Singh directed the course of revolt in Bihar. Nana Saheb gave direction to his force from Kanpur.

Question 33.
The sepoys and the revolted people declared who as their Peshawar and followed his leadership how many English soldiers at Kanpur fought for somedays & lastly surrendered?
Answer:
The sepoys and the revolted people declared Natta Sahid as their Peshawar and followed his leadership. There were 400 English soldiers at Kanpur who fought for some days and lastly surrendered.

Question 34.
Which famous Maratha Brahmin where took the leadership of twenty thousand noble sepoys?
Answer:
The famous Maratha Brahmin Tantia Tope at liwalior took the leadership of twenty thousand rebel sepoys.

Question 35.
For which cause Rani Laxmi Bai became the agitator in sepoy mating?
Answer:
After the death of the husband of Rani Laxmi Bai, no permission was given to enthrone her adopted son of her. To agitate this Rani Laxmi Bai entangled herself in mutiny.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 36.
Which British General resisted Tantia Tope and was defeated and at last the forces of Tantia Tope joined with which forces?
Answer:
British General Windham resisted Tantia Tope and was defeated. At last, the forces of Tantia Tope joined with the forces of Rani Laxmi Bai.

Question 37.
At the time of the fall of Delhi which able administrators were in charge of Punjab and Bombay’s presidency and made their areas calm and quiet?
Answer:
At the time of the fall of Delhi the able administrator of Punjab was John Lawrence and in Bombay’s presidency was lord Elphinstone. They were capable to make their area calm and quiet.

Question 38.
Which India nucers helped the British in the Revolt of 1857?
Answer:
The Indian leaders who helped the British in the Revolt of 1857 were the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Begum of Bhopal, the kind of Nepal, and the Maratha leader Sindhia.

Question 39.
Which English General proceeded from Punjab to Delhi and blew up which famous Gate of Delhi?
Answer:
The English General Nicholson, a brave soldier proceeded from Punjab to Delhi and blew up the famous Kashmir Gate of Delhi.

Question 40.
Lastly, the English took which Emperor as a prisoner, and his two sons and a grandson were shot dead by which English General?
Answer:
Lastly, the English took Emperor Bahadur Shah II as a prisoner. His two sons and a graton were shot dead by English General Hudson.

Question 41.
The furious wars of which two rebels worried the British Generals greatly.
Answer:
The furious wars of two rebels i.e. Rani Laxmi Bai and Tantia Tope worried the British Generals Greatly.

Question 42.
When and in which battlefield did Rani Laxmi Bai become dead?
Answer:
In 17th June 1858 in the battlefield of Kalapitha at the time of war became dead.

Question 43.
In sepoy mutiny which warrior after some defeats was caught and hanged and what happened to Nana Saheb?
Answer:
In sepoy mutiny, the warrior Tantia Tope after some defeats was caught and hanged. Nana Saheb was defeated and fled away dense forests of Nepal and erased death.

Question 44.
At Orissa in which region the revolt continued for the next four years and which warrior took the leadership of this movement?
Answer:
At Orissa in the Sambalpur region, the revolt continued for the next four years. In this movement warrior, Bira Surendra Sai took the leadership.

Question 45.
In the furious condition of the revolt who was the only Englishman who showed some kindness towards the people and for this in which name he was famous?
Answer:
In the various condition of the revolt, Governor-general Lord Canning was the only Englishman who showed some kindness towards the people. For this, he was famous for “Benign canning”.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 46.
After the 1857 Revolt, the Indian administration withdrew from whom and entrusted upon with authority?
Answer:
After the 1857 Revolt, the Indian administration withdrew from the East India Company. The administration was entrusted to the British crown.

Question 47.
After the 1857 revolt, the representative of the British monarch got which designation and who was the first representative in India?
Answer:
After the 1857 revolt, the representative of the British monarch got designation as a “viceroy”. Lord Canning was the first viceroy in India.

Question 48.
At where viceroy Lord Canning when arranged the grand Durbar and read out the proclamation?
Answer:
At Allahabad viceroy Lord canning on 1st November. 1858 arranged the grand Durbar and read out the proclamation.

Question 49.
When and where Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi was born?
Answer:
Mohan das Karam Chand Gandhi was bom on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar of Gujurat.

Question 50.
What was the name of the father of Mohandas and at where he secured the post of Dewan?
Answer:
Karamchand Gandhi was the name of the father of Mohandas. He sourced the post of Dewan at Porbandar.

Question 51.
Which author’s English translation of Geeta had a deep impact upon the mind of Mohandas and which great man’s life and message created a deep impression upon him?
Answer:
English author Edwin Arnold’s English translation of Geeta had a deep impact on the mind of Mohandas. Great men like Gautama Buddha’s life and Jesus Christ’s message created deep impressions upon his mind.

Question 52.
By whose request Gandhi went to South Africa and when he proceeded to South Africa?
Answer:
By a Muslim gentleman’s request, Gandhi went to South Africa. He proceeded to South Africa in 1853.

Question 53.
Where their public address of Gandhiji was the first in his life?
Answer:
The public address of Gandhiji at Pretoria in South Africa was the first in his life.

Question 54.
At South Africa, the English Government oppressed the Indians in which A.O. which law was declared?
Answer:
At South Africa the English Government oppressed the Indians in 1906 A.D. “Black Law” was declared.

Question 55.
At first which Indian enforced which title to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi?
Answer:
At first Rabindra Nath Tagore enforced the title of “Mahatma” to Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 56.
The English Government appointed a committee under which justice and when?
Answer:
The English Government appointed a committee under justice Rowlatt on 1919 A.D.

Question 57.
Where and when the Jalliana-walating Massacre occurred?
Answer:
In the city of Amritsar of Punjab, Jallianawalabag Massacre occurred on the Hindu New years day i.e. 13th April 1919.

Question 58.
When Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms was declared and it came in which shape?
Answer:
On 1919 Montague Chelmsford Reforms was declared and it came in the shape of the Government of India Act 1919.

Question 59.
When by the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi which movement declared?
Answer:
On September 1920 the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi “Non-Co-operation, Movement”, was declared.

Question 60.
For which cause did the Indian – Muslims wage a Revolt against the British and this Revolt was famous as which Revolt?
Answer:
After the first world war, the victorious British Government prepared to punish Turkey’s Sultan. For this cause, the Indian Muslims wages a Revolt against the British and this Revolt was famous as the “Khilafat Movement”.

Question 61.
When and where at the session of congress the decision of the country vide non-cooperation movement was accepted? On that eventful session how many Odisha representatives joined?
Answer:
On 1920 last week of December at the Nagpur session of congress, the decision of the country-wide Non-cooperation movement was accepted. In that eventful session, 35 Odisha representatives joined.

Question 62.
In which session of congress “Utkal state congress committee” was formulated and who was the first president of this committee?
Answer:
In the Nagpur session of congress “Utkal state congress committee” was formulated. Gopabandhu Das was the first president of this committee.

Question 63.
When Mahatma Gandhi came to Odisha and what was the reason behind his coming to Odisha?
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi came to Odisha in the last week of Mach 1921. One week staying at Odisha he urged his anticipation to all people of Odisha to involve in the Non-cooperation movement.

Question 64.
On which year Simon Commission entered in India and all over India which shout accelerated?
Answer:
In the year 1928 A.D. Simon commission entered in India. All over India the shouts “Simon, go back” accelerated.

Question 65.
On 1929 December 29 where an important session of congress was arranged and in that session who was the president?
Answer:
On 1929 December 29 at Lahore in Punjab, an important session of congress was arranged. In that historic session, Jawaharlal Nehru was the president.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 66.
At the last date of the Lahore session i.e. on 31st December 1929 who waged on an important proposal regarding which?
Answer:
At last date of the Lahore session i.e. on 31st December 1929, Mahatma Gandhi waged an important proposal of “ Pooma Swaraj” or complete independence.

Question 67.
At the beginning of the New year i.e. on 1930 A.D. January 26 was declared as which day? Who raised the National Flag?
Answer:
At the beginning of the New year i.e. on 1930 A.D. January 26 was declared as “Pooma Swaraj” on Independence Day. Congress president Jawaharlal Nehru raised the National Flag.

Question 68.
After how many years of the Non-cooperation movement which new movement began under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi?
Answer:
After 10 years of Non- cooperation movement civil disobedience movement began under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

Question 69.
On which year and on which date a long foot journey was held from Sabarmati Ashram to beach Dandi? What was the name of that historic journey?
Answer:
On 1930, March 12 a long foot journey was held from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi. The name of that historic journey was “Dandi March”.

Question 70.
At which sea coast place of Baleswar District of Odisha the agitators broke civil law under whose leadership?
Answer:
At the sea coast place of Inchudi of Baleswar District of Odisha, the agitators broke civil law under Acharya Harihar Das’s leadership.

Question 71.
On which year the only representative of congress joined in the second Round Table conference?
Answer:
On 1931 the only representative of congress Mahatma Gandhi joined in the second Round Table Conference at London.

Question 72.
By disappointment, Mahatma Gandhi returned from London. On his way to India he met which French thinker and author and great dictator of Italy?
Answer:
By disappointment, Mahatma Gandhi returned from London. On his way to India, he met Roma Rolla, the famous French thinker, author, and great dictator of Italy Benito Mussolini.

Question 73.
After a judicial discussion in between Gandhi and Ambedkar which pact was signed? This pact was famous as which pact?
Answer:
After a judicial discussion in between Gandhiji and Ambedkar on 1932 September 24, a pact was signed. This pact was famous as the “Poona Pact”.

Question 74.
During the last part of 1932 at England once again a Round Table conference was held and that was which Round Table? In this conference a law was signed and what was that?
Answer:
During the last part of 1932 in England once again a Round Table Conference was held and that was Third Round Table Conference. In this conference, a law was signed as the 1935 India Administration Act.

Question 75.
Where and when at the Muslim league conference did Mohammad Ali Jinnah wage the proposal of Pakistan country?
Answer:
At Lahore in the Muslim League conference on 1940, Mohammad Ah Jinnah wages the proposal of Pakistan country.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 76.
After the acceptance of Mount Batten’s plan when the British Parliament recommended that plan and what was the name of that planning Law?
Answer:
After the acceptance of Mount Batten’s plan in 1947 July, the British Parliament recommended that plan. That plan came to be regarded as the “1947 Indian Independence Law”.

Question 77.
Regarding British sovereignty and the willingness of princely states what was written in “1947 India Independence Law”?
Answer:
In the “1947 India Independence Law” it was written that for all times to come England last its sovereignty of India. Regarding the princely state, it was noted that if. they want they can assemble with either to India or Pakistan or remain independent.

Question 78.
For the solution of princely state problems which leader’s bold step worked accurately? He was renowned as which name?
Answer:
For the solution of the princely state’s problems, Sardar Ballavbhai Patel’s bold steps worked accurately. He was renowned as the “Iron man of India”.

Question 79.
On August 7 Mohammad Ali Jinnah flew form Delhi to which place and he was coronated to which post?
Answer:
On August 7 Mohammad Ali Jinnah flew from Delhi to Lahore. After seven days he was coronated to Governor general of Pakistan.

Question 80.
Before independence, Mahatma Gandhi declared to whom as his political successor. After independence who got the portfolio of Prime Minister in the largest democracy of the world?
Answer:
Before independence, Mahatma Gandhi declared Jawaharlal Nehru as his political successor. After independence Jawaharlal Nehru got the portfolio of Prime Minister in the largest democracy of the world.

Question 81.
Which time is regarded as the “Gandhi Era” and in which important revolts was he involved?
Answer:
The time from 1920 A.D. to 1947 A.D. is regarded as the “ Gandhi Era”. By his leadership important revolts like the non-cooperation movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement was organized.

Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The precondition of permanent settlement in India.
Answer:
Clive, the founder of the British Empire, could not give to Bengal a good land system. The revenue was collected from peasants through oppressive agents. Warren Hastings tried his best to bring a better system. He established a Board of Revenue. He appointed European District collectors to remain in charge of revenue collection.

But still, the difficulties continued. The real problem of the Government was how to go to the countless villages and get land revenue from millions of peasants according to the size and nature of their lands. It was impossible for the European District collector, who was only one for each district to do that work through his subordinate officers.

Question 2.
Sir Johan shore and active participation in introducing permanent settlement.
Answer:
In this work, the Governor General was helped by an able administrator of that time, John Shore. He justified the need for a permanent class of landlords or zamindars for the security of government with respect to its revenues and the security and protection of its subjects. In Bengal before the British conquest, there were old zamindar families who enjoyed hereditary rights on lands for a long.

But after the country was conquered by the English those zamindars disappeared. Their lands were taken over by the Government and the Government collected revenues by various methods as already discussed. Cornwallis and Shore wanted to receive that class and give them the responsibility of revenue collection. So at last Cornwallis issued a proclamation in 1793, introducing the permanent settlement.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 3.
An important episode in Sanyasi Rebellion.
Answer:
The sannyasi and Fakir Rebellion is an important episode in the early colonial rule in Bengal, The rebellion started in 1750 onwards but took a violent turn in 1773 when warren Hastings assumed the Governor Generalship of Bengal. The Movement covered a wide range of Bengal and Bihar and continued for a long time. There is also a distorted reflection of rebellion in Bankim Chandra’s Anandamath for which Bankim Chandra has been accused.

The present article implores how the sannyasi is and Fakirs launched their campaign in an anti-colonial attitude against the British Raj and their trusted zamindars. It was only possible due to their wide range of activities and networks. The religious pilgrimage was no doubt a factor in combining the sanyasis and Fakirs to launch a spontaneous movement for a long time.

Question 4.
Involvement of Bihar region in Sanyasi Rebellion.
Answer:
Bihar was situated in such a geographical location that it was not difficult for the Fakirs and sannyasis to establish close links with Morung and the territories adjoining Nepal. This explains why the Fakirs and Sannyasis were chased, in northern or eastern Bengal by the company’s forces, they took shelter in Bihar and from there they escaped either to northern India or to Nepal.

From their centers in Northern India like Allahabad, Benaras, and Mirzapur, their routes to their principal spoliation in Bengal ran through Bihar, and herein lies the importance of Bihar in the history of Fakir and Sannyasi uprising. Besides they had to fortify their subsidiary centers in various parts of Bihar and maintained active contacts with Nepal for purpose of trade and religious pilgrimage.

Question 5.
Introduction of paik movement.
Answer:
The paiks were the traditional landed militia of Odisha. They served as warriors and were charged with policing functions during peacetime. The paiks were organized into three ranks distinguished by their occupation and the weapons they wielded. These were the Paharis the bearers of shields and the khanda (sword), the Banuas who led distant expeditions and used matchlocks, and the Dhenkiy as archers who also performed different duties in Odisha armies.

The conquest of Odisha by the East India Company in 1803 and the dethronement of the Raja of Khurda began the fall of the power and prestige of the paikas. The attitude of the company to the paiks was expressed by Walter Ewer on the commission that looked into the causes of the Rebellion, thus.

Now there is no need for the assistance of paiks at Khurda. It is dangerous to keep them in the British armed forces. Thus they should be treated and dealt with as common Ryots and land revenue and other taxes should be collected from them. They must be deprived of their formed Jagir lands (rent-free land given to the paiks for their military service to the state).

Within a short period of time, the name of paik has already been forgotten. But still now where the paiks are living they have retained their previous aggressive nature. But still now where the paiks are living they have retained their previous aggressive nature. In order to break their poisonous teeth the British police must be highly alert to keep the paiks under their control for a pretty long period, unless the paik community is rained completely the British rule cannot run smoothly.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 6.
Cause of paik Rebellion.
Answer:
The paik rebellion had several social, economic, and political reasons. The paiks were alienated by the British regime who took over the hereditary rent-free lands granted to them after the conquest of Khurda. They were also subjected to extortion and oppression at the hands of the company government and its servant.

Had conciliatory measures been adopted towards the paiks from the beginning, it is possible that they would have become a source of strength to the company rule in Odisha. The extortionist land revenue policy of the company affected the peasants and the zamindars alike. A source of much consternation for the common people was the rise in price of salt due to taxes imposed on it by the new government.

The company also abolished the system of courier currency that had existed in Odisha prior to its conquest and required that taxes be paid in silver. This caused much popular hardship and discontent. In 1804 the Raja of Khurda planned a rebellion against the British in alliance with the paiks. But the plot was soon discovered and the Raja’s territory was confiscated.

Question 7.
Leader and participants in paik rebellion.
Answer:
The paiks were led by Bakshi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar Mohapatra, Bhramarabar Ray the formed Bakshi or commander of the forces of the Raja of Khurda. Jagabandhu’s familiar estate of killa Rorang was taken over by the British in 1814, reducing him to penury. When the Rebellion broke in March 1817, paiks came together under his leadership.

Raja Mukunda Deva, the last king of Khurda was another leader of the Indian rebels. The rebellion enjoyed widespread support in Oriya Society with feudal Chiefs, Zamindars, and the common people of Odisha participating in it. The Zamindars of Haripur, Mrichpur Golra, Balarampur, Budnakera, and Rupsa Supported the paiks – while the revolt started from Banapur and Khurda.

It quickly spread to other parts of Odisha such as Puri, Pipili, and Cuttack and to several remote villages, including Kanika, Kujang, and Pattamundai. The Rajas of Kanika, Kujang, Nayagarh, and Ghumusur aided Jagabandhu and Dalabehera Mirhaidar Ali of Jadupur was an important Muslim rebel.

Question 8.
The effects of Paik Rebellion.
Answer:
In May 1817, the British Posted Judges to Khurda to sentence the captured rebels. The rebels were awarded sentences of death, transportation, and long-time imprisonment. Between 1818 and 1826, the company’s forces undertook combing operations in the jungles of Khurda to capture and put to death rebels who had managed to escape.

In these operations, numerous paiks were killed. Their leader Jagabandhu surrendered to the British in 1825 and lived as their prisoner in Cuttack until 1829 when he died. On capturing Puri, Jagabandhu offered to rain state Raja Mukunda Deva. Whom the British had dethroned in 1804 and exiled to Puri as the Raja of Khurda.

Although the turned down the other and asked for British assistance, he was arrested when the British retook the town and was imprisoned at Cuttack. The Raja died a British prisoner in November 1817. The East India Company also appointed a commissioner of Cuttack Robert Ker to ensure. Such a rebellion would not repeat itself.

These attempts remained half-hearted at best, the British viewing Odisha largely as a convent land link between their presidencies of Madras and Bengal. Odisha continued to be wracked by localized insurgencies including at Tapanga in 1827 and the Banapur Rebellion of 1835. The revenue policies of the company in Odisha, which was a major cause of hardship to the people, remained unchanged.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 9.
The background of the Santhal Rebellion.
Answer:
The uprising of the Santhals began as a tribal reaction to and despotic British revenue system, usury practices, and the Zamindari system in India, in the tribal best of what was then known as the Bengal presidency. It was a revolt against the oppression of the colonial ruse propagated through a distorted revenue system, enforced by the local Zamindars, the police, and the courts of the legal system set up by the British.

Before the British advent in India, residing in the hilly districts of Manbhum, Barahum, Chhotanagpur, Palamu, and Birbhum. They lived an agrarian lifestyle by clearing forest patches, cultivating, and hunting for subsistence. But as the agents of the new colonial rule. Claimed their rights on the lands, the Santhal retreated to the hills of Rajmahal. After a brief period, the British operatives with their native undersigns i.e. the local landlords lay claim on this new land as well.

Zamindars and the money lenders all used them for goods lent to them on loans, through corrupt practices of the money lenders, the loan grew to prohibitive proportions, for repaying which entire families had to work as bonded laborers. This dispossession turned the Santhals into nebess and finally, they took on oath to launch an attack on the ruling authority i.e. the British.

Question 10.
Mangal Pandey and Nana Sahib.
Answer:
He was spray served under the English East India Company. He provided the immediate spark to the revolt of 1857. He shut at the chief of the 34th regiment at Barrackpore. Nana Saheb was a rebel in the revolt of 1857. He was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He remained in charge of the Kanpur center during the Revolt of 1857.

Question 11.
Reason for modern means of communication.
Answer:
In order to facilitate the shipment of raw material at a low cost facilitate the shipment of raw materials at a low cost, the British constructed roads, and railways so that goods could be sent to ports quickly. In order to promote their own commercial interest in India.

Question 12.
Ryotwari and Mahalwari system.
Answer:
It was a land revenue system introduced by the British in the Madres region. Under this, the govt made settlements directly with the ryots or cultivators to pay the revenue for a period of 30 years. It was a land revenue system. In the northern part of India, the British introduced the malware system. The settlement was made between the govt and the mahals or groups of villages.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 13.
Laxman Naik.
Answer:
Laxman Naik was a hero of the Quit India movement in Odisha. He was the leader of the tribal groups of Koraput. The tribal people under the leadership of Laxman Naik defied the Govt, most heroically while the course of the revolution of 1942 was in full swing in other places of Odisha.

Question 14.
Non-cooperation Movement in Odisha.
Answer:
Utkal Pradesh congress committee was formed and Gopabandhu Das became its president. The Utkal Pradesh Congress committee prepared grounds in Odisha for the Non-Cooperation movement.

Question 15.
The immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:
An immediate cause was provided by the introduction of cartridges that had greased paper covers. At that time a new rifle called the Enfield rifle was supplied to the soldiers. The cartridges to be used in die rifles were greased with fat. Before fitting in the cartridges in the refile, the soldiers had to bite off their ends with their teeth. A rumor spread that the cartridges were greased with the fat of cows and pigs.

The soldiers easily believed that it had been intentionally done by the British to defile their religions. It is clear that it was taboo for a Hindu Soldier to bite the Fat of a cow and for a Muslim soldier to bite the fat of a pig. Both refused to use these cartridges. When force was used against them they were further angered by the British.

Question 16.
Queen Victoria’s proclamation.
Answer:
Queen victoria’s proclamation was made by lord canning in a grand Durbar at Allahabad on 1st November 1858. According to it. The decision was taken to end the company’s rule in India. Henceforth the Indian territories would not be annexed to the British crown. The Indian princes were given the right to adopt sons and successors.

The people of India would be eligible for all Public offices. People were guaranteed full religious freedom. Henceforth; the GoVt. would not interfere in their religious beliefs and practices. The last not the least, the proclamation promised that the Govt, of India, would do its best to benefit and benevolence of the Indians.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 17.
Development of communication.
Answer:
The British built a network of roads and railways in order to promote their own commercial interest in India. The vast network of roads and railways and postal system helped the British to maintain rigid administrative control over India. The first railway line ran between Bombay and Thane. Lord Dalhousie promoted this system, which benefited the British administration and business.

On the contrary, people living in faraway places could travel freely and mix with one another. Regional feelings began to disappear and people felt for the first time that they belonged to one country. Thus, it made it possible to mobilize public opinion on a national scale, Indeed it was a factor in the rise of Nationalism in India.

Question 18.
Drain of wealth.
Answer:
Drain of wealth means a part of India’s national wealth was being exported to England for which India got no adequate economic or material returns. It was the root cause of poverty in India. Dada Bhai Naoroji the grand old man of India, was the first person who propounded this theory. The Indian wealth was siphoned of to the British municipality drain. The moderate leaders drew the attention of the mass.

They emphasized that the drain was not only the loss of wealth but also the loss of capital. The drain caused a loss of employment and income. It was responsible for the slow growth of modern industry in India. The drain of wealth also affected the peasants directly. The high rate of land revenue was due to the drain. Thus, this drain theory created awareness among the common people later on.

Question 19.
Jalianawalla Bagh Massacre.
Answer:
On 13 th April 1919 people organized a peaceful general meeting in a small garden in Amritsar, Punjab against the proclamation issued by General Dyer which, forbade public meetings and processions. People were not adequately informed of this proclamation. The meeting place was an enclosed plot of ground known as JalianawaflaBagh.

General O Dyer came with troops blocking the only exit of the compound and ordered his troops 40 open fire on the crowd without warning. A large number of people were killed and wounded in cold blood. This mass killing is known as the Jalianawalla Bagh massacre in history.

Question 20.
Khilafat Movement.
Answer:
The policy of non-violent, noncooperation was used in India for the first time is the Khilafat movement. Turkey had fought against the British in the First World War. At the end of the war, Turkey was defeated. The British divided the Turkish empire and abolished the epithet ‘khalifa’ who was regarded as the spiritual head of the Muslim world. Asa an impact of it Turkey started a movement against the British.

To support the people of Turkistan, Gandhiji started Khilafat Movement in India. Undoubtedly the khilafat movement launched by Gandhiji strengthened national feeling, fostered sentiments of Hindu – Muslim unity, and led afresh to political awakening. Thus, this movement prepared the ground for Non-Cooperation Movement in India in 1921.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Short Answer Questions

Question 21.
Chouri Chaura incident.
Answer:
While Noncooperation Movement was going on violence broke out at Chori Chaura – a village near Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 1922 in the month of February, where evident mob stormed and burnt a police station and killed twenty-two policemen Gandhiji was the opposite of violence. He was, therefore, visibly moved and very disappointed. He realized that the country was not yet ripe for a non-violent struggle. Suddenly, he announced the suspension of the Movement.

Question 22.
Utkal Pradesh congress committee.
Answer:
The Utkal Pradesh congress committee prepared grounds in Odisha for the Non-Cooperation Movement Gopabandhu Das was its president. The committee served twin purposes. First to make a grand success of the Non-Cooperation Movement and second for the linguistic unity of the Oriya people.

It directed the people to total Non-Cooperation with the Government, Hundred Oriyas enrolled in to the committee as volunteers to become congress workers. Most parts of Odisha came under the spell of the Gandhian Struggle due to the effects of the Utkal Pradesh Congress committee.

Question 23.
Dandi March.
Answer:
The civil Disobedience Movement began with the Dandi march of Mahatma Gandhi. He began his historic movement.

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CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

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CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Multiple Choice Questions with Answers

Question 1.
According to which historian it is known that “the village groups of small republics used the necessary goods properly and enjoyed it”?
(a) Elphinstone
(b) H. G Wells
(c) Lord Acton
(d) Henry Adams
Answer:
(a) Elphinstone

Question 2.
Which system was famous in the village industry?
(a) Iron industry
(b) Gold industry
(c) Cloth weaving
(d) Wood Industry
Answer:
(c) Cloth weaving

Question 3.
For which raw material India was famous in the world?
(a) Coffee
(b) Tobacco
(c) Cotton
(d) Jute
Answer:
(c) Cotton

Question 4.
In ancient times which country’s emperors and empresses prefer to use Indian Muslim and velvet clothes?
(a) Arab
(b) China
(c) Greek
(d) Egypt
Answer:
(d) Egypt

Question 5.
After victory in the battle of Plassey the English people at first captured which region?
(a) Bengal
(b) Punjab
(c) Odisha
(d) Maharastra
Answer:
(a) Bengal

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 6.
At first in which country of the world machinery industrial system took place?
(a) France
(b) England
(c) German
(d) China
Answer:
(b) England

Question 7.
When flying shuttle invented in England?
(a) 1757 A.D.
(b) 1758 A.D.
(c) 1760 A.D.
(d) 1764 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1760 A.D.

Question 8.
When the steam engine was invented at England?
(a) 1760 A.D.
(b) 1764 A.D.
(c) 1768 A.D.
(d) 1770 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1768 A.D.

Question 9.
To see the misfortune of the weavers of India which Governor-general has said “Such type of distress is rarely available in history. The skeleton of the Indian weavers make the plain lands white”?
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord William Bentick
(c) Lord Ripon
(d) Lord Curzon
Answer:
(b) Lord William Bentick

Question 10.
At the time of the English administration which Governor-general introduced permanent settlement?
(a) Lord Clive
(b) Lord Wellesley
(c) Lord Cornwallis
(d) Lord Dalhousie
Answer:
(c) Lord Cornwallis

Question 11.
In 1780 which Governor-general has given the calculation that “In every year gold costing value of 40 lakh rupees supplied to England”?
(a) Lord Cornwallis
(b) Lord Wellesley
(c) Lord William Bentick
(d) Lord Waren Hastings
Answer:
(d) Lord Waren Hastings

Question 12.
By whose reference Lord Cornwallis introduced permanent settlement?
(a) Captain Reed
(b) Sir John Shore
(c) Thomas Munroe
(d) Henry Mekenjee
Answer:
(b) Sir John Shore

Question 13.
In which year Lord Cornwallis introduced permanent settlement in India?
(a) 1790 A.D.
(b) 1781 A.D.
(c) 1793 A.D.
(d) 1757 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1793 A.D.

Question 14.
In the reign of which Governor general for the first time Railway system prevailed in India?
(a) Warren Hastings
(b) Lord William Bentick
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord Curzon
Answer:
(c) Lord Dalhousie

Question 15.
When world’s first passenger Railway line inaugurated in England?
(a) 1757 A.D.
(b) 1795 A.D.
(c) 1805 A.D.
(d) 1825 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1825 A.D.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 16.
Which England personality made wakeful to English government that “If the railway system began in India then a massive rise of the economy in England”?
(a) Roland Macdonald Stephenson
(b) Nikolson
(c) Sir Lawrence
(d) Sir John Shore
Answer:
(a) Roland Macdonald-Stephenson

Question 17.
In which year did railway line work began and accelerated in India?
(a) 1830 A.D.
(b) 1850A.D.
(c) 1852 A.D.
(d) 1853 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1850 A.D.

Question 18.
In which year was the railway line of India and the entire Asia continent inaugurated?
(a) 1852 A.D.
(b) 1840 A.D.
(c) 1851 A.D.
(d) 1853 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1853 A.D.

Question 19.
Railway line inaugurated in India connected which two places?
(a) Bombay to Thane
(b) Pune to Bombay
(c) Bombay to Delhi
(d) Kolkata to Raniganj
Answer:
(a) Bombay to Thane

Question 20.
When telegraph line installed in India?
(a) 1850A.D.
(b) 1852 A.D.
(c) 1853 A.D.
(d) 1866 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1852 A.D.

Question 21.
For the prevailing telegraph system in India which scientific engineer took charge?
(a) Sir John shore
(b) Sir Rutherford
(c) Sir O.Sanesi
(d) Sir Stephenson
Answer:
(c) Sir O.Sanesi

Question 22.
At the time of Dalhousie’s departure from India how many miles of telegraph line were installed?
(a) 2000 miles
(b) 3000 miles
(c) 4000 miles
(d) 5000 miles
Answer:
(c) 4000 miles

Question 23.
By 1840 which gifted man introduced in England the system of Penny postage?
(a) Sir Roland Hill
(b) Sir John Shore
(c) Sir Rutherford
(d) Sir O.Sanesi
Answer:
(a) Sir Roland Hill

Question 24.
In which year the half-penny postal system permitted by the English government in India?
(a) 1850A.D.
(b) 1852 A.D.
(c) 1845 A.D.
(d) 1860A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1852 A.D.

Question 25.
Which Governor-general prevailed postal system in India?
(a) Lord Cornwallis
(b) Lord Hastings
(c) Lord Wellesley
(d) Lord Dalhousie
Answer:
(d) Lord Dalhousie

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 26.
When Lord Dalhousie prevailed new postal system?
(a) 1850 AD.
(b) 1852 A.D.
(c) 1853 A.D.
(d) 1854 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1854 A.D.

Question 27.
To whom importance was given in the Rayatwari land revenue system?
(a) Village Committee
(b) Government
(c) Cultivator
(d) Landlord
Answer:
(c) Cultivator

Question 28.
In which region Rayatwari system first introduced?
(a) Madras, Bombay, East Punjab & Assam
(b) Bengal and Bihar
(c) Odisha & Madhyapradesh
(d) Uttarpradesh
Answer:
(a) Madras, Bombay, East Punjab & Assam

Question 29.
When Mahalwari system introduced in India?
(a) 1832 A.D.
(b) 1833 A.D.
(c) 1852 A.D.
(d) 1857 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1833 A.D.

Question 30.
At the time of which Governor-general Mahalwari system was introduced?
(a) Lord Cornwallis
(b) Lord Warren Hastings
(c) Lord William Bentick
(d) Lord Curzon
Answer:

Question 31.
In India, in which region Mahalwari system came into force?
(a) Agra and Ayodhya
(b) Bombay and Thane
(e) Bombay and Pune
(d) Delhi and Ghaziabad
Answer:
(a) Agra and Ayodhya

Question 32.
Which personality is involved in the Mahalwari system?
(a) Thomas Munroe
(b) Holt Mekengi
(c) Warren Hastings
(d) Sir Hobbes
Answer:
(b) Holt Mekengi

Question 33.
Which type of revenue system prevailed in the Ottawa district of Uttar Pradesh?
(a) Talukdari system
(b) Mahalwari system
(c) Rayatwari system
(d) Permanent settlement
Answer:
(a) Talukdari system

Question 34.
Which European country exempted import duty on Indian clothes?
(a) England
(b) France
(c) Holland
(d) Spain
Answer:
(c) Holland

Question 35.
For the development of which cultivation the court of Directors has sent American – experts to India?
(a) Tea
(b) Wheat
(c) Oil seeds
(d) Cotton
Answer:
(d) Cotton

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 36.
Novelist Bankim Chandra Chaterjee has given information regarding “saint rebellion” in which of his book?
(a) Eminent Indian struggle
(b) Anand Math
(c) External flow of wealth
(d) Jaganana
Answer:
(b) Anand Math

Question 37.
How many saints were Saint in Bengal for which the “Saint rebellion” began in force?
(a) 140
(b) 130
(c) 150
(d) 120
Answer:
(c) 150

Question 38.
Khurda revolt is known in which other name?
(a) Paika revolt
(b) Cultivator revolt
(c) Saint revolt
(d) Rayat revolt
Answer:
(a) Paika revolt

Question 39.
When English government confiscated the wealth of Buxi Jagabandhu?
(a) 1813 A.D.
(b) 1814 A.D.
(c) 1803 A.D.
(d) 1824 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1813 A.D.

Question 40.
Who was the king of Puri at the time of the Khurda revolt?
(a) Mukunda Deva
(b) End Mukunda DeVa
(c) Prataprudra Deva
(d) Rudrasena
Answer:
(b) End Mukunda Deva.

Question 41.
By which law of the East India Company the Santals were debarred to collect jungle products?
(a) Charter law of 1713
(b) Charter law of 1733
(c) Jungle Law
(d) Land settlement law
Answer:
(c) Jungle Law

Question 42.
In which area of the Sahibganj districts the English traders got permission for trade?
(a) Rajmahal
(b) Buzar
(c) Plassey
(d) Wadh
Answer:
(a) Rajmahal

Question 43.
Leader of Santala revolt Siddhu Murmu belongs to which village?
(a) Rajrnahal
(b) Santaladiha
(c) Bhagnadiha
(d) Pabnagrama
Answer:
(c) Bhagnadiha

Question 44.
After how many years Sepoy mutiny of 1857 took place?
(a) Hundred years
(b) One hundred fifty years
(c) Fifty years
(d) Two hundred years
Answer:
(a) Hundred years

Question 45.
Who was the Governor-general of India at the time of the 1857 Sepoy mutiny?
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord William Bentick
(d) Lord Canning
Ans.
(d) Lord Canning

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 46.
Which Governor-general adopted the “Doctrine of Lapse” policy in order to assimilate local states into the English empire?
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord William Bentick
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord Canning
Answer:
(c) Lord Daihousie

Question 47.
Who was the Mughal Emperor by name at the time of Sepoy’s mutiny?
(a) Bahadur Saha I
(b) Bahadur Saha II
(c) Saha Alam U
(d) Farook Sayar
Answer:
(b) Bahadur Saha II

Question 48.
Which policy of Dalhousie made revenge to the local emperors against the British administration?
(a) Doctrine of Lapse
(b) Subsidiary Alliance
(c) Permanent Settlement
(d) Military Law
Answer:
(a) Doctrine of Lapse

Question 49.
Which policy of Lord Wellesley made the Indian emperor’s revolt oriented?
(a) Doctrine of Lapse
(b) Subsidiary Alliance
(c) Permanent Settlement
(d) Mahalwari system
Answer:
(b) Subsidiary Alliance

Question 50.
Which Governor general ousted the “Sad system” from India?
(a) Lord Dalhousie
(b) Lord Ripon
(e) Lord William Bentick
(d) Lord Canning
Answer:
(e) Lord William Bentick

Question 51.
At the time of which Governor-general widow remarriage act was introduced in India?
(a) Lord Canning
(b) Lord William Bentick
(e) Lord Curzon
(d) Lord Dalhousie
Answer:
(d) Lord Dalhousie

Question 52.
In which Governor-general time the conyentçI Chjjstians got the property right according to law?
(a) Lord William Bentick
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Weilselley
(d) Lord Canning
Answer:
(b) Lord Dathousie

Question 53.
For which incident the course of the Sepoy mutiny sparked off immediately?
(a) Widow’s remarriage
(b) Oust of “Sati” system
(e) Prevailing of Enfield rifle
(d) Prevalence of English language
Answer:
(c) Prevailing of Enfield rifle

Question 54.
When Lord William Bentick prevailed in English education in India?
(a) 1854 A.D.
(b) 1855 A.D.
(e) 1834 A.D.
(d) 1835 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1835 A.D.

Question 55.
Who propounded the concept of the “Drain of wealth”?
(a) Dadabhai Naroji
(b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(c) Gopal Krushna Gokhale
(d) Surendranath Baneijee
Answer:
(a) Dadabhai Naroji

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 56.
Who was the first martyr of the Sepoy mutiny?
(a) Mangal Pandey
(b) Laxmi Bai
(c) Nana Saheb
(d) Tantia Tope
Answer:
(a) Mangal Pandey

Question 57.
By the beginning of 1857 was the first sign of revolt begun among the sepoys?
(a) Kanpur
(b) Barakpur
(c) Jhansi
(d) Lucknow
Answer:
(b) Barakpur

Question 58.
In May 10 of 1857 where the manifested system of revolt begun?
(a) Meerut
(b) Kanpur
(c) Gwalior
(d) Jhansi
Answer:
(a) Meerut

Question 59.
The revells captured the Mughal palace and to whom they declared as the emperor of India.
(a) Bahadur Saha I
(b) Bahadur Saha II
(c) SahaAlamll
(d) Kanwar Singh V
Answer:
(b) Bahadur Saha II

Question 60.
In Bihar, the Revolt of 1857 was laid by which of the following rebels?
(a) Tantia Tope
(b) Kanwar Singh
(c) Nana Saheb
(d) Rani Laxmibai
Answer:
(b) Kanwar Singh

Question 61.
Who provided the immediate spark to the Revolt of 1857?
(a) Mangal Pandey
(b) Rani Laxmibai
(c) Surendra Sai
(d) Tantia Tope
Answer:
(a) Mangal Pandey

Question 62.
When does the spark begin by Mangal Pandey in the Revolt?
(a) 1857 February 27
(b) 1857 March 29
(c) 1857 May 11
(d) 1857 September 21
Answer:
(b) 1857 March 29

Question 63.
Which rebeller was in charge of the Kanpur center?
(a) Kanwar Singh
(b) Tantia Tope
(c) Nana Saheb
(d) Laxman Singh
Answer:
(c) Nana Saheb

Question 64.
The rebellons declared whom as the “Peshwa of war”?
(a) Nana Saheb
(b) Mangal Pandey
(c) Kanwar Singh
(d) Tantia Tope
Answer:
(a) Nana Saheb

Question 65.
At Gwalior which veteran took charge of the leadership of twenty thousand rebellions?
(a) Nana Saheb
(b) Tantia Tope
(c) Kanwar Sing
(d) Bira Surendra Sai
Answer:
(b) Tantia Tope

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 66.
Which English commander protected Tantia Tope but adorned defeat?
(a) Nikolson
(b) Campbell
(c) Windham
(d) Hyavlec
Answer:
(c) Windham

Question 67.
At the time of revolt when the failure of Delhi occurred which able administrator was the governor of Punjab?
(a) Lord Elphinstone
(b) Sir Kolin Campbell
(c) Sir John Lawrence
(d) Sir Outram
Answer:
(c) Sir John Lawrence

Question 68.
At the time of revolt acceleration which clever governor made calm to the Bombay Presidency?
(a) Lond Elphinstone
(b) Lord Outram
(c) Sir Colin Campbell
(d) Sir John Lawrence
Answer:
(a) Lord Elphinstone

Question 69.
Which brave English commander came from Punjab to Delhi and blew up the famous Kashmir Tower of Delhi?
(a) Campbell
(b) Hyavolec
(c) Nicholson
(d) Lawrence
Answer:
(c) Nicholson

Question 70.
Which English commander shot dead two sons and a grandson of Bahadur Sahan?
(a) Hudson
(b) Nicholson
(c) Campbell
(d) Hyavlee
Answer:
(a) Hudson

Question 71.
Who was in charge of the sepoy mutiny at Jhansi?
(a) Surendra Sai
(b) Nana Saheb
(c) Rani Laxmibai
(d) Kanwar Singh
Answer:
(c) Rani Laxmibai

Question 72.
Which English historian has given comments regarding the murder of the son and grandson of Bahadur Saha II “A more brutal or a more unnecessary outrage was never committed? It was a blunder as well as a crime”?
(a) Malleson
(b) David Hannay
(c) William Fraser
(d) John Bigland
Answer:
(a) Malleson

Question 73.
When is Rani Laxmibai dead on the battlefield while fighting on horseback in the dress of a man?
(a) March 29, 1857
(b) May 10, 1857
(c) June 17, 1858
(d) November 1, 1858
Answer:
(c) June 17, 1858

Question 74.
Mostly in all the restrained areas of India revolt dominated in spite of Sambalpur of Odisha. For how many more years it continued?
(a) 2 years
(b) 3 years
(c) 4 years
(d) 5 years
Answer:
(c) 4 years

Question 75.
Who was the leader of the Odisha Sepoy mutiny?
(a) Jagabandhu Singh
(b) Gopabandhu Das
(c) Nilakantha Das
(d) Bira Surendra Sai
Answer:
(d) Bira Surendra Sai

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 76.
Which English commander has given an opinion about Rani Laxmibai that “She is the most vigilant and brave military except among the leaders of revolt”?
(a) Sir hiue Rose
(b) Sir Hiue Gao
(c) Nicholson
(d) Campbell
Answer:
(b) Sir Hiue Gao

Question 77.
When the Indian Administration Act was passed In England Parliament?
(a) 1857 A.D.
(b) 1858 A.D.
(ç) 1859 A.D.
(d) 1860 AD.
Answer:
(d) 1858 A.D.

Question 78.
When did East India company’s administration ended in India?
(a) 1854 A.D.
(b) 1856 A.D.
(c) 1857 A.D.
(d) 1858 AD.
Answer:
(d) 1858 A.D.

Question 79.
After imprisonment Bahadur Saha All, leader of the Revolt of 1857 was deported to?
(a) Rangoon
(b) Nepal
(c) Siberia
(d) Kashmir
Answer:
(a) Rangoon

Question 80.
In November 1, 1858, who read out the proclamation of Queen Victoria at the arranged Durban of Allahabad?
(a) Lord Minto
(b) Lord Canning
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord Wellesley
Answer:
(b) Lord Canning

Question 81.
Who was the first viceroy of India?
(a) Lord William Bentick
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Cornwallis
(d) Lord Canning
Answer:
(d) Lord Canning

Question 82.
When the Indian police Act proclaimed?
(a) 1855 A.D.
(b) 1861 A.D.
(e) 1862 A.D.
(d) 1864 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1861 A.D.

Question 83.
When Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi, (Mahatma Gandhi) was born at Porbandar of Gujurat?
(a) 3 December 1884
(b) 5 September 1888
(c) 2 October 1869
(d) 14 November 1889
Answer:
(e) 2 October 1869

Question 84.
Name of the parents of Mahatma Gandhi?
(a) Moulai & Swaruprani
(b) Mahadev and Kamaiesvar Dcvi
(c) Bhiraswami and Sua Maa
(d) Karamchaxd Gandhi àñd Putuli Bai
Answer:
(d) Karamchand Gandhi and Putuli Bai

Question 85.
In which age did Mahatma Gandhi married?
(a) 13
(b) 18
(c) 24
(d) 30
Answer:
(a) 13

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 86.
Name of the wife of Mahatma Gandhi?
(a) Kamala
(b) Yasodhara
(c) Git.a
(d) Kasturbai
Answer:
(d) Kasturbai

Question 87.
When Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi went to London to study Law?
(a) 1886 A.D.
(b) 1888 A.D.
(c) 1901 A.D.
(d) 1919 A.Ð.
Answer:
(b) 1888 A.D.

Question 88.
Which English writer’s Bhagbat Gita translated text deeply Influenced and enlightened Mohandas?
(a) Edwin Arnold
(b) Virginia Wolf
(c) T.S. Eliot
(d) Wales Stevens
Answer:
(a) Edwin Arnold

Question 89.
When Mahatma Gandhi proceeded to South Africa?
(a) 1892 A.D.
(b) 1893 A.D.
(c) 1902 A.D.
(d) 1918 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1893 A.D.

Question 90.
For the first time in his life where Mahatma Gandhi delivered his political speech.
(a) England
(b) India
(c) South Africa
(d) Australia
Answer:
(c) South Africa

Question 91.
For the first time who described Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi as ‘Mahatma’?
(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Edwin Arnold
(c) Abdul Gafar Khan
(d) Rabindranath Tagore
Answer:
(d) Rabindranath Tagore

Question 92.
When Indian National Congress got its birth?
(a) 1880 A.D.
(b) 1882 A.D.
(c) 1883 A.D.
(d) 1885 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1885 A.D.

Question 93.
At Amritsar city or Punjab when the heinous Jallianawala Bagh pathetic and magic massacre occurred?
(a) April 6, 1919 A.D.
(b) April 13, 1919 A.D.
(c) August 20, 1917 A.D.
(d) December 23, 1920 A.D.
Answer:
(a) April 13, 1919 A.D.

Question 94.
When was Montegue Chemsford resort passed by England Parliament and envisaged as the “Indian Administration Act”?
(a) 1917 A.D.
(b) 1919 A.D.
(c) 1920 A.D.
(d) 1921 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1919 A.D.

Question 95.
When did the Non-cooperation Movement begin with the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi?
(a) 1919 A.D.
(b) 1920 A.D.
(c) 1921 A.D.
(d) 1922 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1920 A.D.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 96.
At the time of the Non-Co-operation Movement which Muslim agitation was heartily supported by Mahatma Gandhi?
(a) Khilafat Movement
(b) Kidwai Movement
(c) Muslim agitation of Gujurat
(d) Muslim agitation at Bombay
Answer:
(a) Khilafat Movement

Question 97.
In which session of the Indian National Congress Non-Co-operation proposal was accepted against the English government?
(a) Calcutta Session
(b) Nagpur Session
(c) Lahore Session
(d) Bombay Session
Answer:
(b) Nagpur Session

Question 98.
How many representatives of Odisha joined to Nagpur Congress session in December 1920?
(a) 15
(b) 25
(c) 35
(d) 50
Answer:
(c) 35

Question 99.
Name of the President of the newly formed “Odisha State Congress Committee”?
(a) Gopabandhu Das
(b) Bhagirathi Mohapatra
(c) Jadumani Manga Raj
(d) Mukunda Prasad
Answer:
(a) Gopabandhu Das

Question 100.
When Mahatma Gandhi came in Odisha?
(a) December 1920
(b) March 1921
(c) November 1921
(d) February 192
Answer:
(b) March 1921

Question 101.
By December 1921 where Congress Session took place?
(a) Gwalior
(b) Kolkata
(c) Pune
(d) Ahmedabad
Answer:
(d) Ahmedabad

Question 102.
For what purpose Mahatma Gandhi cried a halt to the Non-Co-operation movement?
(a) Request of the English government
(b) Chaurichaura incident
(c) Breakage of Khilafat Movement
(d) Non-Co-operation of people
Answer:
(b) Chaurichaura incident

Question 103.
For the circulation of the Non-Cooperation Movement who published “Weekly Samaj” in Odisha?
(a) Acharya Harihar .
(b) Godabarisha Mishra
(c) Gopabandhu Das
(d) Harekrushna Mahatab
Answer:
(c) Gopabandhu Das

Question 104.
When was Satyabadi Vanavidyalaya converted to National School?
(a) 1919
(b) 1920
(c) 1021
(d) 1922
Answer:
(c) 1921

Question 105.
Who organized the Non-Cooperation movement in Odisha?
(a) Gopabandhu Das
(b) Gopabandhu Chaudhury
(c) Harekrushna Mahatab
(d) Bhagirathi Mohapatra
Answer:
(a) Gopabandhu Das

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 106.
Where “Swaraj Ashram” was established in order to impart education and give shelter to the workers involved in the Non-cooperation movement?
(a) Jagatsinghpur
(b) Sakhigopal
(c) Cuttack
(d) Baleswar
Answer:
(c) Cuttack

Question 107.
Where “Swaraj Temple” was built at the time of the Non-cooperation movement?
(a) Baleswar
(b) Bhadrak
(c) Puri
(d) Cuttack
Ans.
(a) Baleswar

Question 108.
Who established ‘Satyabadi Vana Vidyalaya’ at Sakhigopal?
(a) Karunakar Panigrahi
(b) Madhusudan Das
(c) Gopabandhu Das
(d) Harekrushna Mahatab
Answer:
(c) Gopabandhu Das

Question 109.
When Simon Commission entered India?
(a) 1922 A.D.
(b) 1926 A.D.
(c) 1927 A.D.
(d) 1928 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1928 A.D.

Question 110.
Who presided over in the Lahore session of the Indian National Congress?
(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Mohammad Ali Jinnah
Answer:
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru

Question 111.
In which session of the Indian National Congress “Puma Swaraj” proposal was accepted?
(a) Lahore Session
(b) Nagpur Session
(e) Kolkata Session
(d) Ahmedabad Session
Answer:
(a) Labore Session

Question 112.
When was Gopabandhu Das demised?
(a) 1921 A.D.
(b) 1928 A.D.
(c) 1929 AD.
(d) 1930 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1928 A.D.

Question 113.
January 20, 1930, was performed on which day?
(a) Day of Law Disobedience
(b) Non-Cooperation day
(c) Puma Swaraj Day
(d) Black Day
Answer:
(è) Puma Swaraj Day

Question 114.
When did Civil Disobedience begin?
(a) l2March 1930
(b) l2March 1929
(c) 12 March 1931
(d) 12 March 1928
Answer:
(a) 12 March 1930

Question 115.
What is told about the historic march from Sabarmati Ashram towards the sea beach at Dandi?
(a) Sabarmati Journey
(b) Dandi March
(e) Non-VioLence March
(d) Go back to English in March
Answer:
(b) Dandi March

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 116.
Who was the Governor-general of India at the time of the Civil Disobedience movement?
(a) Lord Irwin
(b) Lord Linlithgo
(c) Lord Minto
(d) Lord Merle
Answer:
(a) Lord Irwin

Question 117.
Who was the congress president of Odisha at the time of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
(a) Gopabandhu Das
(b) Acharya Harihar Das
(c) Smt. Raina Dcvi
(d) Harekrushna Mahatab
Ans.
(d) Harcknishna Mahatab

Question 118.
Which place of Odisha is regarded as the second Dandi?
(a) Huma
(b) Kujanga
(c) Astaranga
(d) Inchudi
Answer:
(d) Inchudi

Question 119.
When Gandi-Irwin pact was signed?
(a) 27 February 1930
(b) 27 February 1929
(c) 27 February 1931
(d) 27 February 1932
Answer:
(e) 27 February 1931

Question 120.
In the second round table conference as England In 1931 who was the only Indian representative to attend it?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Abdul Gafar Khan
(c) Gopalkrushna Gokhle
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Answer:
(d) Mahatma Gandhi

Question 121.
Gandhi on a serious disappointment at the Round Table Conference and on the way to India met the famous thinker Roma Rolla of which country?
(a) Russia
(b) Japan
(c) Italy
(d) France
Answer:
(d) France

Question 122.
On the way to India from England Gandhi also met the dictator Mussolini of which country?
(a) Italy
(b) France
(c) Greece
(d) Russia
Answer:
(a) Italy

Question 123.
The Depressed caste policy of the English disappointed Mahatma Gandhi so that he was engaged in fasting till death at the jail when?
(a) 12 March 1930
(b) 27 February 1931
(c) 15 March 1932
(d) 20 September 1932
Answer:
(d) 20 September 1932

Question 124.
Who among the following formed the Depressed Class Association?
(a) B. R. Ambedkar
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) C. R. Das
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru
Answer:
(a) B. R. Ambedkar

Question 125.
After deep consultation, Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar signed in which pact on 24 September 1932?
(a) Depressed Pact
(b) Independence Pact
(c) Poona Pact
(d) Upliftment Pact
Answer:
(c) Poona Pact

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 126.
By the approval of England Parliament in which year the Indian Administration Act formulated?
(a) 1932 A.D.
(b) 1933 A.D.
(c) 1934 A.D.
(d) 1935 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1935 A.D.

Question 127.
According to the Indian Administration Act of 1935 in which year common election was held?
(a) 1935 A.D.
(b) 1936 A.D.
(C) 1937 A.D.
(d) 1938 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1937 A.D.

Question 128.
In the first constituted Congress ministry at Odisha which Independence worker took the charge of Prime Minister?
(a) Harekrushna Mahatab
(b) Malati Choudhury
(c) Biswanath Das
(d) Jadumani Mangaraj
Answer:
(c) Biswanath Das

Question 129.
Who was the Governor-general of India at the time of the second world war?
(a) Lord Irwin
(b) Lord Marley
(c) Lord Canning
(d) Lord Linlithgo
Answer:
(d) Lord Linlithgo

Question 130.
By observing the depressed caste policy of the English government the congress ministry all over India when gave mass resignation.
(a) March 1, 1938
(b) October 1, 1938
(c) October 1, 1939
(d) January 26, 1940
Answer:
(c) October 1, 1939

Question 131.
When Mohammad Ali Jinnah left congress and became the president of the Muslim League?
(a) 1919A.D,
(b) 1920 A.D.
(c) 1922 A.D.
(d) 1925 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1920A.D.

Question 132.
In which year Mohammad All Jlnnah surprised India by demanding Pakistan?
(a) 1935 A.D.
(b) 1940 A.D.
(c) 1945 A.D.
(d) 1946 A.D.
Answer:
(a) 1940 A.D.

Question 133.
Who Is popular as Frontier Gandhi?
(a) Soukat All
(b) Mohammad 11
(e) Khan Abdul Gafar Khan
(d) Abul Kalam Aiad
Answer:
(c) Khan Abdul Gafar Khan

Question 134.
When Crips Mission came on an India tour?
(a) 1940 A.D.
(b) 1941 AD.
(c) 1942 A.D.
(d) 1943 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1941 A.D.

Question 135.
When Mahatma Gandhi indulged in the proposal of the “Quit India Movement”?
(a) August 7, 1941
(b) August 7, 1942
(c) August 7, 1943
(d) August 7, 1944
Answer:
(b) August 7, 1942

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 136.
The Quit India Movement is known by which other name?
(a) February movement
(b) July movement
(c) August movement
(d) October movement
Answer:
(e) August movement

Question 137.
After the acceptance of the Quit India Movement which the congress led in Odisha was protected in Ahmed Nagar tower.
(a) Laxman Nayak
(b) Birsa Munda
(e) Harekrushna Mahatab
(d) Achaiya Harihar Das
Answer:
(ç) Harekrushna Mahatab

Question 138.
Which massacre at Odisha is regarded as the 2nd Jalianawala Bagh massacre?
(a) Bhandari Pokhari
(b) Inchudi
(c) Khajradtha
(d) Iram
Answer:
(d) Iram

Question 139.
When Laxman Nayak was hanged?
(a) 29 March 1943
(b) 22 March 1943
(e) 25 March 1943
(d) 27 March 1943
Answer:
(a) 29 March 1943

Question 140.
When second world war came to an end?
(a) 1943A.D.
(b) 1944 A.D
(c) 1945 A.D.
(d) 1946 A.Ð.
Answer:
(e) 1945 A.D.

Question 141.
Who was the Prime Minister of England after sçond World war?
(a) Clement Richard Atlee
(b) Winston Churchill
(e) Sir Staford Cripps
(d) Pethick Lawrence
Answer:
(a) Clement Richard Atlee

Question 142.
When Prime Minister Atlee sent a cabinet Mission to India?
(a) March 1945
(b) March 1946
(c) November 1946
(d) January 1947
Answer:
(b) March 1946

Question 143.
In which day Mohammad Ali Jinnah ordered the Indian Muslims to perform “Direct Action Day”?
(a) August 16,1945
(b) December 25, 1945
(c) August 16, 1946
(d) December 9, 1946
Answer:
(c) August 16, 1946

Question 144.
When did the constituent Assembly meet to form the Indian constitution?
(a) November 19, 1945
(b) July 16, 1946
(c) December 9, 1946
(d) February 8, 1947
Answer:
(c) December 9, 1946

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 145.
Who took the charge of Governor-general of India in March 1947?
(a) Lord Waved
(b) Pethick Lawrence
(c) Lord Mountbatten
(d) A. V. Alexander
Answer:
(c) Lord Mountbatten

Fill In the Blanks.

Question 1.
According to __________ historian, it was believed that the people of all village communities of India had used all types of essential goods.
Answer:
Elphin stone

Question 2.
__________ system was prominent in village industry.
Answer:
Weaving

Question 3.
For __________ raw materials, India got a reputation all over the world.
Answer:
Cotton

Question 4.
In ancient India, the Muslim and elvet finer clothes were demanded by the kings and their families __________ of the country.
Answer:
Egypt

Question 5.
After victory over the pissy war the English people first captured and developed in __________ state of India.
Answer:
Bengal

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 6.
In the world at first in __________ country machinery industrial revolution took place.
Answer:
England

Question 7.
In England in __________ A.D. flying shuttle was invented.
Answer:
1760

Question 8.
By seeing the precarious condition of weavers in India __________ Governer General opined that “In the business history such type of precarious condition is not seen.
Answer:
Lord William Bentinck

Question 9.
At England, the steam engine was invented in __________ AD.
Answer:
1768

Question 10.
At the time of the English administration, ¡n India __________ Governor General introduced permanent settlement.
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis

Question 11.
In 1780 Governer General __________ gave data that every year nearly gold of Forty lakh rupees was exported to England.
Answer:
Lord Warren Hastings

Question 12.
By the recommendation of __________ Lord Cornwallis Introduced permanent settlement in India.
Answer:
Sir John Shore

Question 13.
In __________ year Lord Cornwallis Introduced permanent settlement.
Answer:
1793

Question 14.
In India Railway system began at the time of Governor General __________.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie

Question 15.
The First Railway Passenger system was Introduced In England in __________ A.D.
Answer:
1825

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 16.
English personality __________ gave a proposal to the British government that an enormous economic development will rise in England if the railway system developed at India.
Answer:
Roland Macdonald Stephenson.

Question 17.
In __________ A.D. railway line construction began in India.
Answer:
1850

Question 18.
In __________ A.D. first railway system was inaugurated ¡n India so also In Asia.
Answer:
1853

Question 19.
The first Inaugurated railway connected from __________ to place __________.
Answer:
Bombay to Thane

Question 20.
In ______________ AD. Telegraph installed ¡n India.
Answer:
1852

Question 21.
Telegraph Introduction In India was guided by scientific __________ engineer.
Answer:
O.Sanessy

Question 22.
At the time of Daihousie’s departure from India, the Telegraph line covered mostly __________ thousand miles.
Answer:
4000

Question 23.
In 1840 __________ important personality invented the “Penny Postal System” In England.
Answer:
Sir Roland Hill

Question 24.
In __________ AD. Half-Anna postal system was introduced in India by England Parliament.
Answer:
1852

Question 25.
Governor General __________ prevailed postal system in India.
Answer:
Dalhousie

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 26.
In __________ A.D. Dalhousie introduced the new postal system in India.
Answer:
1854

Question 27.
In Rayitwarl land revenue system __________ had given utmost importance.
Answer:
Cultivation

Question 28.
Mahaiwarl system was introduced in __________ A.D. in India.
Answer:
1833

Question 29.
In the administration of __________ Governor General Mahaiwarl, the system has prevailed in India.
Answer:
William Bentick

Question 30.
At first Mahalwarl system lntrduced in __________ and __________area of liidIa.
Answer:
Agra and Ayodhya

Question 31.
__________ was Involved In the Mahaiwari system.
Answer:
Holt Mevenji

Question 32.
In the Oudh district of Uttar Pradesh __________ type revenue prevailed.
Answer:
Talukdar

Question 33.
After permanent settlement Introduction of system __________ candiled the land allotment of some landlords.
Answer:
Sunset law

Question 34.
__________ Governor General Introduced fifth-year settlement with landlords.
Answer:
Lord Waren Hastings

Question 35.
__________ European country abandoned ¡mort duty on Indian clothes.
Answer:
Holland

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 36.
For the development __________ cultivation the court of directors send to India the American experts.
Answer:
Cotton

Question 37.
In __________ war, Robert Clive defeated Nawab Shiraz-up-doula and Installed an English administration in India.
Answer:
Plassey

Question 38.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s “Anand Math” nóvel published on __________ A.D.
Answer:
1882.

Question 39.
Bankim Chandra Chaterjee in his __________ book gave importance to the sanyasi revolt.
Answer:
Anand Math

Question 40.
__________ numbers sanyasi were slain by the English at Bengal and for it the revolt rigorously proclaimed.
Answer:
150

Question 41.
Buxar war fought in __________ A.D.
Answer:
1764

Question 42.
__________ introduced dual government in Bengal.
Answer:
Robert Clive

Question 43.
Dynamic Naya hermits were involved in __________ works at Bengal.
Answer:
Lending

Question 44.
Khurda revolt was known in another name as __________.
Answer:
Paika revolt

Question 45.
The king of Puri was __________ at the time of the khurda revolt.
Answer:
Mukunda Dev II

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 46.
The full name of Buxi Jagabandhu was __________.
Answer:
Jagabandhu Bidyadhar Mohapatra Bhramarbar Ray

Question 47.
__________ were the heroic and adventurous class of men in Odisha.
Answer:
Paikas

Question 48.
Before coming of English to Odisha __________ was commander-in-chief of khurda
king.
Answer:
Buxi Jagabandhu

Question 49.
Paika Chiefs were reputed as __________.
Answer:
Khandayat

Question 50.
English government confiscated the property of Buxi Jagabandhu on __________.
Answer:
1813

Question 51.
Santa revolt constituted in __________ A.D.
Answer:
1855

Question 52.
On __________ law of East India Company, the Santals were prohibited to collect jungle products.
Answer:
Jungle Law

Question 53.
In __________ place of Sahibganj district, the English trader got facilities for trading purposes.
Answer:
Rajmahal

Question 54.
The leader of santala revolt Siddhu murmur belongs to __________village.
Answer:
Bhagnadiha

Question 55.
After the Plassey battle in exactly __________ many years, sepoy mutiny came into existence.
Answer:
100

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 56.
__________was the Governor General at the time of the 1857 sepoy mutiny.
Answer:
Lord Canning

Question 57.
To annex the kingly states with the British empire Governor Dalhousie adopted __________ policy.
Answer:
Doctrine of lapse

Question 58.
At the time of sepoy, mutiny __________ was the nominal Mughal Samrat.
Answer:
Bahadur saha II

Question 59.
The doctrine of Lapse of __________ made the kingly state leaders as relentless foes to
British.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie.

Question 60.
Previously the principle __________ of Lord Wellesley made the leaders foes to the British.
Answer:
Subsidiary Alliance

Question 61.
Governor General __________ displaced the sati system in India.
Answer:
William Bentick

Question 62.
At the time of Governor General __________, widow remarriage law came into existence.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie

Question 63.
At the time of Governor General __________, the people accepted Christianity and got their property rights.
Answer:
Lord Dalhousie

Question 64.
According to __________ incident sparking atmosphere in the revolt of 1857 came to existence.
Answer:
Prevalence of Enfield rifle

Question 65.
In 1857 in the Bengal regiment of Barakpur __________brahmin sepoy shoot to English officer.
Answer:
Mangal Pandey

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 66.
In __________ A.D. Lord William Bentick Promulgated the English language in India.
Answer:
1835.

Question 67.
__________Was the orator of “Drain of Wealth”.
Answer:
Dadabhai Naroji

Question 68.
In 1857 sepoy mutiny __________ was the first martyr.
Answer:
Mangal Pandey

Question 69.
By the order of General, Hearsay __________ was given a hanging sentence.
Answer:
Mangal Pandey

Question 70.
According to legend in __________ rifle, there was a coat of cow and pig fat.
Answer:
Enfield

Question 71.
On __________ A.D. English government introduced the Enfield rifle.
Answer:
1856

Question 72.
In the early part of 1857 at __________, the symptom of revolt was marked within the sepoys.
Answer:
Barakpore

Question 73.
On May 10, 1857, the sepoy force broke out in open revolt at __________.
Answer:
Meerut

Question 74.
By capturing the Mughal palace the rebels declined __________ as the Emperor of India.
Answer:
Bahadur Saha II

Question 75.
__________ warrior took charge of the course of the revolt at Bihar.
Answer:
Kanwar Singh

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 76.
On __________day Mangal Pandey fired at Sergent Major at Barrackpore which led to the beginning of the revolt in 1857.
Answer:
March 29, 1857

Question 77.
Warrior __________gave direction to his forces from Kanpur in the revolt.
Answer:
Nana Sahab

Question 78.
__________was the adopted son of Pesva Bajirao II.
Answer:
Nana Saheb

Question 79.
The revolt-oriented sepoys declared __________ as the Pesva and followed his leadership.
Answer:
Nana Saheb

Question 80.
The taluqdars and peasants of Oudh took up arms to fight __________the warfare against the British enemy.
Answer:
Guerilla

Question 81.
At Gwalior, __________ warrior took the leadership of twenty thousand rebel sepoys.
Answer:
Tantia Tope

Question 82.
English commander __________ came to resist Tantia Tope but was defeated.
Answer:
General Windham

Question 83.
At the time of the sepoy, revolt __________ was the administrator of Punjab.
Answer:
Sir John Lawrence

Question 84.
In the accelerated time of sepoy revolt __________ skillful governor made quiet and calm to Bombay Presidency.
Answer:
Lord Elphinstone

Question 85.
__________ brave English commander came from Punjab to Delhi and demolished the famous Kashmir tower there.
Answer:
Nicholson

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 86.
__________English commander shoot the two sons and one grandson of Bahadur Shah II.
Answer:
Hudson

Question 87.
At Jhansi, __________ took charge of the revolt of the 1857 mutiny.
Answer:
Queen Laxmibai

Question 88.
On __________ day at the time of war in male dress, Queen Laxmibai breathed her last.
Answer:
June 17, 1858

Question 89.
Mostly in allover aggravated areas of India, the revolt came to standstill still it continued into __________ year at Odisha.
Answer:
4

Question 90.
__________had taken leadership of Odisha sepoy mutiny.
Answer:
Bira Surendra

Question 91.
English commander __________ opened regarding Queen Laxmibai that “She was the eminent and most brave among the revolutionists of sepoy mutiny”.
Answer:
Sir Hiue Gao

Question 92.
On __________ year Govt, of India act was proclaimed at England Parliament.
Answer:
1858

Question 93.
From __________year A.D., the administration of East India company came to an end.
Answer:
1858

Question 94.
Mughal emperor Bahadur Saha II was sent to place __________ as punishment.
Answer:
Rangoon

Question 95.
In 1858, on November 1 at Allahabad __________ read the proclamation of Queen victoria.
Answer:
Lord Canning

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 96.
From 1858 the Governor General was named __________.
Answer:
Vice-Roy

Question 97.
__________was the first viceroy of India.
Answer:
Lord Canning

Question 98.
Indian Police Act introduced on __________ A.D.
Answer:
1861

Question 99.
__________was prohibited among the sepoys for its use.
Answer:
Sectarian mark on the forehead

Question 100.
1857 revolt against the British was the first “Independence revolt” said it.
Answer:
Surendranath Sen

Question 101.
Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) was born on at __________ Porbandar of Gujurat.
Answer:
October 2, 1869

Question 102.
The name of the parents of Mahatma Gandhi was __________.
Answer:
Karam Chand Gandhi and Putuli Bai

Question 103.
Mahatma Gandhi’s marriage occurred on __________ age.
Answer:
13

Question 104.
The name of the wife of Mahatma Gandhi was __________.
Answer:
Kastur Bai

Question 105.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to study law on __________ A.D. went to England.
Answer:
1888

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 106.
Mohandas was deeply impressed by reading the English version of Gita which was written by writer __________.
Answer:
Edwin Arnold

Question 107.
Mohandas on __________ A.D. went to South Africa.
Answer:
1893

Question 108.
Gandhi in his life first gave a political speech in __________ country.
Answer:
South Africa

Question 109.
__________described Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi as “Mahatma”.
Answer:
Rabindranath Tagore

Question 110.
Indian National Congress was born on __________ A.D.
Answer:
1885

Question 111.
At Amritsar of Punjab, the heriouis Jalianawalabag massacre took place on __________.
Answer:
April 13, 1919

Question 112.
Montague Chelmsford’s report being approved by British Parliament came to be known as Indian Administration law on __________A.D.
Answer:
1919

Question 113.
By the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi on __________ A.D., the Non-corporation movement began.
Answer:
1920

Question 114.
At the time of the Non-cooperation movement, Mahatma Gandhi supported earnestly to __________ movement of the Muslims.
Answer:
Khilafat

Question 115.
In __________ congress conference, the non-cooperation proposal against the British was accepted.
Answer:
Nagpur

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 116.
In 1920 Nagpur congress conference __________number representatives from Odisha attended.
Answer:
35

Question 117.
__________ was the first President of the newly constituted “Utkal State Congress Committee”.
Answer:
Gopabandhu Das

Question 118.
__________ took leadership of the non-cooperation movement in the Puri district.
Answer:
Krupasindhu Mishra

Question 119.
In the non-cooperation movement, Bhagirathi Mishra took leadership of the district of __________.
Answer:
Cuttack

Question 120.
Mahatma Gandhi on __________A.D. __________ month came to Odisha.
Answer:
1921 March

Question 121,
On 1921 December at __________congress conference was held.
Answer:
Ahamadabad

Question 122.
Mahatma Gandhi for __________ gave a halt to the non-cooperation movement.
Answer:
Chouri Choura incident

Question 123.
Chori Choura is situated in the district of __________.
Answer:
Gorakhpur

Question 124.
To circulate non-cooperation news at Odisha __________ edited “weekly Samaj”.
Answer:
Gopabandhu Das

Question 125.
“Satyabadi Vana Vidyalaya” was established on __________ leadership at Sakshigopal.
Answer:
Gopabandhu Das

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 126.
On __________ A.D. “Satyabadi Vana Vidyalaya” converted to a national school.
Answer:
1921

Question 127
__________ personality constituted a non-cooperation movement in Odisha.
Answer:
Gopabandhu Das

Question 128.
To educate the Workers of the non-cooperation movement “Swaraj Ashram” was established at __________.
Answer:
Cuttack

Question 129.
At the time of the non-cooperation movement “Swaraj Temple” was established at __________.
Answer:
Baleswar

Question 130.
On __________ A.D. Simon Commission came to India.
Answer:
1928

Question 131.
On __________A.D. the Indian waged voice strongly as “Go back Simon”.
Answer:
1928

Question 132.
In the Lahore National Congress conference __________ Presided over the meeting.
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru

Question 133.
On __________congress conference “Poorna Swaraj” proposal was accepted.
Answer:
Lahore

Question 134.
The death of Gopabandhu Das occured on __________ A.D.
Answer:
1928

Question 135.
1930 January 26 was celebrated as __________day.
Answer:
“Poorna Swaraj Day”l Hassan

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 136.
Civil Disobedience movement began on A.D. __________ month __________ day __________.
Answer:
1930, March 12

Question 137.
The long foot journey from Sabarmati Ashram to near ocean place Dandi was called __________.
Answer:
Dandi Yatra

Question 138.
__________was Governor General at the time of the civil disobedience movement in India.
Answer:
Lord Irwin

Question 139.
At the time of civil disobedience, movement __________ was the President of the Utkal Congress Committee.
Answer:
Harekrushna Mahatab

Question 140.
__________ place of Odisha regarded as second Dandi.
Answer:
Inchudi

Question 141.
Mahatma Gandhi began Dandi March on __________1 AID.
Answer:
1930 March 12

Question 142.
For the law breakage at Inchudi __________took the leadership.
Answer:
Acharya Harihar Das

Question 143.
Gandhi Irwin pact was signed on A.D. __________ month.
Answer:
1930 February 7

Question 144.
On the first round table conference, __________ was not invited.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 145.
On 1931 A.D. at the second round table conference __________was the only invited congress representative who took part in it.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 146.
With a departed mentality, Mahatma Gandhi on his return way met __________country’s eminent thinkable personality Roma Rola.
Answer:
France

Question 147,
On his return way from England, Mahatma Gandhi met to dictator Mussolini of __________ country.
Answer:
Italy

Question 148.
The untouchable policy of the British Government affected deeply to Mahatma Gandhi and for it he began death fasting on __________ month __________ A.D.
Answer:
20 September 19326

Question 149.
At the time of Gandhi’s fasting __________ was popular as the unique leader of untouchable clim in India.
Answer:
B.R.Ambedkar

Question 150.
By consultation of Gandhi with Ambedkar at last __________ pact was signed in between them on 1932, September 24.
Answer:
Poona

Question 151.
With the approval of the British Parliament, English Government proclaimed Indian administration law on __________ A.D.
Answer:
1935

Question 152.
According to the 1935 Indian administration law on __________A.D. the general election was held.
Answer:
1937

Question 153.
On the first congress ministry at Odisha __________an independence fighter took charge as the Prime Minister.
Answer:
Biswanath Das

Question 154.
__________was the Governor General of India at the time of the second world war.
Answer:
Lord Linlithgo

Question 155.
By realizing the dividend policy the congress ministry all over India Oil __________ day gave mats resignation.
Answer:
1939 October 1

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 156.
Muhammad Ali Zinah on __________A.D. left congress and became the President of the Muslim League.
Answer:
1920

Question 157.
On __________A.D. Muhammad Ali Zinah gave the proposal for Pakistan.
Answer:
1940

Question 158.
__________was popular as “Frontier Gandhi”.
Answer:
Khan Abdul Gafar Khan

Question 159.
On __________A.D Cripps mission visited India.
Answer:
1941

Question 160.
On __________day Mahatma Gandhi brought the “Quit India” proposal.
Answer:
1942 August 7

Question 161.
The “Quit India” movement was known otherwise in __________name.
Answer:
August revolution

Question 162.
After quitting India’s proposal the congress leader of Odisha __________ with handcuff surrounded at Ahmadnagar fort.
Answer:
Harekrushna Mahatab

Question 163.
The massacre of __________place of Alisha is considered the second Jalianawalabag.
Answer:
Iram

Question 164.
On __________day Laxman Nayak was hanged.
Answer:
1943 March 29

Question 165.
Second world war ended on __________A.D.
Answer:
1945

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 166.
After Second World War __________was the Prime Minister of England.
Answer:
Clement Richard Attee

Question 167.
Prime Minister Atlee send a cabinet mission to India on __________A.D.
Answer:
1946 march

Question 168.
Zinah ordered the Muslims of India to observe a “Direct working day” on __________day.
Answer:
1946 August 16

Question 169.
On __________ day framing of the Indian constitution constituent Assembly was installed.
Answer:
1946 December 9

Question 170.
On 1947 march __________ took the charge of Governor General of India.
Answer:
Mountbatten

Question 171.
__________leader popularly known as the “Iron man of India”.
Answer:
SardarBallavbhai Patel

Question 172.
__________took charge as the first Governor General of Pakistan.
Answer:
Muhammad Ali Zinnah

Question 173.
Constituent Assembly gave appointment to __________as the first Governor General of India.
Answer:
Lord Mountbatten

Question 174.
Sardar Ballavbhai Patel is considered with __________ of Germany.
Answer:
Bismark

Question 175.
Jawaharlal Nehru born at Allahabad on __________A.D.
Answer:
1889

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Objective Questions

Question 176.
“Discovery of India” was written by __________.
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru

Question 177.
Muslims got quiet on the “Quit India Movement” on the order of __________.
Answer:
Muhammad Ah Zinnah

Question 178.
Congress was the “Organisation of some people” __________said it.
Answer:
Dufllin

Question 179.
Mahatma Gandhi at first selected __________country as his working field.
Answer:
South Africa

Question 180.
The first Prime Minister of Independent India was __________.
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru

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CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Long Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Describe the pre-colonial cities and mention the changes that took place in the cities in the 18th century.
Answer:
During the British administration, Indian towns and cities developed. During that period much colonial architecture grew in different cities. Fortes, ports, town halls, and hill stations grew enormously due to British patronage. The architecture of that period was an amalgamation of Indo-European style. Here is a discussion on these aspects:

Town And Cities In Pre-Colonial Times:
Towns and cities grew in contrast to rural areas. The villagers constitute the rural area where agriculture, rearing of animals, products of artisans, and cottage industries give sustenance to the people who live there. In a similar way, town or city life grows by taking into consideration its trade, commerce, administration, education, industry culture, and so on.

However, both cities and rural areas are dependent on each other. The products of peasants and artisans move to towns and cities with their products and sell them. The rural area helps for the comfortable and luxurious life of the people living in towns. During natural calamities like floods, cyclones, and droughts, the people of rural areas move to towns and cities.

In these ways, both rural town areas are complementary to each other. The Pre-Colonial towns and cities grew up in the 16th-17th century. All these cities and towns developed during the Mughal period. During that time Delhi, Agra, Lahore, and other cities grew which were life centers of the Mughal administration.

The Jagirdars, Mansabdars, Qazi, Kotwal, and other aristocratic people who lived in these cities and towns were associated with the Mughal administration. Besides the people who live in these cities and towns who were associated with the Mughal administration. Besides the people like weavers, artists, cobblers, traders, soldiers, and others also lived in those towns and cities.

The rural products found their way to the cities and towns. By selling those products in the towns and cities, the farmers and artisans earned their livelihood. The gardens, mosques, and market monuments formed the source of entertainment of the people. The towns and cities were surrounded by big walls. At night, the entry routes to the towns were closed and guards were engaged for century duties.

That is why the intruders could not enter the towns and cities. The towns and cities were centers of culture and civilization. During that period, Madurai, Kanchipuram, and other cities were very famous in South India. Many big temples grew up in those cities. These temples were the centers of education and culture. Many tourists from rural areas, towns, and outside the towns came to visit those temples.

Since these towns were located near the sea, trade and commerce could be easily carried out in that area. The rulers of that time patronized the ten sole cultures and trades during that period. The people of the medieval period were cautious regarding their position in society. They could know their position in comparison to others. Thus, in pre-colonial cities and towns, culture and civilization grew and social life was very simple.

Changes In The Eighteenth Century :
In the 18th century, many changes took place in the cities, and with the downfall of the Mughal empire, the importance of the cities like Agra. Del; and Lahore was reduced. Due to the rise of local rulers, the cities like Lucknow, and Hyderabad. Seringapatam, Poona (present day Pune) Nagpur, Baroda (Present day Vadodara), and Tanjore (Present day Thanjavur), etc.

grew and their importance increased. Many artists, artisans, workers and traders came to these towns and cities to earn their livelihood. The soldiers also lived inside the cities because of the frequent wars which took place among the kingdoms. Many people also joined in the army of the local rulers. All these cities paved way for the earning of livelihood for many people.

The population of the towns and cities grew and people lived happily there and exchanged their feelings with each other. The coming of Europeans to India is regarded as a great event during the Mughal period. In due course of time, they settled in a different part of the country. The Portuguese settled in Panaji (Goa), the Dutch at Masulipatnam, the British in Madras, and the French in Pondichery.

In due course of time, they built factories in these places and galvanized trade and commerce. After gaining victory in the Battle of Plassey and Battle of Buxer, the British expanded the empire in India by defending the local rulers and keeping them under their clutches. Generally, it is spoken, ‘the British entered India with a Bible and a pistol inside.

Its meaning is very simple which convinces that the British wanted to spread Christianity in Inda and to spread their empire in this land. As a branded group of traders, the Europeans wanted to protect their commercial interest in India. For realizing that goal they even fought among themselves, the Carnatic wars between the French and the English is a pointer in this direction.

They always wanted constant progress in trade and commerce, “which is why they prepared maps to locate different towns. In those maps, the rivers, mountains, agricultural lands, markets, and forts near the town also found the place. They prepared these maps in order to keep themselves safe during the attack of their enemies.

Among all the European powers in India, the British were very clever. By determining the strategic location of different routes in towns and cities, markets, and trading centers and their importance, they collected taxes from the people accordingly. By doing so, they also secured and strengthened their administration.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 2.
Throw light on the changes in the cities and towns in the 19th century.
Answer:
In the 19th Century, during British rule, the cities and towns bore the imprint of changes. In 1853 railway was introduced in India. After that various parts of India were connected through railway lines. That is why many railway colonies and workshops grew up. So, life became vibrant in the towns like Jamalpur, Waltair, and Bareilly.

That helped the rise of other new towns. Cotton, iron ore, and other materials collected from one place were transported to other places. For example, cotton mills grew up in Bombay. Just factories in Calcutta, leather factories at Kanpur, steel factories at Jamshedpur, and iron factories at Villa, etc. Labour colonies were established in towns.

The supervisee was employed, in different factories to supervise the works of the farmers. Different towns were connected with telegraphs. At the time of need due to communication through telephone and telegraphs, soldiers could be sent from one place to another for quelling the rebellion. The role of the telegraph, telephone, and roadways during the Great Revolt of 1857 is well aware.

The Municipality system was introduced by the British for the better management of towns and cities. For the maintenance of towns, road tax, water tax, etc. were collected from the people. The Municipalities took up certain works like building and maintenance of roads, supply, and drainage of water, cleaning of town, the establishment of hospitals, etc.

The census started from the time of Lord Ripon in 1881. It was decided to have a census in every ten years and that system is even prevalent today. The census brought a great change in towns. The census report, municipality reports, and maps give ideas regarding various colonial towns of India. Similarly, the archives also have preserved information regarding various police stations of towns and their fruitions.

Further from those records information is gathered regarding the system to control crimes judicial system. Punishment to culprits etc. in different colonial towns. During the British rule special care was taken for the improvement of the cities like Calcutta(Kolkata), Bombay(Mumbai) and Madras(Chennai) other small cities and towns also developed were selling various products.

They were also exporting some quality products. Due to the industrial revolution, foreign products were sold in the towns of those markets. This brought a heavy loss to the Indian merchants and traders. This also led to the ruination of the Indian cotton industries. Thus in the nineteenth century, marriage change took place in the cities and towns and towns of India.

The Collector and District magistrate regulated the administration of these cities and towns. Mamy officers were appointed in those Collectorates and Municipalities to look after the administration of the cities and towns. They tried their level best for the all-round development of the cities and towns.

The present-day municipality system bears the memory of that period different corporation of cities of the present time is governed by the pattern of the municipality system of that period. Of course, many changes have occured in that system during the present time.

Social Life In-New Cities:
The colonial cities grew up due to industry, trade, and commerce. Those cities were inhabited by educated intellectuals and government servants. British administrators, traders, workers artisans, and common people. That is why the social life of the cities and towns was different from the villages. For transport facilities, horse-drawn carriages, rickshaws, trams, and buses were available in the cities and towns.

The people took delight to use these transport facilities for going to their offices and traveling inside the cities. The parks, cinema halls theaters, and town halls were built in the cities and towns which provided entertainment to the people. A new society emerged in the society. People of every walk of social life settled in towns and cities coming from various places.

The teachers, clerks, doctors, advocates, engineers, administrators and police had high demand in society. Against these classes stood for common people like laborers, artisans, sweepers, peons, and vegetable-sellers who constituted the majority people of the towns and cities. The rich British officers remained at the top of the ladder of society.

Among these people the condition of workers and artisans was deplorable. It became very difficult for them to stay and live in society due to low income. That is why they left their family villages and came to town for earning. Women enjoyed a special position in city life. A new atmosphere was created for them in society. The educated women published their writings in different magazines.

They attended different meetings held at town halls and other places. They also attended various functions held in town. They also entertained by going to parks clubs and cinema halls. This freedom enjoyed by the city women perturbed the orthodox people of the society They opined that such liberty granted to women would spoil them.

That is why they expressed that women should be confined within the four walls of society. However, their view had hardly any impact on women. Many women also acted as workers in different factories, other ladies became teachers and actresses in cinema and theatre which improved their social position. In urban life, the people remaining at the bottom of the social ladder, suffered a lot.

Food, cloth, and shelter became very costly for them. However, different jaffas, dances and songs, tamas (folk theatre), and saunas(satires) were the main sources of their entertainment. Somehow or other, they adjusted to city life and became a part of the mainstream of social life. Amidst sorrows and hardshell they also get some entertainment.

This was a unique experience of city life during colonial rule. In fact, the towns and cities which grew up during the British period were certainly different from those of the Mughal period. The presence of intellectuals and educated persons, Government servants, and workers, improved conditions the women, and entertainment facilities in the cities made city life vibrant. Even today, the shadow of that life is also reflected in present-day city life.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 3.
Describe the colonial architecture of Calcutta.
Answer:
With the defeat of Sirajudallah in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, began the rule of East India Company in India. Calcutta city is constituted of three villages – Sutanti, Calcutta, and Govindpur. The weavers and traders have been driven away from those villages. Fort William was built at Calcutta. In 1798 Lord Wellesley built buildings for Government offices and his own residence at Calcutta.

After that, colonial architecture grew in Calcutta. Fort William Among the Colonial architecture in Calcutta, Fort William occupies a unique position. There are actually two Fort William – The old and the new. The original was built in 1696 by the British East India Company. Sirajaudallah occupied it in 1757 and was renamed as Alinagar.

In 1766, this old fort was repaired and used as a customs house. The New Fort William was built on the eastern bank of river Hoogly. Robert Clive started the building of this fort in 1758 and it was completed in 1781. The vast field stretched in front of this fort is known as ‘Gadar Math’. The enemies approaching the fort could be fired directly from the fort. This fort was named after King William III of England.

Nowadays, this fort is under the control of the Indian Army. There is the provision of stationing 10,000 soldiers at a time inside this fort. Victoria Memorial Built in marble the Victoria Memorial in another great architecture of the British period. The beginning of this architecture took place in 1906 and it was completed in 1921. This was built in memory of Queen Victoria of England.

The work of the memorial began when Lord Curzon was the Viceroy of India. The architect of this building was William Emerson. This architecture was a mixture of Mughal, British, Venetian, Egyptian, Deccani, and Islamic elements. It was constructed in white makrana marble. Many memories of the British period are found preserved inside it.

St. Paul’sCathedralAmong other architectural splendors of the colonial period. St. Paul’s Cathedral of Kolkata began in 1839 and was completed in 1847. Bishop Wilson had helped generously with the building of this architecture. This Indo-Gothic design was made by a military engineer major William Naim Forbes. This is not only a religious monument but also an architecture of excellence.

The huge main hall of the cathedral contains beautifully carved wooden pews and chairs. There is also a big library at St. Paul’s Cathedral. Marble Palace The Marble Palace was built in Maktaram Babu street. Raja Rajendra Mallick was a contemporary of Dwarakanath Tagore. This Palatial mansion was built by a French architect. It was later named ‘Marble Palace’ by Lord Minto.

The outside lawn of the marble palace contains a pond with a beautifully engraved stone fountain. The garden attached to this palace is very beautiful to look at. Town HallThe Town Hall at Calcutta was built in 1813. The architect and engineer of this Palace were Major General John Garstin. This was built in Roman Doric Style. The pillars attached to this hall are attractive.

In 1867, the town hall came under the management Of the municipality authority. Before the. building of the present High Court, this hall was used for the same purpose. In a later period, this building was used by the Legislative Council of Bengal. Now, this building has been declared the Heritage Building and is under the Archaeological Survey of India.

Belvedere Estate The Belvedere Estate is located in the Alipore area of Kolkata. After the battle of Plassey, Mirjaffar built this palace at Alipore. Later on, he offered it to Warren Hastings. It is heard that around 1780, the family of Hastings sold this Belvedere house to Major Tolly. Inside this estate, there are 24 very big quarters and 77 big quarters.

The ‘National Library’ started functioning inside this estate in 1948. This is one of the great buildings of the colonial period in Kolkata. High CourtLocated on the Esplanade Rowin Calcutta, the High Court is one of the marvelous buildings of the colonial period. It was built with red bricks. The open windows surrounded this building. The vastness of the building allure the attention of all. The High Court bears the memory of the justices of the British period.

It is also built in the Gothic style. Other Architecture During the British period, many colonial architectures grew up in Calcutta. Among them are the ‘Great Eastern Hotel’, ‘Howrah Bridge’, ‘Howrah Station’, General Post Office, ‘Esplanade Mansion’, ‘White way Ladel Departmental store’(Metropolitan Building), etc. All these architecture and buildings bear the memory of the British period.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 4.
Discuss the colonial architecture of Bombay.
Answer:
Bombay(Mumbai) was a combination of seven islands. The British East India Company was exporting opium from its coast to China. The Persians, Marwaris, Konkani, Muslims, Gujratis, Jews, Americans, and English constituted the population of Bombay. In the Latin Language, Bombay is called ‘ Arbas Prima in Indis’ or ‘the most famous city of India’ In due course of time, many colonial buildings and architecture grew in Mumbai.

Town HallThe Town Hall of Bombay was built during British rule. This was colloquially called ‘Tondal’. It was built in 1833. The architect of this building was a military engineer named colonel Thomas Cowper. This building was a mixture of Greek and Roman styles of architecture. The Town Hall houses the ‘ Asiatic society of Bombay’ which is a public library in the city.

It also houses a museum. Apart from the ancient manuscripts in Persian, Prakrit, Urdu, and Sanskrit, there one finds a collection of 1,000 ancient coins including the gold ‘mohur’ of Akbar. This building is the main attraction for tourists who visit Bombay. Rajabai TowerThe Rajabai Tower is South Mumbai is located in the confines of the fort campus of the University of Mumbai.

It was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott an English architect. The tower fuses Venetian and Gothic styles. It is built out of locally available buff-colored Kurla stone and stained glass. The clock placed at the top of the tower is built in the model of Big Ben, the clock tower of the House of Parliament in London. The height of the tower is 118 feet.

Its building work started on 1 March 1869 and was completed in November 1878. For a long period, the sound of this bell indicated the time to the people of Bombay. Now, the watch inside the tower is defunct. Gateway of India The Gateway of Inda is one of the major monuments in the city, located in the Apolo Bunder area in Mumbai.

It was built to commemorate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to Bombay in 1911. Its foundation stone was laid on 31 March 1911 by Sir George Sydenham Clarke. It was designed by George Witter. Its construction was completed in 1924. The building got the name ‘the Gateway of India’ because in the colonial era, the Europeans entered India from this location and it was the first thing they saw while entering the country.

It is built with a mixture of Hindu and Islamic architecture in Gujarati style. Victoria Terminus Or Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus- The Victoria Terminus (VT) is a classic example of the colonial architecture of Bombay. Its present name is Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST). Build in 1888. This railway station bears the memory of the Victorian age.

The plan for this railway station was designed by an English Engineer names F.W. Stevens. This station is very nearer to the seashore of Mumbai. Generally, railway stations were constructed near the seashore to facilitate trade and commerce during the British period. Due to this export and import became convenient.

The VT railway station helped a lot in the progress of trade and commerce in Bombay. At the entrance of the station are found one lion and a tiger, representing England and India, respectively. The main structure is made of sandstone and limestone and the interiors of the station are linked with high-quality Italian marble, Suresh Kalmadi, the then Railway Minister of India had changed its name from Victoria Terminus to Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus.

Bombay(Mumbai) UniversityThe Bombay University was constructed in 1857. It functions inside 230 acres of land. The main campus of this university is located in Santacruz. Apart from the this-main campus of the University, it has other branches like ‘Kalina Campus’, ‘Art Campus’, and ‘Ratnagiri Campus’.

The ‘Rajabai (clock) Tower’ is located in the Ratnagiri campus of this university. This university is regarded as one of the leading Universities of the country. This University is built in the light of British architecture. Mount Mary Church Mount Mary Church is a Roman Catholic Church, dedicated to the ‘Virgin Mary’ situated in Mumbai.

It was first built in 1640 and then rebuilt in 1761. What makes this church even more beautiful is that it is situated on the top of the hill known as ‘Sunderban Bandra’, which overlooks the mighty Arabian Sea. It is believed that the church has unbelievable healing powers. That is why the devotees come to this church every day.

Some also say that those who sincerely pray at the Mount Mary church offer get their wishes fulfilled. The ‘Bandra Fair’ or the ‘Feast of Mount Mary’ is a week-long celebration held at every September at the Mount Mary Church. Tourists from all over the world who visit Mumbai always make sure to visit this popular Church while in the city.

Eros Cinema The building of the Eros Cinema started in 1935 and it was completed in 1938. It has a seating capacity of 1,204 people per show. The hall was built in red, sandstone brought from Agra. The foyer of this hall is made of white and black marble with touches of gold. Marble staircases lead up to the upper floor. To watch the cinema in this hall was a luxury of that period. Bombay High CourtSituated in the Apollo Street.

The Bombay High Court started functioning in 1862. There are two life-size statues in the western side of the High Court. One among them is the stone ‘Statue of the Goddess of Justice’ holding the sword of Justice in one hand and the scales, In the other ‘The second is the ‘Statue of Goddess of Mercy’ with hand folded. The depiction of two litigious cats and a monkey judge on the first floor of the court is very interesting in fact, the Bombay High Court bears the memory of colonial architecture.

Other architecture Bombay also contains other colonial architecture. The City hall, Elphinstone circle, Municipal Corporation Building, Ballard estate. St. Thomas Cathedral, Elphinstone college, Food Market, Oval Field, and St. Anne High School are some of the important architecture of Bombay which bears testimony of the colonial period.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 5.
Give a clean picture regarding the movement of Linguistic identity and demand of a separate province.
Answer:
The formation of Odisha as a separate province is a landmark in the modem history of this land. The fragmented Oriya-speaking tracts remained in Bihar, Madra residency. Central Province and Bengal were at last united and the separate province of Odisha was formed on April 1936. This formation became possible due to the untiring effort of Fakir Mohan Senapati, Madhusudan Das, Raja Baikunth Nath Dey, Gangadhar Meher, Nilamani Bidyaratna, Lingaraj Panigrahi, Krushna Chandra Gajapati, Narayan Deo and many other celebrities.

Movement For Linguistic Identity:
Odisha was occupied by the Afghans with the death of Mukunda Dev in 1568. After that began the rule of the Mughals Naib Nazims. Marathas and British in succession. In due course of time. Odia language which had created immortal literature began to decline. For administrative convenience, the British amalgamated many parts of Odisha with Central Province, West Bengal, Bihar, and Andhra Pradesh (under Madras Presidency), due to this, the Odia language lost its identity. To preserve the identity of the Odia language began the language movement.

Caused of the language movement:
Keeping the odia language alive, the language movement began several reasons were responsible for this.

British administration and plight of the odias:
The plight of the odias began with the British occupation of Odisha in 1803. Within one hundred years of their rule from 1803 to 1903, the Odia language gradually declined. The one-point goal of the British was to collect revenue. That is why they appointed the Benglees for that purpose. The prevalence of Persi in the courts diminished the influence of the Odia language.

Again in 1848-49, the Bengalee language was recognized as the language for official use by the British. The Bengals who occupied a high position in Government services in Odisha tried to put an end to the Odia language.

Scarcity of Printing Press and Odia Books :
The Bengal renaissance began in 1829 with the foundation of Brahmo Samaj by Raja Rammohan Roy. The Renaissance in Odisha began after the Nanka famine of 1866. That is why the number of intellectuals in Odisha was less than in Bengal. Further, there was very less printing press in Odisha. That is why textbooks could not be printed to cater to the needs of the school students. It created a great hindrance to teaching odia to the students in schools.

Role of Bengalee Intellectuals :
The Bengalee intellectuals tried their best to put an end to the odia language. In 1869, Uma Charan Haidar a Deputy Inspector of Schools stated that since there was a dearth of Odia books and Bengalee books were plentily available during that time, the schools should go for Benglee books.

Further, Kanti Chandra Bhattacharya a Sanskrit Pandit of Balasore Zilla school opined that Odia is not an independent language. He further argued that Odia was a sub-language of the Bengalee language, his argument was supported by Rajendra Mitra a notable historian of Bengal. Thus, the Benglees conspired a lot to finish the Odia language.

The atmosphere of Argument and Counter Argument:
The view of the Bengalee scholars regarding the Odia language was challenged by others. John Beams, a great Sanskrit scholar, and linguist, and Goldsbury, the Governor of Odisha could not accept the view of Kanti Chandra and Rajendra Mitra. The ‘Cuttack Society’, ‘Debating Club’, and ‘Utila Hitaisin’ supported the view of Bengalee scholars.

On the other hand, notable Odia scholars like Fakir Mohan Senapati, Nilamani Bidyaratna, Gouri Shankar Roy, and others opined that Odia was a separate and independent language and education in Odisha should be imparted through Odia medium. Their views were expressed through the ‘Sambad Bahika’ which was edited by Fakir Mohan Senapati and ‘Utkal Dipika’ edited by Gouri Shankar Roy. This atmosphere of argument and counterargument made the language movement more vibrant.

Influence of Na’anka Famine :
The Na’anka Famine of 1866 galvanized the language movement in Odisha. This famine took away one-third population of coastal Odisha. After this famine, Thomas Eric Revenshaw took steps for the spread of education in Odisha. He established schools in the nook and corner of Odisha where education was imparted in Odia medium.

In 1868 Ravenshaw College was established which played a leading role in the spread of education in Odisha. The intellectuals, who were the products of Ravenshaw College took the language movement ahead which helped a lot for the formation of Odisha province on the basis of language.

Establishment of Printing Press :
The establishment of the printing press at Cuttack in 1866 by Bichitrananda Das, played a vital role in the language movement in Odisha. From that place was published ‘Utkal Dipika’ under the editorship of Gouri Shankar Roy. Through the effort of Fakir Mohan Senapati and Baikunthnath Dey, two printing presses were established at Balasore.

Due to that two newspapers named ‘Sambad Bahika’ and ‘Utkal Darpana’ were published in Balasore. Though these magazines efforts were made to preserve the Odia language and expedite the language movement. In fact, the language movement is a landmark in the history of modem Odisha.

By the efforts of odia intellectuals. This Odia language agitation gained momentum in this land. Due to that, languages like Telegu, Bengali, and Hindi could not exert their influence in Odisha. During the later period, this language movement helped a lot in the creation of Odisha, as a separate province.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 6.
Give a clean picture regarding the event leading to the formation of Odisha Province.
Answer:
The formation of a separate Odisha Province is a landmark in the modem history of this land. The fragmented Odia-speaking tracts which remained in Bihar, Madaras, Bengal Presidencies, and central province were at last united and the separate province of Odisha was formed on 1 April 1936. This was a great victory for the Odias.

The then position of Odisha :
With the British occupation of Odisha in 1803, the far-flung medieval Odisha empire came to an end. In due course of time Sambalpur remained under the governance of Madhya Pradesh, Ganjam became a part of Madras Presidency, Midnapore was tired with Bengal Presidency and Odisa-speaking areas of singbhumi remained as part of Bihar-Chhotnagpur Division. When Kantilal Bhattacharya spoke bluntly that ‘Oriya is not a separate language’ (Oriya swatantra bhasanai), Fakirmohan opposed it vehemently.

Radhanath Roy and Gouri Shankar Ray also raised their voices against it. In 1882 Utkal Sabha was established. During the visit of Lt. Governor of Bengal Sir S.C. Bele, a representation On behalf of the Utkal Sabha was given to him. In that representation, demand was made regarding the separation of the Odiya-speaking tracts from Bengal Madras and Madhya Pradesh.

An amalgamation of Sambalpur:
In 1862 Sambalpur and the adjacent feudatory states were included in Madhya Pradesh (Central Province) for administrative convenience. As per notification No.227 of the Chief Commissioner of Nagpur Hindi was introduced as an official language in Sambalpur on 1 January 1896. Dharanidhar Mishra in Sambalpur mobilized the people against this and submitted a memorandum to viceroy Lord Elgin which yielded no fruit.

In 1901 under the leadership of Madan Mohan Mishra other leaders like Balabhadra Supakar, Biren Das Mohanta, Sripati Mishra and Brajamohan Patnaik met Viceroy Lord Curzon at Shimla and demanded the restoration of the Oriya language in Sambalpur. They also appraised the Chief Commissioner of the central province Sir Andrew Frozen at Nagpur about it.

Nilamani Bidyaratna vehemently opposed Frazer’s decision to implement Hindi in Sambalpur. He was supported by Gangadhar Meher. In 1902 Madhusudan Das and Gourishankar Roy attended the sesson of the Indian National Congress at Nagpur and gave a proposal for the amalgamation of Ganjam with Odisha.

It was not accepted and Madhu Babu left congress. Fazer visited Sambalpur in September 1901 and recommended the Viceory to restore Oriya as the official language in Sambalpur. As per Cuzon’s desire, on 3 December 1903, H.H. Risley issued a circular named Risley circular by which Oriya was restored as the official language in Sambalpur and adjacent feudatory states.

On 19 July 1905 Sambalpur was detected from the central province and became a part of the Odisha Division along with Kalahandi, Sonepur, Rairakhol, Bamenda, and Patna, Bonei, and Gangpur were detached from Chhotnagpur and amalgamated in the Odisha division.

Creation of Bihar – Odisha Province :
Viceroy Lord Hardinge found it difficult to administer Bengal. He ceded the Odisha division to Bihar and created a new Bihar-Odisha Province in 1912 Sambalpur, Angul, Balasore, Cuttack, and Puri were brought from Bengal province and amalgamated with Bihar-Province of course, the Ganjam and Vijayanagaram Agency remained under Madras. This did not save the problem of the Odias but made it critical.

Madu Babu and the Utkal Union Conference :
During 1903-1920, the Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani) passed many resolutions for a unified odia speaking area. Madhusudan Das considered it as a ‘political earthquake’ and led a delegate to meet Montagu in 1917 with a prayer for a united province for Odia-speaking people, of course, the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms or India Act, of 1919 frustrated the odias because there was no mention about Odisha Province in it.

The Sinha Resolution :
Sachidananda Sinha, a staunch supporter of the Oriya movement, moved a resolution in 1920 recommending the Government of India ‘to formulate a scheme for the amalgamation of Oriya speaking tracts’. This was famous as the ‘Sinha Resolution. By this, the Central Province gave consent to transfer Khariar Zamindari and Bihar gave a favorable reply.

When Madras Government was pressurized to handover Ganjam, Sasibhusan Rath, the editor of ‘Asha’ mobilized the people of Ganjam and by the pressure of the Government of India, Madras Government appointed Philip -Duff Committee in 1924 to look into the matter.

This Philip-Duff Committee:
In 1924 a committee consisting of C.L. Philip, the then political Agent of Odisha state, and A.C. Duff, the then collector of Visakhapatnam visited to survey the public opinion regarding the amalgamation. The Committee opined that Mandrass, Tekkali, Tarala, Jalantar, Budarsingh, and Partkhemundi in Ganjam should be included in Odisha. This declaration pushed the desire for a United Odisha forward.

The Simmon Commission and Atlee Sub-Committee :
Although the Simon Commission was boycotted by the Indian National Congress a delegation led by Rajendra Narayan Bhanja Dev welcomed it at Patna Railway Station. By the recommendation of John Simmon, a committee named the Atlee Sub-Committee consisting of C.R. Atlee Rajendra Narayan Bhanjadev.

Dr. A. Subhrawady and Laxmidhar Mohanty were formed, and it accepted the justification of a separate province consisting of Odisha Division, Angul, Khariar, Ganjam, and the agency tracts. The Simon Commissioner recommended the formation of a Boundary Commission when its report was published on 27th May 1930.

O’Donnell Boundary Commission :
In the First Round Table Conference, Maharaja K.C. Gajapati Narayan Deo of Parlakhemundi made an impressive speech about the formation of Odisha as a separate province. After due consideration, a Boundary Commission was formed in 1931. It was headed by I.P.O. Donnell, the Chairman, and other two members namely H.M. Mehta of Bombay and T.R. Phukoon of Assam. The associate members of the committee consisted of K.C. Gajapati representing the Oriyas, Sachidananda Sinha, representing the Biharis and C.V.S. Narasimha Raju representing the Telugus.

Following the 1931 census and receiving evidence from 400 witnesses, the commission recommended the creation of a separate Oriya province which would include Odisha Division, Angul, Padmapur, Khariar Estate, the greater part of Ganjam district, and Vizagpatnam Agency. The new province would have an area of 33,000 square miles and a population of 8,277,000.

Joint Parliamentary Committee :
The Joint Parliamentary Committee under the Chairmanship of Lord Linlithgow examined the report of the Boundary Commission and gave consent for the formation of Odisha Province retaining all its recommendations, further including a Paralakhemundi town, Mali and Jalantar.

Hubback Committee :
The Odisha Administrative Committee or Hubback Committee was formed which examined the issue and substituted its final report on 20, December 1933. It made Cuttack, the capital of Odisha, and Puri its summer resort. It recommended a High Court and University for Odisha. The post of Director of Education. Inspector General of Police, Revenue Commissioner, etc., were also recommended by this Committee.

Birth of Odisha Province :
The Government of India Act was promulgated in 193 5 and its clause 289 recognized Odisha as a separate province. On 3rd March 1936, the Odisha Act was ratified by the British Parliament and received the signature of the Emperor. On 1st April 1936, Odisha created a separate province.

It consisted of six districts, viz, Cuttack Puri, Balasore, Ganjam, Sambalpur, and Koraput with 32, 695 square miles and 8.043,681 population. Sir John Austin Hubback became the First Governor of Odisha. Of course, Madhu Babu did not live to see it. He breathed his last in 1934. Thus, the struggle of Odias ended with victory the long cherished dream of Oriya leaders was materialized.

However many Oriya-speaking areas like Phulighar, Midnapore, and Sompeta were not amalgamated with it which was really painful of course, the creation of Odisha as a separate province reminds me of the victory of Oriyas over British hegemony.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 7.
Evaluate the works of Madhusudan Das as the maker of modern Odisha.
Answer:
Famous in the nook and corner of Odisha as ‘Madhu Barister’ and ‘Grand Old Man’ Madhusudan Das was an intellectual per excellence a leader, a reformer, and above all, the architect of the creation of Odisha as a separate province. Through the Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani), he mobilized millions of Odias to come forward for the creation of Odisha province on a language basis.

He had tried his level best to keep up the prestige of the Odias and their self-esteem at the top. Even today, he is remembered with love by the people of Odisha. Madhusudan Das was bom on 28 April, 1848 at Satyabhamapur in the Cuttack District. After finishing their primary education in his village, he passed matriculation from the Ravenshaw Collegiate School.

Leaving their job as a teacher and subsequently as a clerk from Balasore, he left for Kolkata for higher education. He passed F. A. (L. A.) from the Bethune College of Kolkata in 1868. While reading there, he came in contact with Ambika Charan Hazra and both of them became close friends.

He passed M.A. from Calcutta University in 1873 and B.L. (L.L.B.) in 1878. By the influence of Ambica, he was convened to Christianity. He married a Christian lady named Saudamini but she breathed her last after six years of marriage. After the death of Ambica Charan, Madhu Babu adopted his daughters Sailabala Sudhansubala Hazra as his own daughters and returned to Cuttack and established himself as a great lawyer.

Gradually his house at Cuttack was frequently visited by educated people, intellectual leaders, and the like. There the draft for the creation of a new vibrant Odisha was prepared. Dedicating himself to the all-around development of Odisha, Madhu Babu breathed his last on 4th February 1934.

Madhu Babu and Odisha Association :
Some people of Cuttack formed Orissa Association in 1878. It was a milestone for the new awakening of Modem Odisha. By the influence of Gouri Shankar Roy, Madhu Babu became a member on 21st May 1883, this association discussed the Libert Bill and all the members unanimously supported it. Madhu Babu and Gouri Shankar Roy attended the Modem Session of the Indian National Congress in 1888. Through this association, the liberal ideal of the Congress found expression in Odisha and this trend continued till 1903.

The Utkal Union Conference :
The formation of the Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani) was a bold step taken by Madhu Babu which play a vital role in the amalgamation of Odisha- speaking tracts. The first session of this conference was organized on 30th December 1903. At the invitation of Madhu Babu, 30 Kings, Zamindars and many representatives attended this conference. Sri Rama Chandra Bhanja Deo, the king of Mayurbhanja presided over the session. The important proposals accepted by this conference were:

  • Praise to the effort of the viceroy, Lord Curzon for the amalgamation of Odia-speaking tracts.
  • Expression of gratitude to the British Government for the prevalence of Odia language in Sambalpur instead of Hindi.
  • Formation of many committees for social reforms and improvement of the Odia language.
  • Some steps are taken for the development of industries in Odisha Division, etc.

By the effort of Madhu Babu, this Utkal Union Conference could very well submit a proposal to the British Government to amalgamate Sambalpur, Ganjam, Chhotnagpur, Visakhapatnam, and Midnapore with Odisha. He had given a clarion call to every Odia to be a part of the Utkal Sammilani. In his words: This conference is the ocean of Nation and contains crores of lif-drops you mingle your life-drop jumping into the water of this ocean.

Madhu Babu and his effort to form Odisha Province :
In 1903, the Indian National Congress did not support the claim for the formation of Odisha as a separate province based on language. That is why Madhu Babu shivered in his relationship with congress. In the mean, Lord Curzon tried to unite the Odia- speaking tracts through the ‘Risley Circular’. When Lord Curzon was on leave, the Viceroy- in charge, Lord Ampthill could not allow Ganjam and Visakhapatnam to be part of Odisha.

Of course, he had allowed Patnagarh, Kalahandi, Sonepur, Bamenda, and Rairakhol to be amalgamated with Odisha which was part of the central province. Besides, Ganjam and Bonai were also amalgamated with Odisha. Madhu Babu vehemently opposed this move of the British Government through the Utkal Union Conference.

He submitted a proposal before the ‘Royal Commission to unite the Odia-speaking areas. In 1911, Madhu Babu went to London to create public opinion in its favor. In 1911, Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India gave a proposal, for the creation of a new Bihar-Odisha province, which was formed in 1912. This was vehemently opposed by Madhu Babu through the Utkal Sammilani.

Madhu Babu and Politics:
Madhu Babu has left in reliable imprint in the field of politics. He was elected as a representative to ‘Orissa-Chhotnagpur Municipality in 1896. He was again elected for the same post in 1900 and dedicated himself to the progress of Odisha. In 1902, as a member of the ‘Bengal Legislative Council’, Madhu Babu put pressure on the Government to provide more grants for the improvement of Ravenshaw College.

He was again elected to the same post in 1909. He had given a proposal for opening a law college and women’s training school in Odisha. The ‘Orissa Tenancy Bill’ introduced by him was passed in the council but, it was rejected by the viceroy since Odisha was going to be a separate province soon.

To the ‘Legislative Council of Bihar and Orissa Madhu Babu was elected as a member of Bihar and Orissa Province was formed in 1912. Through his effort, the ‘Orissa Tenancy Bill’ was recommended and accepted by the House in 1913. This was linked by the peasants of Odisha. In 1921, Madhu Babu became a Minister of that Council.

He discharged his duty without any remuneration and cited an example of selfless service to his people. By his effort on 25 November 1921, a proposal was laid down before the house for the creation of Odisha as a separate province. Of course, he resigned from the post of Minister in 1913.

Steps for the spread of Education:
Madhu Babu took much pain for the spread of education in Odisha. As Vice-chairman of Cuttack Zilla Parishad and member of the Legislative Council, Madhu Babu had taken steps for opening many schools in Odisha. He had advised giving physical training to the juveniles in the jail. He also encouraged women’s education.

In 1907 when the1 only girl’s school was going to be closed, his adopted daughter Sailabala its Head Mistress, and it survived, later on, it became the famous Sailabala Women’s College and encouraged women’s education in Odisha and still in encouraging the same. Madhu Babu advocated in favor of the voting right of women which materialized in the future.

Efforts for the economic independence of the Odias:
Madhu Babu had tried for the economic independence of the Odias. He took steps for the development of cottage industries in Odisha. The traditional filigree work of Cuttack was encouraged by him. Till today this has retained its position. Madhu Babu had opened ‘Orissa Art Wares’ at Cuttack. For the progress of the leather industry, he established a factory named ‘Utkal Tenancy’ at Cuttack.

When a slight defect was noticed in the production of shoes,’ he was destroying those shoes. For that factory, he became popular. He also taught the weavers, the new art of weaving. He was also instrumental in establishing a palm-sugar factory. In fact, Madhu Babu played an important role in the economic progress of Odisha.

Protection of Puri Jagannath Temple:
Although Madhu Babu had accepted Christianity by choice, he had argued in the Court as an advocate to preserve the dignity of Gajapati. In 1902, the British Government appointed one Deputy Magistrate for the management of Puri Jagannath Temple, Madhu Babu opposed it in the Calcutta High Court and projected that as per the tradition, the Gajapati in the sole custodian of the deities of Puri Jagannath Temple.

The Honourable High Court listened to Madhu Babu and passed an Order that the Gajapati should be the custodian of the deities and would carry temple management as per his desire. This episode made Madhu Babu famous in the nook and corner of Odisha as ‘Madhu Barister’. Madhu Babu breathed his last on 4 February 1934.

Odisha became a separate province after two years of his death in 1936. This had become a reality due to the untiring effort of Madhu Babu. His inspiring poem for the son of Odisha instills new vim and vitality into the nerves even today.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 8.
Describe the role of Gopabandhu Das in the Indian National Congress and its impact in Odisha.
Answer:
Gopabandhu played a significant role in popularising the activities of the Indian National Congress in Odisha. Returning from Calcutta after attending a special session of the Indian National Congress in 1920, he was surcharged with the ideology of the Congress He was determined to spread Gandhian activities in Odisha. He also attended the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress with others.

Resolutions like boycotting foreign goods, visit of the prince of Wales, adoption of national education, etc. were passed in this session. The representatives from Odisha were deeply moved by this and returning to Odisha, they wanted to implement these things under the leadership of Gopabandhu. Gopabandhu also went to jail due to his effort to popularize the congress activities in Odisha.

Role in the Non-Cooperation Movement:
Gopabandhu took steps to galvanize the Non-cooperation movement in Odisha. The Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee was formed in 1921. Gopabandhu was its first President Dr. Ekram Rosool was its vice president, Bhagirathi Mohapatra, was its secretary, and Brajabandhu Das was its joint secretary.

Pandit Krupasindhu Mishra, Acharya Harihar Harekrushna Mahatab, Jagabandhu Singh, and many others joined the Indian Nation. Congress by the influence of Gopabandhu. The congress workers were inspired by Gopabandhu to popularise congress activities throughout Odisha.

Gopabandhu and visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Odisha :
The arrival of Mahatma Gandhi in Odisha on 23 March 1921 gave a great impetus to the Non-Co-operation movement in Odisha. Within six days he addressed several meetings at Cuttack, Bhadrak, Puri, Satyabadi, and Berhampur, Gopabandhu translated the Hindi speech of Gandhiji into simple Odia and the people became happy. This inspired a lot to the people of Odisha to participate in the Non-Co-operation movement.

By 30 June 1921, the Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee was able to collect 21,000 rupees for the Tilak Swaraj Fund’ In the meanwhile, 39,000 workers joined the congress on the inspiration of Gopabandhu. Being inspired by Nationalism, Harekn; bp ’T ’ Nabakrushna Choudhury, NityanandaKanungo, and other young leaders joined the iwi National Congress.

Establishment of Ashrams:
Gopabandhu was instrumental in popularizing the congress ideology in different parts of Odisha. In his instance, several ashrams were established by leaders in different parts of Odisha. Among them, very famous were the ‘Swaraj Ashram’ at Cuttack, ‘Alkashram’ at Jagatsinghpur, and ‘Swaraj Mandir’ at Cuttack.

The congress and social workers learned in these Ashrams about the use of the spinning wheel, the preparation of thread, and other programs related to the congress. To his advice to boycott foreign goods, the congress workers started picketing at Balasore, Cuttack, Puri, Bhadrak, Berhampur, and Sambalpur. Gopabandhu played a leading role to popularize Gandhi’s principle of non-violence in different parts of Odisha.

Steps for improvement of Odia language and literature:
Gapabandhu took steps for the improvement of Odia language and literature. He started publishing a magazine titled ‘Satyabadi’ from Sakshigopal in 1915. In 1919 he published ‘Samaj’ from the same place which was a weekly newspaper. Later on, it became daily. Through this newspaper, he was able to put forth the grievances and demands of the people before the British Government.

He himself was also the author of many books like ‘Bandira Atmakatha’ (self-expression of a prisoner) ‘Dharmapad’ ‘Go Mahatma (Appraisal on a cow)’ Abakasa China (thought of leisure) etc. Which enriched Odia literature. He established odia-medium schools at Singhbhum, Phulighar, Mandala, Tarala, and Tekkali and tried his level best to spread Odia living. Gopabandhu was the ‘Gem of Utkal’ in the proper sense of the term. By following the principle of non-violence of Gandhiji, he gave a strategic blow to the British Government.

Question 9.
Evaluate the role of Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo in the making of Modern Odisha.
Answer:
Gajapati Krushna Chandra Narayan Deo is regarded at one of the makers of modern Odisha. His contribution to making Odisha a prepared province was immense. Loved by the people of this land, he had the credit to be the Prime Minister of Odisha twice. In spite of heavy odds, he was able to convince the British authorities regarding the need of the amalgamation of Odia. Speaking tracts and creation of a new province which was materialized.

Krushna Chandra and Simon Commission :
The Simon Commission which landed on Indian soil was boycotted with the slogan ‘Simon! go back. However, by the effort of K.C. Gajapati and other members of the Utkal Sammilani, that committee was received with the slogan ‘Welcome Simon’ at the Patna Railway station. The Committee became very happy and intimately talked with the members of the Utkal Sammilani paying heed to their problems.

On 27th May 1930, the report of the Simon Commission was published which recommended the formation of a sub-committee for examining the cause of the creation of Odisha as a separate province. It elated K.C. Gajapati.

Atlee Sub-committee and K.C. Gajapati:
By the recommendation of the Simon Commission, the ‘Atlee Sub-committee was created to determine the boundary of the new Odisha Province. Many letters, representations, and personal opinions were reached before the committee by the inspiration of K.C. Gajapati. After examining all this evidence, the committee recommended the creation of a separate province for the Odias.

Although, the Madras Government kept its opinion before the committee against it that was rejected. This was the first victory of K.C. Gajapati concerning the formation of the Odisha Province.

K.C. Gajapati and the First Round Table Conference :
Although the First Round Table Conference was boycotted by the Indian National Congress, K.C. Gajapati went to London in 1930 to present the demand of Odisha province before the British Government. By that time the agenda of the meeting had already been prepared. By the persuasion of K.C. Gajapati, a discussion on it was included with the province of Sind.

When the turn came K.C. Gajapati with politeness presented demand in the following way: ‘Sir, on behalf of 16 million Oriyas, the subjects of his majesty, I rise to represent their long-standing grievances on the occasion. I should lay before you all today that the formation of a separate province for the Oriyas is a life-and-death problem to them.

It is for you to make or mar the destiny of an ancient race, vast in numbers, cultured and advanced, but placed under painful circumstances now. Due to his influential speech, the Odisha matter was placed in ii, vi, and vii of the sub-committee. During his stay in London, K.C. Gajapati was able to influence Sir Samuel Hoare, the secretary of state, and other important parliamentarians. This made the part of the creation of Odisha as a separate province very easy.

K.C. Gajapati’s creation of Odisha Province:
After the First Round Table Conference, O’ Donnel Committed was needed to examine the case of Odisha Province. The Committee was welcomed by K C. Gajapati with much cordiality at the Berhampur Railway Station. After visiting various Odia- speaking tracts and interacting with the people, the committee submitted us report to Samuel Hoare.

In 1933 a ‘white paper’ was published by the British Parliament where there was no mention of Paralakhemundi. This put K.C. Gajapati under stress who went to London and convinced the dignitaries about his plight. After that was formed a ‘Joint Parliamentary Committee’ was to finalize the matter concerning Odisha.

In 1933, the ‘Hubback Committee’ was formed to give shape to the province of Odisha. In its report again Paralakhemundi was absent from the new province. Being frustrated K.C. Gajapati with a delegation went to Shimla in 1934 and convinced the Viceroy regarding the inclusion of Paralakhemundi in Odisha.

On Article 289 of the Government of India Act, 1935, Odisha has given the status of a separate province with the inclusion of Paralakhemundi on it. On 1st April 1936, a separate Odisha Province was created on that evening. Maharaja K.C. Gajapati hosted a grand party at Barabati fort of Cuttack.

Prime Minister Krushna Chandra and the progress of Odisha:
The first Governor of Odisha was Sir John Austin Hubback. By his invitation, K.C. Gajapati became the Prime Minister of Odisha on 1st April 1937. Again he adorned the same position from 1941 to 1944. During that, he devoted his heart and soul to the progress of Odisha. The Odisha High Court, Sri Ram Chandra Bhanja Medical College at Cuttack, Utkal University, and Rice Research Institute at Bidyadharpur of Cuttack were established.

That is why Utkal University and Berhampur University conferred on him the honorary Doctorate Degree. The Berhampur Medical College and Gajapati district have been named after him to preserve his memory. Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati was celebrating Modem Odisha. He fought the last battle of the Odias on the bank of the river. Thames in London and became successful of Modem Odisha, he is ever remembered in the annals of history.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 10.
Discuss the role of Rama Devi in the freedom struggle in Odisha.
Answer:
Among the celebrated freedom fighters of Odisha, Rama Devi occupies a special position. She belonged to a rich family but the clarion call of Mahatma Gandhi promoted her to participate in the freedom struggle. She became a source of inspiration for millions of Odias. After India achieved independence, Rama Devi devoted herself fully to working for the poor destitute.

Participation in the freedom struggle :
Rama Devi had heard the coming of Gandhi to Odisha on 23rd March 1921. On the same night, Mahatma Gandhi addressed a meeting organized by the ladies at Binod Bihari at Cuttack. Rama Devi attended this meeting and presented Mahatma Gandhi with her hand spoon thread and contributed all her ornaments to the Tilak Swaraj Fund. She took a vow not to wear ornaments and to wear a khaddar saree throughout her life. She was determined to forgo all the luxuries of her life and to devote her body, mind, and soul to the freedom struggle.

Aikashram and Rama Devi:
Alakashram played a vital role in the freedom struggle in India. The National school started there. As an insider, Rama Devi cooked tiffins and meals for the inmates of the Ashram. In 1923-24, cholera spread in Jagatsinghpur. Rama Devi with other workers moved from the village and advised the people to take preventive injections and take boiled water for the eradication of Malaria in that area, she advised using quinine. She also advised people not to use intoxication. She also taught spinning and preparation of clothes to the people who came for training at, Alakashram.

Rama Devi and Civil Disobedience Movement:
The salt satyagraha was vigorous in Odisha on 13th April 1930. Acharya Harihar started the Civil Disobedience Movement at Inchudi of Balasore district. Rama Devi with Malati Devi and Kiranbala Sen reached, there and called the women of Inchudi, Srijang, Bonita, Kuligaon, Raslpur, and nearby villages and engaged them in the preparation of salt.

Later on, she went to Kujanga and queen Bhagyabati Pattamahadei to break the salt law at Kalipatna in Paradeep. Due to her active participation, the Civil Disobedience Movement in Paradeep, Ersama, Chat, Daria, and other places became quite successive.

Rama Devi and Bari Ashram :
After Alakashram was raised to the ground, ‘Rama Devi with her husband went to Bari and slayed at the Bari Ashram, Popularly known as ‘Sevaghar’. In that Ashram, Rama Devi devoted herself to the Khadi work to uplift Harijan, spread Hindi, uplift women, prohibit bee-keeping, basic education, adult education, clean of the village, and the like. She established there a maternity home, and her service in that area carved a special position for her people called her ‘Maa (mother) with love and devotion.

Gandhiji’s Padayatra Berboi conference and Rama Devi:
In March 1934 started Hariyan Padayatra in Odisha. Ram Devi participated in that and she was advised by Gandhiji to start a congress organization vigorously in Bhadrak and Rama Devi did it. Similarly, Rama Devi worked a lot in the Berboi Conference near Delang in the Puri district, which was held on 26th March 1937. It was attended by Gandhiji, Kasturba, Maulana Azad, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel, and others who appreciated the selfless service of Rama Devi.

Rama Devi and the Quit India Movement:
On 9 August 1942 began the Quit India Movement. Rama Devi actively participated in the movement. She was arrested with Gopabandhu Choudhury, Malati Devi, Manmohan Choudhtiry, Amapuma Moharana, and Sharat Chandra Maharana, Rama Devi was imprisoned in the Cuttack Jail, even inside the jail she preached about nationalism. In 1944 she was released from jail. Returning to Bari Ashram, she was again engaged in Gandhian constructive works.

Representative of various Organizations :
Rama Devi was a leader of excellence. She was a member of the ‘Seva Mandate of Wardha. She was elected as the treasurer of the All India Charakha Association! She was also a member of the Provincial Khadi Board and the all-India Women’s Association! She was also a member of ‘The all-India Kasturba Gandhi Memorial Trust.

She formed an association at Tumba ligula of Koraput named ‘Navajeevan Mandal’ in 1946 to serve the forest people. In 1947, she worked as the Vice-President of the Utkal Khadi Mandal and ‘Utkal Gandhi Smarak Nidhi’. Besides, she associated with many organizations and worked for the welfare of society.

Rama Devi, Congress session and Bhoodan Movement:
Rama Devi was an active participant in the various sessions of the Indian National Congress, she participated in the Gaya session of the Indian National Congress in 1922 and the Calcutta sessions in 1928. In 1924, she became a member of the Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee. She participated in the Bhoodan Padayatra with her husband and went to different places like Panjang, Angul, Tainsi, Brahmagiri, Ganjam, Gunapur, Ramanguda, Bisama Kataka, Bolangir, Padmapur, etc.

In 1955, she moved with Vinoba Bhave from Balasore to Koraput and became ill in 1958, the year her husband expired. Thereafter, she went to Bari and devoted herself to the welfare of the people. She also presided over the All India Sarvodya Sammilani at Padampur of Maharashtra. Rama Devi was really a mother in every sense of the term. She had sacrificed all her wealth at the altar of the country. Due to her less work, she carved a special position in the heart of millions of people. Her graceful figure is preserved in the heart of every Odia.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 11.
Discuss the role of Salara Devi in the freedom struggle in Odisha.
Answer:
The contribution of Salara Devito to the freedom struggle is unforgettable. She had joined the freedom movement on the inspiration of her husband. Being inspired by the thought of Mahatma Gandhi, Sarala Devi became instrumental in popularizing the Indian National Congress in Odisha. She was imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience Movement. She devoted herself to the uplift of the Harijans. Through her literacy creations, she enriched Odia literature.

Sarala Devi Congress Sessions and the Non-Co-operation Movement:
In 1921 Salara Devi participated with her husband in the Nagpur session of the Indian National Congress. She had brought the message of the Non-Cooperation Movement as the first lady to Odisha. After Gandhiji’s address to the women at Binod Bihari, she was inspired a lot. The call of Gandhiji fasting took place in the country during the Non¬Cooperation Movement from 6 April to 13 April 1921.

Sarala Devi observed fasting for the week. She collected money for the Tilak Swaraj fund by moving from village to village. She distributed spinning wheels to the village and taught them to spin.

Sarala Devi and the Civil Disobedience Movement:
Sarala Devi played an important role in the Civil Disobedience Movement in Odisha. She went to Inchudi and helped the women there with the preparation of salt. By her influence, many people ofLakshmipur, Pallibandha and Huma joined the Salt Satyagraha in Ganjam. Being inspired by her speech, Kulalata Devi of Ghumsar contributed her ornaments to the national fund.

While preaching against the British Government, she was arrested by the police and produced before Chhatrapur court and got six months imprisonment. She was the first lady to go to jail by the order of the court. The Udyog Mandi which was established at Berhampur to train the Satyagraha is impetus by her presence.

After her release from jail, she was welcomed by people at Cuttack Railway Station and a meeting was organized under the leadership of Binapani Devi to facilitate her. In that meeting, the Union Jack was burnt. Thousands of people attended that meeting.

Sarala Devi and no tax campaign :
A part of the Civil Disobedience Movement was not to pay taxes to the British Government. The people of Srijang of Balasore and other places of Odisha, people did not pay tax to the British Government inspired by the speech of Sarala Devi. Due to picketing the people could not get taxes and suffered losses. On the other hand, she preached in favor of the spinning wheel and khaddar and popularized the Swadeshi Movement in Odisha.

Sarala Devi and the Creation of Separate Odisha Province :
In the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress. Sarala Devi persuaded Mahatma Gandhi to form the formation of Odisha province on a linguistic basis. Of course, Mahatma Gandhi did not take any steps in this regard. However, Sarala Devi boldly presented this proposal before Gandhiji. This shows her love for Odisha and Odia language.

Sarala Devi and the Quit India Movement:
Gandhiji selected Sarala Devi as the women leader to start the Quit India Movement in Odisha. While delivering her speech against the British, she was imprisoned and sent to jail. She remained inside the jail for three years. During that period, she gave birth to a son. She also chalked out a program inside the jail with other prisoners on how to quit English from India. This shows her love for the motherland.

Sarala Devi Gandhian Constructive works and Uplift of Harijan :
Sarala Devi popularized Gandhian constructive works like women’s education, uplifting of women, eradication of untouchability adoption of Swadeshi, prohibition, etc. in Odisha. She devoted herself to the uplift of Harijans. She had given a proposal to the Odisha Government to provide education to Harijans and give them jobs.

She had advised the Government to open agricultural banks and land mortgage banks for protecting the Harijans from the clutches of money lenders. Through her effort, the Odisha Government built hosted at Cuttack for the stay of the Harijans.

Works for the Peasants :
Sarala Devi was very sympathetic to the cause of the peasants. She could know about the peasants during the Kanika rebellion of 1921-22. In 1937, she delivered a talk at Delang. There he spoke against ‘Bethi’ (forced labor). This speech was directed against the Zamindari system of Delang. During that period, if a farmer failed to pay revenue to the Zamindar, he was tortured by the latter.

She advised the government in many, meetings to take steps against the Zamindars and also to look after the peasants by helping them to increase their property. In fact, Sarala Devi was an ideal woman. She played an important role in populating the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi in Odisha. Her works for Harijans, peasants women, and common people were praiseworthy. That is why she is ever remembered by the people of Odisha.

Question 12.
Discuss the role of Malati Devi in the freedom of Odisha.
Answer:
Malati Devi is one of the much-talked freedom fighters of Odisha. Although she was a Bengalee, after marrying Naba Krushna Choudhury. She devoted her body, mind, and soul to the freedom struggle in Odisha. Her role in the Prajamandal Movement was to work for the farmers to keep her alive in the memory of Odisha.

Anakhia Ashram and Malati Devi:
On the way to Jagasinghpur at Anakhia, Nabakrushna Choudhury established an Ashram, Malati Devi remained there and collected workers by moving from village to village. With the guidance of Malati Devi, Naba Babu, and Gauranga Charan Das, the Harijans of Bhagalpur launched a movement against the high-caste Hindus. This movement effaced the difference between the Harijans and the costliest Hindus. From this movement began the political career of Malati Devi.

Malati Devi and Salt Satyagraha :
Malati Devi took active in the Salt Satyagraha at Inchudi of Balasore district. She had worked there with Rama Devi, Kiranbala Sen, and others. Through her influence, many women joined the Civil Disobedience Movement at Inchudi and prepared salt. She also encouraged the women at Srijang to participate in the movement.

She also encouraged the women at Kujanga who joined the movement with their Queen Bhaggabati Pattamahadei. Her fiery speech dragged the women from the four walls of the house who actively participated in the Salt Satyagraha.

Malati Devi and Monkey Brigade :
Malati Devi played a vital role in the boycott of foreign goods and prohibition. During picketing before shoes sold foreign goods by the women, the children of 14 or 15 years replaced them. The police cared about their palms. Malati Devi with other women dressed the children and fed them with love and care while picketing before Victoria High School on 20 September 1930.

Malati Devi was arrested by the police and at first, kept at Cuttack jail and then transferred to Bhagalpur jail with her daughter. While in jail she encouraged the prisoners to sing the song of Swaraj.

Malati Devi, Karachi session of the Congress and other works :
Malati Devi attended the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress where it was decided that the next session will be held at Puri. To make the Puri session successful, the Hindustani Seva Dal was formed and as its worker, Malati Devi was the first from Odisha to receive training. Returning to Cuttack she enrolled many women and members of this Seva Dal. In 1940 when Gandhiji decided to continue individual Satyagraha, he selected the name of Malati Devi.

Formation Congress Socialist Party :
In the meanwhile, the same Congress workers wanted to form a new party being separated from the National Congress. In Odisha at Anakhia Ashram, Nabakrushna Choudhury and Malati Devi with other workers formed the ‘Utkal Congress Socialist Party’. It was not antithetical to the National Congress, rather it was formed to do much good to the peasants.

Malati Devi and Gandhian Constructive Programme :
Malati Devi played an important role to popularise the Gandhian constructive program inside Odisha. On 30 April 1930, she delivered a fiery speech inspiring the people to boycott foreign clothes. Inspired by her, the cloth merchants of Cuttack did not sell foreign goods.

She moved a resolution in the Congress worker’s meeting at Sambalpur in 1946 regarding the steps to be undertaken for the upliftment of Harijans which was unanimously passed. In 1927, she had taken step with her husband for the improvement of agriculture. She constructed the ‘Baji Rout Hostel’ at Angul and taught its inmate’s Gandhian constructive works.

Malati Devi, Quit India Movement and Other Works :
While returning after attending the Bombay session of the National Congress where the ‘Quit India Resolution’ was passed. Malati Choudhury was arrested at the Cuttack Railway Station. She was sent to jail. She was released in 1945. In 1946, she traveled with Mahatma Gandhi in the Noakhali area of West Bengal to pacify the communal riot. Which had taken place among the Hindus and Muslims. In the same year, she was elected as a member of the Constituent Assembly.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 13.
Evaluate the role of Malati Devi in various movements.
Answer:
Malati Devi wanted the round progress of peasants. In 1933 she in association with her husband formed the ‘Utkal Congress Socialist Workers Union’ and donated all her ornaments to this Union. On behalf of this union, a magazine titled ‘Sarathi’ was published and Malati Devi was regularly writing in this magazine reflecting the problems of the workers.

She herself also edited one magazine named ‘Kousaka’. At different places in Odisha, she had addressed the farmer’s gatherings. She tried her level best for the all-around development of the peasants. She also formed the ‘Utkal Congress Socialist Workers Association’ and tried her best for its development.

Malati Devi and Prajamandal (Garjat) Movement:
The Gaijin Movement at Dhenkanal, Talcher, Nilgiri, and other places was galvanized by Malati Devi. She with her husband and a great communist leader, Bhagabati Charan Panigrahi organized many secret meetings in different Garjat areas and encouraged them to become free from the clutches of their rulers. She published a pamphlet titled ‘Ranaveri’.

Sarangdhar Dal also joined with her to organize the Prajamandal Movement at Dhenkanal and Baji Rout, a boy of twelve years breathed his last in the police bullet. The then Superintendent of Police (CID) informed the Govt, that Malati Devi was running a camp of the rebellious people at Budhapank but she could not be arrested because there was no sufficient proof against her. In memory of Baji Rout, he constructed Baji Rout Hostel at Angul.

Malati Devi and Bhoodan Movement:
Malati Devi was inspired by Vinoba Babe and actively participated in the Bhoodan Movement in Odisha. She established ‘Navajeevan Mandal’ at Angul where the meeting of ‘All India Sarvodaya Seva Sangha’ was held. She preached about Bhoodan Movement at Koraput in 1952. She also participated in Vinoba’s padayatra in Odisha in 1955. She composed poems in Odia which were sung by the women during the padayatra.

Malati Devi and Other Works :
In 1975 emergency was declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Malati Devi organized a meeting at Cuttack and vehemently opposed it. She printed pamphlets against it and while distributing those pamphlets, she was booked under the ‘National Security Act’. From 1977 to 1983, Malati Devi devoted herself to the upliftment of the tribal people. She persuaded them to retrain from taking liquor, opium, and other intoxicants.

She worked selflessly for the eradication of leprosy. She refused to accept the award from Jamunalal Bajaj Foundation for social service. The life of Malati Devi was dedicated to the cause of society. Although she had come from Bengal she love Odisha and worked for its people. Her dedication will be even remembered by the people of this land.

Question 14.
Describe the steps taken for the preparation of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
The preparation of the Indian constitution was a lengthy process. Before Independence, the Morley-Minto Reforms. Montagu Chelmsford Reforms the Govt, of India Act. 1935, the Indian Independence Act, and 1947 were some of the milestones on the Path of the Indian constitution. The constitution of India was prepared under the able guidance of Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ramji Ambedkar. It is the largest written constitution in the World. That is why it is termed as ‘Lawyers Paradise.’

Making of the Constituent Assembly :
As per the provision of the cabinet mission, it has been decided the Constituent Assembly would be formed by the election. As per the proposal, there should be 389 members. That election took place in July 1946, Out of 296 seats the Congress got 212, Muslim League 73, independent and others got 11, Manabendra Roy had first thought doast the Constituent Assembly.

A meeting of the Constituent Assembly was convened on 9 December 1946 in Delhi. It was presided over by Sri Sachidatianda Sinha of Bihar. On 11 December 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as its permanent chairman. Almost all the leading members of the time were members of the Constituent Assembly.

Some of the prominent them included Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, K.M. Munshi, and others. However, Mahatma Gandhi who struggled, to achieve independence kept himself away from it.

Different Committees :
The Constituent Assembly began to work in a democratic way. Several committees were framed to give expert opinions for the forming of the constitution. Those were:

  • Rules of Procedure Committee
  • Finance and Staff Committee
  • Credential Committee
  • Steering Committee
  • Hindi Translation Committee
  • Orders of Business Committee
  • House Committee
  • Union Powers Committee
  • Union Constitution Committee
  • Committee on Financial Rights between the Union and States etc.

All these committees guided the Constitution Assembly in framing the constitution.
Drafting Committee:
For preparing a draft constitution the Drafting Committee was framed. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar presided over it. Besides him, N. Gopalswami Ayanagar, A. K. Ayar, Saiyyad Mohammad Saadulla, T. T. Krishnamachari, D. P. Khaitan, and many others were its members. Dr. B. N. Ray acted as the Chief. Constituent Advisor to this committee. This committee submitted its report (draft) to the Constituent Assembly on 21 February 1948.

Session of the Constituent Assembly :
The Constituent Assembly worked from 9 December 1946 to 16 November 1949. It worked for 2 years 11 months and 17 days. There was a total of 11 sessions and its meeting lasted for 165 days. On the Draft Constitution, the discussion was held for 114 days. Out of the laid down 7,635 proposals, 2,473 were discussed and necessary corrections were made. In the draft constitution, there were 395 Articles 8 schedules. This constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949. It was accepted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 January 1950.

Vision (Objectives) of the Constitution :
The objectives or vision of the constitution were:

  1. In order to make India independent. Sovereign Republic, a constitution will be framed.
  2. Taking together the Indian provinces, the territories liking to remain with India and the British dominion, a sovereign union of states will be created,
  3. All the powers to rule India will originate from the Indians.
  4. The Indians will be given freedom in the field of social, economic, and political justice, equal opportunity and equality before the law, profession, faith, service association and religion,
  5. protection to minorities, downtrodden, neglected and tribals,
  6. The water land and air of India will be protected.
  7. This old state will get its proper place in the world and will endeavor for the welfare of men and will try to preserve world peace.

Evaluation :
Those proposals were novel for Indians. The basic objectives of the constitution have been reflected in it. Nobody can dispute our territory. The objectives since their adoption, have been given much more importance by the Indians. This is the reflection of the nationalism of the Indians.

Preamble:
The preamble is regarded as the preface ofthe constitution. It reads ‘We The People Of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign. Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure its citizens. Justice, social, economic, and political Liberty of thought, expression faith, and worship. Equality of status and opportunity and to promote among them all.

Fraternity, assuring the individual and unity and integrity of the Nation:
In Our Constituent Assembly, this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do hereby Adopt, Enact And Give To Ourselves This constitution. The 42 Amendment Act, 1976 has added the words ‘Socialist, Secular and Unity and Integrity of the Nation have been added to the preamble.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions

Question 15.
Throw light on the salient features of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
The salient features of this constitution are :
The Longest Written Constitution :
Ivor Jenning, the constitutional expert of Great Britain had expressed the view that the Indian Constitution is the longest-written constitution in the world. It consists of 395 articles, 12 schedules, and 122 amendments. Of course, many articles are being added to it from time to time but the number of articles remains at 395. Due to its vastness, it has been termed the ‘Lawyers Paradise’.

Parliamentary form of Government:
The Indian constitution provides a particular form of government. It provides two heads- a nominal and a real. The president of India is the nominal head of India and the Prime Minister is the real head. This has given a real balance between the power of the nominal head and the real head. The parliamentary form of Government had been adopted by following the India Acts of 1919 and 1955.

The balance between rigidity and flexibility :
Indian constitution strikes a balance between rigidity and flexibility. A flexible constitution can be amended easily. In the case of a rigid constitution, it is very difficult to amend it. Certain provisions of the Indian Constitution can be amended by a simple majority in both the Houses of Parliament.

However, certain provisions of the Indian Constitution require a rigid procedure like the presence of a majority of the total majority and a majority of not less than two-thirds of members present and voting in each House of Parliament. This is a peculiar provision of the Indian Constitution.

Fundamental Rights :
Part III of the Indian Constitution contains certain Fundamental Rights for the people of India. Originally they were seven in number but ‘The right to Property’ has been abolished by the 44 Amendment Act of 1978. Pandit Nehru called the Fundamental Rights the conscience of the constitution.

Those Fundamental Rights are :

  • Right to Equality (Article 14-18)
  • Right to Freedom (Articles 19-22)
  • Right against Exploitation (Articles 23-24)
  • Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28)
  • Educational and Cultural Rights (Articles 29 & 30)
  •  Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article – 32).

The Supreme Court preserved the fundamental rights of the citizens by the Habeas Corpus Mandamus, Qiiowarranto, Prohibition, and Certiorari.

Single Citizenship :
Indian Constitution provides for single citizenship. Here, any individual who resides in India is an Indian. The constitution never recommends Double citizenship like an American citizen of the country and a citizen of the concerned state, Here, in India, no state can give citizenship to any Indian. By birth, he is a citizen of India.

Directive Principles of State Policy :
Part IV of the Indian Constitution contains some social and economic rights for the people of India. They can not be enforced by a court of law. From the beginning, the Fundamental Rights were superior to the Directive principles, but now the reverse is true. It is because fundamental rights are the rights of the individual while Directive Principles of state policy are the Right of the Society. These state policies cannot be challenged in a court of law, unlike fundamental rights.

Fundamental Duties :
The Fundamental Duties are a unique poet of the Indian constitution. Those are:

  1. To abide by the constitution and respect the national flag and national anthem,
  2. To cherish the noble ideals which inspired our struggle for freedom,
  3. To uphold fi sovereignty, unity, and integrity of the country,
  4. To defend the country and render national service when called on to do so.
  5. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India.
  6. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  7. To protect and improve the natural environment including lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and have compassion for living creatures,
  8. To develop scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  9. To safeguard public property and abjure violence,
  10. To strive to achieve excellence in all spheres of individual and collective life so that the nation makes progress.

Single integrated Judiciary :
The Indian constitution provides a single integrated Judiciary. The courts, roughout India, either in the center or state follow the procedure of law for all. This is unique m India. This shows that the framers of the constitution had put emphasis n c duality of law and equal procedure of law.

Secularism :
Our constitution makes India a secular state. The state is neutral in the matter of religion. The citizens of India have the right to profess, practice, and propagate any religion they like no religious institution can be imparted in any educational institution.

Democratic Constitution :
Indian constitution is a democratic constitution. Article 326 confers Universal Adult Franchise on the citizens. A person who has attended the age of 18 has the right to vote. A person can elect his representatives who rule on behalf of the people. These representatives remain responsible to the people. The people can also reject him in elections if he does not care for the welfare of the people. Starting from Gram Panchayat all are governed in a democratic way through the election.

Federalism :
A basic salient feature of the Indian constitution is federalism. A federal state exhibits four features – a written constitution, dual polity, distribution of power, and an independent and impartial judiciary. The Indian constitution has provided all these features. Thus federalism has been preserved with all its splendors by the Indian constitution.

The preparation of the Indian constitution was a glorious chapter in the history of India. The Indian constitution is the greatest democratic constitution in the World. This constitution preserves democratic values. For centuries to come, it will inspire and guide the people of India on a democratic and secular path.

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CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Very Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Mention the name of a few cities and towns of the Mughal period.
Answer:
The pre-colonial cities and towns of the 16th and 17th centuries developed during the Mughal period. During that time Delhi, Agra, Lahore, and other cities grew which were the life centers of the Mughal administration.

Question 2.
Mention the people who lived in the colonial towns.
Answer:
The Jagirdars, Mansabadars, Qazi, Kotwal, and other aristocratic people associated with the Mughal administration lived in the colonial towns. Besides the people like weavers, artists, traders, soldiers, and others also stayed there.

Question 3.
Write the name of the pre-colonial cities or towns of South India.
Answer:
The pre-colonial cities and towns of South India were Madurai and Kanchipuram. There were also some temple cities in South India which were the centers of education and culture.

Question 4.
Why do the people from the village come to towns?
Answer:
The people from villages came to towns in order to sell their products. Rural areas help for the comfortable and luxurious life of the people living in towns.

Question 5.
Write about the settlement of Europeans at different places in India.
Answer:
The coming of Europeans to India is regarded as a great event during the Mughal period. The Portuguese settled in Panaji (Goa), the Dutch at Mauslipatnam, the British in Madras, and the French in Pondichery.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 6.
Write about the cities and towns of India in the 19th century.
Answer:
In the 19th century, the cities and towns bore the imprint of changes. During British rule, special care was taken for the improvement of the cities like Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras. Other important towns were Waltair, Bareilly, Kanpur, Jamshedpur, etc.

Question 7.
Write the name of the forts of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras.
Answer:
Fort was regarded as a great protector of a city or town. Fort William was built at Calcutta, Fort George was built at Bombay, and at Madars, the British built Fort St. George.

Question 8.
What was the difference between ‘White Town’ and ‘Black Town’?
Answer:
The European settlement which grew around the port and its nearby area was known as ‘White Town’. In other parts of the town Indian merchants and traders, artisans, workers, and others stayed which was regarded as a ‘Black Town’.

Question 9.
What is the ‘Civil line’ and what is its importance?
Answer:
‘Civil Line’ was a protected area for the Europeans, particularly the British people. This place looked beautiful due to the presence of gardens, playgrounds, churches, buildings, roads, etc.

Question 10.
Mention the first hill station of India.
Answer:
The hill stations were established keeping in view the military and political needs of the British. During the Gurkha, war ofl815-16the need for the establishment. of the hill station at Shimla was felt, thus Shimla became the first hill station.

Question 11.
Write about the life of women in towns and cities.
Answer:
Women enjoyed a special position in city life and a new atmosphere was created for them in society. The educated women published their writings in different, magazines and attended meetings held in different towns and cities.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 12.
Mention the transport system in towns during colonial rule.
Answer:
The social life of the cities and towns was different from the villages and transport facilities like horse-drawn carriages, rickshaws, trams, and buses were available in the cities and towns, The people took delight to use these transport facilities for going to their offices and traveling inside the cities.

Question 13.
Throw light on the entertainment facilities for the people in towns.
Answer:
Entertainment facilities grew up in towns and cities. The parks, cinema halls, theatres, and town halls were built in the cities and towns Which provided entertainment to the people.

Question 14.
Mention the name of the colonial architecture of Calcutta.
Answer:
During the British period, many colonial architectures grew up in Calcutta. Among them are the ‘Great Eastern Hotel’, ‘Howrah Bridge’, ‘General Post Office’, ‘Esplanade Mansion’ and ‘Metropolitan Buildings’ of this period.

Question 15.
Discuss in brief the colonial architecture of Mumbai.
Answer:
Bombay (Mumbai) contains colonial architecture. The City hall, Esplanade circle, Municipal Corporation, Building, Ballard estate. St. Thomas Cathedral Elphinstone College, Food market, Oval field. St. Anne High schools are some of the important architecture of Bombay which bears testimony to the colonial period.

Question 16.
Write about the colonial architecture of Madras.
Answer:
Madars is in possession contains many colonial architectures. Famous among them are Madras University, Victoria Public hall, General Post Office, Madras Museum, Freemansan’s hall, Senate House, Chepak palace, etc.

Question 17.
When did the Na’anka famine take place? After that who took steps for the spread of education in Odisha?
Answer:
The Nanaka famine took place in 1866 and from that period Renaissance of Odisha began. After that celebrities like Fakir Mohan Senapati, Madhusudan Das, and Baikuntha Nath Dey. Gangadhar Meher. Nilamani Bidyaratna, Linganaj Panigrahi, Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo, and many others spread education in Odisha.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 18.
When did the British occupy Odisha? After that whom did they engage for the smooth administration in Odisha?
Answer:
British occupied Odisha in 1803. After that, they engaged Bengalees for smooth administration.

Question 19.
Who was Kantichandra Bhattacharya? What did he speak?
Answer:
Kanti Chandra Bhattacharya was a Sanskrit Pundit of Balasore Zilla school. He ‘ opined that ‘Odia is not an independent language’.

Question 20.
Name of the two persons who established the printing press at Balasore.
Answer:
The establishment of the printing press in some parts of Odisha played an important role in the language movement in Odisha. Through the effort of Fakir Mohan Senapati and Baikunthanath Dey, two printing presses were established at Balasore.

Question 21.
Who established open-air schools? What was its objective?
Answer:
Gopabandhu Das established an open-air school at Satyabadi which imparted teaching to the students in the Odia language. Its objective was the development of the Odia language.

Question 22.
In the language agitation of Sambalpur, name the two persons who played a vital role.
Answer:
A special influence of language agitation was felt in Sambalpur. The two persons who played a vital role in the agitation were Nilamani Bidyaratna and Gangadhar Meher.

Question 23.
In which year Odisha became a separate province and who was its first Governor?
Answer:
Odisha became a separate province on 1st April 1936. Sir John Austin Hubback became the First Governor of Odisha.

Question 24.
Name two committees that were associated with the formation of Odisha is a separate province.
Answer:
The joint Parliamentary Committee and the Odisha Administrative Committee or Hubback Committee were associated with the formation of Odisha as a separate province.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 25.
Name two men of letters who first attempted the amalgamation of Odia-speaking tracts.
Answer:
Fakir Mohan Senapati and Baikunthanath Dey were two men of letters who first attempted the amalgamation of Odia-speaking tracts.

Question 26.
Rishley Circular was published in which year? What was its aim?
Answer:
Rishley circular was published on 3rd December 1903. Its aim was to restore Odia as the official language in Sambalpur and adjacent feudatory states.

Question 27.
When and by whom Utkal Union Conference was formed?
Answer:
On 1903 and by Madhusudan Das Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani) was formed. Its primary aim was for a Unified Odia-speaking area.

Question 28.
Mention the name of two leaders who wanted the formation of Odisha as a separate province.
Answer:
Madhusudan Das and Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati were two veteran leaders of Odisha who wanted the formation of Odisha as a separate province.

Question 29.
Which two places of Ganjam were to be included in Odisha as per Philip Duff Committee’s recommendation?
Answer:
Mandasa and Paralakhemundi of Ganjam were to be included in Odisha as per Philip Duff Committee’s recommendation.

Question 30.
Name two literary persons who opposed Frezan’s proposal to introduce Hindi in Sambalpur.
Answer:
Nilamani Bidyaratna and Gangadhar Meher vehemently opposed Frezan’s proposal to introduce Hindi in Sambalpur.

Question 31.
Write the name of two factories established by Madhu Babu for the economic progress of Odisha.
Answer:
‘Orissa Art Wares’ and ‘Utkal Tanner)7’ of Cuttack are two factories established by Madhu Babu for the economic progress of Odisha.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 32.
Who and when had founded the Utkal Union Conference and what was its ambition?
Answer:
Madhusudan Das founded Utkal Union Conference on 30th December 1903. Its ambition was to take a vital role in the amalgamation of Odia-speaking tracts.

Question 33.
Who and when had given the proposal to the British Government for the formation of Bihar-Odisha Province?
Answer:
Lord Hardinge, the then Viceroy of India gave proposal for the creation of the new Bihar Odisha Province and it was formed in 1912.

Question 34.
Give two examples of Madhu Babu’s political life.
Answer:
Madhu Babu was elected as a representative to ‘Orissa-Chhotnagpur Municipality’ in 1896. In 1902 as a member of ‘The Bengal Legislative Council’, Madhu Babu put pressure on the Govt, to provide more grants to Ravenshaw College.

Question 35.
Form an idea on the Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee.
Answer:
Gopabandhu played a significant role in popularising the activities of the Indian National Congress in Odisha. The Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee was formed in 1921 and Gopabandhu was its first President.

Question 36.
Name the Ashramas constructed by the influence of Gopabandhu Das.
Answer:
Gopabandhu was instrumental in popularising the congress ideology in different parts of Odisha through several Ashramas. Among them, very famous were the ‘Swaraj Ashram’ at Cuttack, ‘Alakashram’ at Jagatsinghpur, and ‘Swaraj Mandir’ at Cuttack.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 37.
Write the name of the books written by Gopabandhu Das.
Answer:
Gopabandhu Das took various steps for the improvement of the Odia language and literature. He himself was also the author of many books like ‘Bandira Atmakatha’ (self-expression of a Prisoner), ‘Dharmapada’, ‘Abakasa Chinta’s (thought of leisure), Go Mahatmya (Appraisal on a cow), etc.

Question 38.
What was the role of Krushna Chandra Gajapati in the First Round Table Conference?
Answer:
Krushna Chandra Gajapati went to London in 1930 to present the demand of Odisha province before the British government. During his stay in London, he was able to influence Sir Samuel, Hoare (the secretary of state), and other parliamentarians for the creation of Odisha as a separate province.

Question 39.
What steps were undertaken by K.C.Gajapati as the Prime Minister for the progress of Odisha?
Answer:
K.C.Panighrahi became the Prime Minister of Odisha on 1st April 1937. Through his endeavor, the Odisha High Court, Sri Ramchandra Bhanja Medical College, Utkal University, Rice Research Institute, etc. were established in Odisha.

Question 40
Mention the works of Rama Devi at Alakashram.
Answer:
Alakashram played a vital role in the freedom struggle of India. As an insider, Rama Devi cooked tiffins and meals for the inmates of the Ashram and taught spinning and preparation of clothes to the people who came for training to Alakashram.

Question 41
Write the works undertaken by Rama Devi at Sevaghar.
Answer:
After Alakashram was raised to the ground, Rama Devi her husband went to Bari and stayed at Bari Ashram popularly known as ‘Sevaghar’. In that Ashram, Rama Devi devoted herself in Khadi work, the uplift of Harijans, the spread of Hindi, the uplift of women, adult education, the clearing of villages, and the like.

Question 42
Discuss the role of Sarala Devi in the Civil Disobedience movement.
Answer:
Sarala Devi played an important role in the Civil Disobedience Movement in Odisha. She went to Inchudi and helped the women there with the preparation of salt.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 43.
Describe the role of Sarala Devi in the Quit India Movement.
Answer:
Gandhiji selected Sarala Devi as the women leader to start the Quit India movement in Odisha. She was arrested and inside the jail chalked out the program with other prisoners on how to quit English from India.

Question 44.
What were the contributions of Malati Devi to the Peasant Movement?
Answer:
Malati Devi wanted the all-around progress of the peasants. In 193 3 she in association with her husband formed the ‘Utkal Congress Socialist Workers Union’ and donated all her ornaments to this Union.

Question 45.
Discuss the role of Malati Devi in the Bhoodan Movement.
Answer:
Malati Devi was inspired by Vinoba Babe and actively participated in the Bhoodan movement in Odisha. She established various organizations and composed poems in Odia which were sung by the women during the padayatra.

Question 46.
Who were the chairman and members of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
As per the provision of the Cabinet Mission, it was decided the Constituent Assembly would be framed by the election: On 11 December 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as its permanent chairman and almost all the leading members of the time were the members of the Constituent Assembly.

Question 47.
Who were the members of the Draft Constitution Committee (Drafting Committee)?
Answer:
For preparing a draft constitution the Drafting Committee was framed and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar presided over it. Besides him, N.Gopalswami Aiyengar, A.K.Ayengar, Sayyad Mohammad, T.T.Krishnamachari, and many others were its members.

Question 48.
Why is the Indian Constitution termed the longest-written constitution of the world?
Answer:
Ivor Jenning, the constitutional expert of Great Britain had expressed the view that the Indian Constitution is the longest constitution of the world, it consists of 395 articles, 12 schedules, and 122 amendments.

Question 49.
Write about the single citizenship of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Indian constitution provides for a single citizenship i.e. any individual who resides in India is an Indian. The constitution never recommends Double citizenship like in America.

Question 50.
Throw light on the flexibility of the Indian constitution.
Answer:
Indian constitution strikes a balance between rigidity and flexibility and a flexible constitution can be amended easily. Certain provisions of the Indian constitution can be amended by a simple majority in both the Houses of parliament.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 51.
By which style does the Indian parliamentary system function?
Answer:
The parliamentary form of Government had been adopted following the Indian acts of 1919 and 1965. Its style is The President of India is the nominal head and the Prime Minister is the real head.

Question 52.
Focus on regarding Fundamental Rights of the Indian Constitution and What was the view of Jawaharlal Nehru regarding this.
Answer:
Indian constitution contains certain Fundamental Rights for the upliftment of people. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru viewed Fundamental Rights as the conscience of the constitution.

Question 53.
Is the Indian, constitution-making India a secular state, and what was its objective?
Answer:
Our constitution makes India a secular state. The citizens of India have the right to Profess, Practise and Propagate any religion they like.

Question 54.
Is Indian Constitution democratic? Which article confers Adult Franchise to citizens?
Answer:
Indian constitution is a democratic constitution. Article 326 confers Universal Adult Franchise to citizens.

Question 55.
What are the four features of federalism in the Indian constitution?
Answer:
A basic silent feature of the Indian constitution is federalism. A federal state exhibits four features a written constitution, dual polity, distribution of power, and an independent and impartial judiciary.

Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Fort William.
Answer:
Among the colonial architecture in Calcutta, Fort William occupies a unique position. There are actually two Fort Williams – The old and the new. The original was built in 1696 by the British East India Company and Sirajudaullah occupied it in 1757 and renamed it as Alinagar. In 1766 the old fort was repaired and used as a customs house. The new fort William was built on the eastern bank of river Hoogly Robert Clive started the building of this fort in 1758 and it was completed in 1781. This fort was named after King William 111 of England.

Question 2.
Victoria Memorial.
Answer:
Built-in marble, the Victoria Memorial is another great architecture of the British period. The beginning of this architecture took place in 1906 and it was completed in 1921. This was built in memory of Queen Victoria of England. The work of this memoria began when Lord Curzon was the Viceroy of India. The architect of this building was William Emerson. The architecture was a mixture of Mughal, British, Egyptian, Deccani, and Islamic elements.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 3
Townhall of Bombay.
Answer:
The Town Hall of Bombay was built during British rule and was constructed in 1833. The architect of this building was a military engineer named Colonel Thomas Cowper. This building was a mixture of Greek and Roman styles of architecture. The Town Hall is named the ‘Asiatic Society of Bombay’ which is a public library in the City. Apart from the ancient manuscripts in Persian, Prakrit, Urdu, and Sanskrit, there are also a collection of 1000 ancient coins including gold Mohur of Akbar.

Question 4.
Rajabai Tower.
Answer:
The Rajabai Tower in South Mumbai is located in the confines of the fort campus of the University of Mumbai. It was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, an English architect. The clock placed at the top of the tower is built in the model of Big Ben, the clock tower of the house of parliament in London. Its building work started on March 1869 and was completed in November 1878. For a long period sound of this bell indicated the time to the people of Bombay.

Question 5.
The Gateway of India.
Answer:
The Gateway of India is one of the major monuments in the city located in the Apollo border area in Mumbai. It was built to commemorate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to Bombay in 1911. Its foundation stone was laid on 31st March 1911 by Sir George Sydenham Clarke and designed by George Witter. The building got the name ‘The Gateway of India’ because in the colonial era, European entered India from this location and it was the first thing they saw while entering the country.

Question 6.
Victoria Terminus.
Answer:
The Victoria Terminus is a classic example of the colonial architecture of Bombay. Its present name is Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus. Built-in 1888, this Railway Station bears the memory of the Victorian age. The plan for this railway station was designed by an English Engineer EW. Stevens. This station is very nearer to the seashore of Mumbai. At the entrance of the station are found one lion and a tiger, representing England and India respectively.

BSE Odisha Solutions

Question 7.
Bombay High Court.
Answer:
Situated on the Apollo Street. The Bombay High Court started functioning in 1862. There are two life-size statues on the Western side of the High Court. One among them is the stone ‘Statue of the Goddess of Justice’ holding the sword of Justice in one hand and the scales in the other. The second is the ‘Statue of Goddess Mercy’ with hand folded. The decision of two litigious cats and a monkey judge on the first floor of the court is very interesting. Bombay High Court beams the memory of Colonial architecture.

Question 8.
Fort St. George.
Answer:
1644 was a glorious year for the British East India Company. In that year Fort S. George was built on the seashore of Madras. Historically famous as the White Town, the fort has taken its name from St, George who is believed to have had significant influence in the region during that era. Fort St.George is divided into two sections – St. Mary’s Church and the Fort Museum. In 1795, the Madras Bank started functioning inside it. The statue of Lord Cornwallis in front of the museum is a masterpiece of art.

Question 9.
Ripon Building.
Answer:
The Ripon Building of Madras is a fine example of the neoclassical style of colonial architecture. This white building is located near the Chennai Central Railway Station. This was built in memory of Lord Ripon, the Viceroy of India. Lord Minto had laid down the foundation stone of this building. In 1913 the Madras Municipal Corporation started functioning inside it. In the same year, Oakes and company put a Westminister Quarter Chiming clock inside it which, is another great attraction.

Question 10.
Establishment of Printing Press at Odisha.
Answer:
The establishment of the Printing Press at Cuttack in 1866 by Bichitrananda Das played a vital role in the language movement in Odisha. From that place was published ‘Utkal Dipika’ under the editorship of Gouri Shankar Roy. Through the effort of Fakir Mohan Senapati and Baikunthanath Dey, two Printing presses were established at Balasore.

Due to that, two newspapers named ‘Sambad Bahika’ and ‘Utkal Darpan’ were published in Balasore. Through these Magazines, efforts were made to preserve the Odia language and expedite the movement.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 11.
Language Movement in Ganjam.
Answer:
Language Movement also took place at Ganjam. Telugu dominated there and the Telugu language was prevalent in the Govt, offices in the undivided Ganjam district. This gave a feeling of inferiority to the people of Ganjam. They were United to Preserve the odia language in that area. By 1870, a new awakening took place at Ganjam which galvanized the odia language. Under the presidency of William Mohanty ‘Utkal Hitabadini Sabha’ submitted a memorandum to the Madras government to retain the odia language in Ganjam.

Question 12.
Language agitation in Sambalpur.
Answer:
A special influence of language agitation was felt in Sambalpur. During that period Sambalpur was included in the central province. On 15 January 1895, the Chief Commissioner of the central province Sir Andrew Frezon ordered to the withdrawal of the odia language from the office and court, and Hindi was introduced in its place. The people of the undivided Sambalpur district became very angry.

‘Sambalpur Hitaisini edited by Nilamani Bidyaratna, views were expressed against this step of the British Government and this step was welcomed by poet Gangadhar Mehera. After Memorandum to Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India a step was taken by him and he wrote to Andrew Frezon to consider the memorandum of the people of Sambalpur.

Question 13.
The Sinha Resolution.
Answer:
Satchidananda Sinha, a staunch supporter to the odia movement, moved a resolution in 1920 recommending the Government of India ‘to formulate a scheme for the 4 amalgamations of Oriya speaking tracts’. This was famous as the ‘Sinha Resolution’. By this, the central province gave consent to transfer Khariar Zamindari and Bihar and it was a favorable reply.

When Madras Government was pressurized to handover Ganjam, Sashibhusan Rath, the editor of ‘Asha’ mobilized the people of Ganjam and by the pressure of the Government of India, Madras Government appointed Philip Duff Committee in 1924 to look into the matter.

Question 14.
O’Donnell Boundary Commission.
Answer:
In the First Round Table Conference Maharaja K.C.Gajapati Narayan Deo of Paralakhemundi made an impressive speech for the formation of Odisha as a separate province. After due consideration, a Boundary Commission was formed in 1931. It was headed by S.P.O’Donell, the Chairman, and other two members H.M. Mehta of Bombay and T.R.Phukkoon of Assam.

The associate members were K.C.Panigrahi of Odisha, Sachidananda Sinha of Bihar and C.V.S. Narasimha Raju represented the Telugus. Following the 1931 census and receiving evidence from 400 witnesses, the commission recommended the creation of a separate Oriya province.

Question 15.
Hubback Committee.
Answer:
The Odisha Administrative Committee or Hubback Committee was formed which examined the issue and submitted its final report on 20 Dec 1933. It made Cuttack as the capital of Odisha and Puri. It’s a summer resort. It recommended a High Court and University for Odisha. The post of Director of Education, Inspector General of Police, and Revenue Commissioner were also recommended by this committee.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 16.
Birth of Odisha Province.
Answer:
The Government of India Act was promulgated in 1975 and its clause 289 recognized Odisha as a separate province. On 3rd March 1936, Odisha was ratified by the British Parliament and received the signature of the Emperor. On 1st April 1936, Odisha has created as a separate province. It consists of six districts with 32,695 square miles and an 8,043,681 population. Sir John Austin Hubback became the first Governor of Odisha. Thus, the struggle of Odias ended with victory and the long cherished dream of Oriya leaders was materialized.

Question 17.
Madhusudan Das and the Utkal Union Conference.
Answer:
The formation of the Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani) was a bold step taken by Madhu Babu which play a vital role in the amalgamation of Odia-speaking tracts. The first session of this conference was organized on 30 December 1903. At the invitation of Madhu Babu, 30 kings, zamindars and many representatives attended this conference. Sri Rama Chandra Bhanja Deo the king of Mayurbhanja presided over the session. The important proposals were the amalgamation of Odia-speaking tracts and the social reformation of Odisha.

Question 18.
Madhu Babu and Politics.
Answer:
Madhu Babu has left an indelible imprint in the field of politics. He was elected as a representative to Orissa. Chhotnagpur Municipality in 1896. He was again elected for the same post in 1900 and dedicated himself to the progress of Odisha. In 1902 as a member of the Bengal Legislative Council Madhu Babu put pressure on the Government to provide more grants for the improvements of Ravenshaw College. To the Legislative Council of Bihar and Orissa Madhu Babu was elected.

Through his effort, the ‘Orissa Tenancy Bill’ was recommended and accepted by the House in 1913. In 1921, Madhu Babu became a Minister of that council and discharged his duty without remuneration and cited an example of self-less service for his people. By his effort on 25 November 1921, a proposal was laid down before the House for the creation of Orissa as a separate province.

Question 19.
Efforts of Madhu Babu for economic independence of the Odias.
Answer:
Madhu Babu had tried for the economic independence of the Odias. He took steps for the development of cottage industries in Odisha. The traditional filigree works of Cuttack were encouraged by him. Till today this has retained its position. Madhu Babu had opened ‘Orissa Art Wares’ at Cuttack.

For the progress of the leather industry, he established a factory named ‘Utkal Tannery’’ at Cuttack. He also taught the weavers the new art of weaving. He was also instrumental in establishing a palm-sugar factory. In fact, Madhu Babu played an important role in the economic progress of Odisha.

Question 20.
Madhu Babu and the spread of Education at Odisha.
Answer:
Madhu Babu took much pain for the spread of education in Odisha. As Vice Chairman of Cuttack Zilla Parishad and member of the Legislative Council, Madhu Babu had taken steps for opening many schools in Odisha. He had advised giving physical training to juveniles in the jail. He also encourages women’s education.

In 1907 when the only Girl’s school was going to be closed, his adopted daughter Sailabala became its Headmistress and it survived. Later on, it became the famous Sailabala Women’s College and encourage women’s education in Odisha. Madhu Babu advocated in favor of voting right for women which materialized in the future.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 21.
Madhu Babu and Puri Jagannath Temples.
Answer:
Although Madhu Babu had accepted Christianity by choice, he had argued in the Court as an advocate to preserve the dignity of Gajapati. In 1902, the British Governor appointed one Deputy Magistrate for the management of Puri Jagannath Temple. Madhu Babu opposed it in the Calcutta High Court and projected that as per the tradition, the Gajapati is the sole custodian of the deities of Puri Jagannath Temple.

The Honourable High Court listened to Madhu Babu and passed an order that the Gajapati should be the custodian of the deities and would carry temple management as per his desire. This episode mode Madhu Babu famous in the nook and comer of Odisha as ‘Madhu Barrister’.

Question 22.
Gopabandhu Das and Establishment of National School.
Answer:
By the advice of Madhusudan Rao, Gaopabandhu established ‘Open Air Middle English School’ in 1909 as Satyabadi of Puri district. On the backside of the Sakhigopal temple, in the natural setting, he started this school. At his request, Acharya Harihar Das, Pandit Nilakantha Dash, Pandit Godabarish Mishra, and Pandit Krupasindhu Mishra joined in the school. These five celebrities are known as the five friends of modem Odisha. The natural setting of the school and the dedication of the teachers attracted the people.

Question 23.
Gopabandhu and Indian National Congress.
Answer:
Gopabandhu played a significant role in popularising the activities of the Indian National Congress in Odisha. Returning from Calcutta after attending a special session of the Indian National Congress in 1920, he was surcharged with the ideology of the Congress. He was determined to spread Gandhian activities in Odisha.

He also attended the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress with others. The representatives from Odisha were deeply moved by this and returning to Odisha, they wanted to implement the ideology of Congress under the leadership of Gopabandhu.

Question 24.
Gopabandhu and the improvement of Odia language & literature.
Answer:
Gopabandhu took steps for the improvement of Odia language and literature. He started a magazine titled ‘Satyabadi’ from Sakhigopal in 1915. In 1919 he published ‘Samaj’ from the same place which was a weekly newspaper. Through this newspaper, he was able to put forth the grievances and demands of the people before the British Government. He himself was also the author of many books like ‘Bandira Atmaksha’ (self-expression of a prisoner), Dhammapada, Go Mahatmya, ‘Abakasa Chinta’ (thought of leisure), etc. which enriched Odia literature.

Question 25.
Gopabandhu and People’s welfare.
Answer:
Gopabandhu was a living example of a messiah for the poor and destitute of Odisha. In 1904 after Gopabandhu had passed B.A. he came to know that some areas of Puri have been submerged in water. During that time all of a sudden, his son became ill. Gopabandhu did not listen to anybody who had advised him to stay at home for his son and went for relief work in that area. His son died but he did not bother about it. He was the first Odia member servant of the People Society. He also took steps for the eradication of untouchability from Odishan society.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 26.
Krushna Chandra Gajapati and Simon Commission.
Answer:
The Simon Commission which landed on Indian soil, boycotted the slogan ‘Simon go back’ . However, by the effort of K.C. Gajapati and other members of the Utkal Sammilani, that committee received Simon Commission with the slogan ‘Welcome Simon’ at Patna Railway station. The Committee became very happy and intimately talked with the members of the Utkal Sammilani paying heed to their problems.

On 27 May 1930, the report of the Simon Commission was published which recommended for the formation of a sub-committee for examining the cause of the creation of Odisha as a separate province. It elated Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo.

Question 27.
K. C. Gajapati and the First Round Table Conference.
Answer:
Although the First Round Table Conference was boycotted by the Indian National Congress. K. C. Gajapati went to London in 1930 to present the demand of Odisha Province before the British Government. By that time the agenda of the meeting had already been prepared. By the persuasion of K.C. Gajapati, a discussion on it was included with the province of Sind.

Due to his influential speech, this Odisha matter was placed in the II, VI & VII charter of the Sub-Committee. During his stay in London, K.C. Gajapati was able to influence Sir Samuel Hoare, the Secretary of State, and other Parliamentarians. This made the path of the creation of Odisha as a separate province very easy.

Question 28.
Prime Minister Krushna Chandra and the progress of Odisha.
Answer:
The first Governor of Odisha was Sir Austin Hubback. By his invitation, K.C. Panigrahi became the Prime Minister of Odisha on 1 st April 1937. Again he adorned the same position from 1941 to 1944. During that period, he devoted his heart and soul to the progress of Odisha. The Odisha High Court, Sri Ramachandra Bhanja Medical College of Cuttack, Utkal University, Rice Research Institute of Bidyadharpur, etc.

were established. That is why Utkal University and Berhampur University conferred on him an honorary Doctorate degree. The Berhampur Medical College and Gajapati district have been named after him to preserve his memory.

Question 29.
Rama Devi and participation in the freedom struggle.
Answer:
Rama Devi had heard the coming of Gandhiji to Odisha on 23 March 1921. On the same night, Mahatma Gandhi addressed a meeting organized by the ladies at Binod Bihari at Cuttack. Rama Devi attended this meeting and presented Mahatma Gandhi with her hand spoon thread and contributed all her ornaments to the Tilak Swaraj Fund. She also took a vow not to wear ornaments and to wear Khaddar Saree throughout her life. She was determined to forgo all the luxuries of her life and to devote her body, mind, and soul to the freedom struggle.

Question 30.
Alakashram and Rama Devi.
Answer:
Alakashram played a vital role in the freedom struggle in India. The National School started there. As an insider. Rama Devi cooked tiffins and meals for the inmates of the Ashram. In 1923-24, cholera spread in Jagatsinghpur. Rama Devi with other workers moved from village to village and advised the people to take preventive injections and to take boiled water.

For eradication of Malaria in that area. She advised to use quinine, she also advised people not to use intoxicants. She also taught spinning and preparation of clothes to the people who came for training to Alakashram.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 31.
Rama Devi and Social work.
Answer:
Rama Devi was an ideal social worker. In 1968, she rendered relief work at the undivided Balasore, Koraput, Dhenkanal, Puri, Ganjam, Phulbani, and Mayurbhanj districts which were affected by droughts. She also worked in the flood,- affected areas. During the Indo-Pak war of 1971. She worked for the refugees who came from East Pakistan to Odisha.

She also worked for the lepers and Harijans. She pacified the student strike at Ravenshaw College in 1964. She took a leading role in the celebration of Gandhiji’s centenary in Odisha in 1969. In 1977 in the centenary year of acharya Harihar, a cancer institute was established at S.C.B. Medical College.

Question 32.
Sarala Devi and Uplitment of Harij.
Answer:
Sarala Devi popularised Gandhian constructive works like women’s education, upliftment of women, eradication of untouchability, adoption of Swadesi, etc. in Odisha. She devoted herself to the upliftment of Harijans. She had given a proposal to the Odisha Govt, to provide education to Harijanas and give them jobs.

She had advised the Government to open agricultural banks and land mortgage banks for protecting the Harijanas from the clutches of money lenders. Through her effort, the Odisha Government built a hostel at Cuttack for the stay of the Harijans.

Question 33.
Provincial Legislative Assembly and Sarala Devi.
Answer:
Sarala Devi was a member of the Provincial Assembly from 1937 to 1944. She was imprisoned during that time and had worked with the Govt, regarding the misbehavior of the jail staff towards the political prisoners. On 28 February 1979, she argued in -favor of co-education and demanded to grant more money for the development of women’s education.

She also introduced the ‘Dowry eradication Bill’ in the Assembly in 1939 which was passed and accepted by the Govt. In the same year, she also introduced ‘The Property Rights of Hindu Women Bill’ which was also passed. She also pressures on women’s franchises.

Question 34.
Literary Activities and Sarala Devi.
Answer:
Sarala Devi was a prolific writer. She translated the book ‘History of Indian National Congress’ of Pattabhi Sitaramayya into Odia and popularised the activities of the congress into the nook and comer of Odisha. Largely her writings were Women Centric. Especially, the problem and rights of Women’s work discussed in her writings.

She played an important role in dragging the women from the four walls of the house and mingling them in the mainstream. In fact, Sarala Devi was an important ideal woman. She played an important role in popularising the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi in Odisha.

Question 35.
Malati Devi and Salt Satyagraha.
Answer:
Malati Devi took an active part in the Salt Satyagraha at Inchudi of Balasore district. She had worked with Rama Devi, Kiranbala Sen, and others. Through her influence, many women joined the Civil Disobedience Movement at Inchudi and prepared salt. She also encouraged the women at Srijang to participate in the movement.

She also encouraged the women at Kujanga who joined the movement with their Queen Bhagyabati Pata Mahadev. Her fiery7 speech dragged the women from the four walls of the house who actively participated in the salt satyagraha.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 36.
Malati Devi and Gandhian Constructive Programme.
Answer:
Malati Devi played an important role to popularise Gandhian constructive
the program inside Odisha. On 30th April 1930. She delivered a fairy speech inspiring the people to boycott foreign clothes. Inspired by her, the cloth merchants of Cuttack did not sell foreign goods.

She had moved a resolution in the congress worker’s meeting at Sambalpur in 1946 regarding the steps to be undertaken for the upliftment of Harijans which was unanimously passed. In 1927, she had taken steps with her husband for the improvement of agriculture, she constructed the ‘Baji ’ Rout Hostel’ at Angul and taught the inmates Gandhian constructive works.

Question 37.
Malati Devi and Prajamandal (Garjat) Movement.
Answer:
The Garjat Movement at Dhenkanal. Talc her, Nilgiri and other places were galvanized by Malati Devi. She with her husband and a great communist leader, Bhagabati Charan Panigrahi organized many secret meetings in different Garjat areas and encouraged them to become free from the clutches of their rulers.

She published a pamphlet titled ‘Ranaveri’. Sarangdhar Das also joined with her to organize in ajamandal movement at Dhenkanal and Baji Rout, a boy of twelve years breathed his last in the Police bullet. Malati Devi wanted the all-round progress of Odisha.

Question 38.
Constituent Assembly.
Answer:
As per the Provision of the cabinet Mission, it was decided the Constituent Assembly would be framed by the election. As per the proposal, there should be 389 members. That election took place in July 1946. Out of 296 seats, the Congress got 212, Muslim League 73, the independent, and others got it.

Manabendra Roy had first thought about the Constituent Assembly. A meeting of the Constituent Assembly was convened on 9 December 1946 in Delhi. It was presided over by Sri Sachidananda Sinha of Bihar. On 11 December 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as its permanent Chairman. Almost all the leading members . of the time were members of the Constituent Assembly

Question 39.
Drafting Committee.
Answer:
For preparing a draft constitution, the Drafting Committee was framed. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar presided over it. Besides him, N.Gopalswamy Aiyengar, A.K. Ayan, Saiyyad Mohammad Saadulla, T.T. Krishnanmachari, D.P. Khaitan, and many others were its members. Dr. B.N. Ray acted as the Chief Constituent Advisor to this Committee. This Committee submitted its report (draft) to the Constituent Assembly on 21 February 1948.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Short Answer Questions

Question 40.
Fundamental Duties.
Answer:
The Fundamental Duties are a unique part of the Indian Constitution. Those are:

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect the national flag and national anthem.
  • To cherish the noble ideals which inspired our freedom stragglers.
  • To uphold the sovereignty unit and integrity of the country.
  • To defend the country and render national service when called on to do so.
  • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among the people of India.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve the national environment include lakes, rivers, and wildlife.
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • To safeguard public property and abjure violence.
  • To strive to achieve excellence in all spheres of individual and collective life so that the nation makes progress.

Must Try:

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CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Multiple Choice Questions with Answers

Question 1.
During which time the pre-colonial town did grow?
(a) Mughal
(b) Maratha
(c) English
(d) French
Answer:
(a) Mughal

Question 2.
Which among the following is a pre-colonial city?
(a) Calcutta
(b) Madras
(c) Bombay
(d) Lahore
Answer:
(d) Lahore

Question 3.
Which town of the South was famous for trade and commerce during the Medieval period?
(a) Walter
(b) Hyderabad
(c) Madurai
(d) Bangalore
Answer:
(c) Madurai

Question 4.
Where did the Portuguese establish their colony in India?
(a) Panaji
(b) Madras
(c) Pondicherry
(d) Musulipattanam
Answer:
(a) Panaji

Question 5.
Where did the French establish their colony in India?
(a) Madras
(b) Panaji
(c) Pondicherry
(d) Musulipattanam
Answer:
(c) Pondicherry

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 6.
Where the Dutch settle in India?
(a) Calcutta
(b) Madras
(c) Pondicherry
(d) Musulipattanam.
Answer:
(d) Musulipattan

Question 7.
In which city the British established their first colony in India?
(a) Calcutta
(b) Madras
(c) Bombay
(d) Pondicherry
Answer:
(b) Madras

Question 8.
In which year railway was introduced in India?
(a) 1825
(b) 1850
(c) 1852
(d) 1853
Answer:
(d) 1853

Question 9.
At the time of the census starting who was the Viceroy of India?
(a) Lord Ripon
(b) Lord Curzon
(c) Lord Bentik
(d) Lord Canning
Answer:
(a) Lord Ripon

Question 10.
From which year census in India for ten years began?
(a) 1870
(b) 1853
(c) 1857
(d) 1881
Answer:
(d) 1881

Question 11.
What was the name of the fort built by the British at Calcutta?
(a) Fort George
(b) Fort William
(c) Fort St.George
(d) Fort Panjim
Answer:
(b) Fort William

Question 12.
Where Fort George was situated?
(a) Madras
(b) Calcutta
(c) Bombay
(d) Pondicherry
Answer:
(a) Madras

Question 13.
Name of the fort built by the British at Bombay?
(a) Fort William
(b) Fort Augustine
(c) Fort Panjim
(d) Fort George
Answer:
(d) Fort George

Question 14.
Name of the European settlement during the British period around the fort?
(a) George Town
(b) White Town
(c) Fort Town
(d) Black Town
Answer:
(b) White Town

Question 15.
For what factory, Calcutta was famous?
(a) cotton
(b) Leather
(c) Jute
(d) Iron
Answer:
(c) Jute

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 16.
At first, where did the British establish Hill Station?
(a) Simia
(b) Mount Abu
(c) Kulu-Manali
(d) Darjeeling
Answer:
(a) Simia

Question 17.
In which year Simia Hill Station was established?
(a) 1816
(b) 1818
(c) 1835
(d) 1876
Answer:
(b) 1818

Question 18.
In which place of Sikkim, the British could establish a hill station?
(a) DarjeeLmg
(b) Sikkim
(c) Simia
(d) Manati
Answer:
(a) Darjeeling

Question 19.
Which British Governor-general built buildings for Government offices and his own residence at Calcutta?
(a) Lord Willim Bentïck
(b) Lord Clive
(c) Lord Wellesley
(d) Lord Hastings
Answer:
(c) Lord Wellesley

Question 20.
Where Victoria Memorial Hall situated in India?
(a) Madras
(b) Pune
(c) Delhi
(d) Calcutta
Answer:
(d) Calcutta

Question 21.
Victorial Memorial was established during which Viceroy time?
(a) LordRippon
(b) Lord Curzon
(c) Lord Canning
(d) Lord Willim Bentick
Answer:
(b) Lord Curzon

Question 22.
Where is St. Paul Cathedral Located?
(a) Bombay
(b) Madras
(c) Calcutta
(d) Goa
Answer:
(c) Calcutta

Question 23.
Which architecture of Bombay is built in the style of Big Ben of London?
(a) Writers Building
(b) Rajabai Tower
(c) Victorial Terminus
(d) Fort William
Answer:
(b) Rajabai Tower

Question 24.
In the Latin language which city is regarded as the ‘most famous city’ of India?
(a) Calcutta
(b) Madras
(c) Bombay
(d) Lahore
Answer:
(c) Bombay

Question 25.
Which architecture was built in order to welcome King George and Queen Mary?
(a) Mount Mary Church
(b) Fort St. George
(c) Gateway of India
(d) Victorial Terminus
Answer:
(c) Gateway of India

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 26.
By whose direction, victoria was built?
(a) George Wettete
(b) F.W. Stevens
(c) William Forbes
(d) George Gilbert
Answer:
(b) F.W Stevens

Question 27.
Which building of Madras (Chennai) is a fine example of the neoclassical style of colonial architecture?
(a) Rippon building
(b) Thomas Mount Church
(c) Madras High Court
(d) Fort St. George
Answer:
(a) Rippon building

Question 28.
As per the letter of Queen Victoria which High Court of India was built?
(a) Bombay High Court
(b) Calcutta High Court
(c) Madras High Court
(d) Delhi High Court
Answer:
(c) Madras High Court

Question 29.
Who had told – ‘Odia is not an independent language’.
(a) R.L. Mitra
(b) R.C. Majumdar
(c) Kanti Chandra Bhattacharya
(d) Gouri Shankar Ray
Answer:
(c) Kanti Chandra Bhattacharya

Question 30.
In which year Ravenshaw College was established?
(a) 1803
(b) 1806
(c) 1867
(d) 1868
Answer:
(d) 1868

Question 31.
Who had established the printing press at Cuttack?
(a) Bichitrananda Das
(b) Gouri Shankar- Ray
(c) Fakir Mohan
(d) Gangadhar Meher
Answer:
(a) Bichitrananda Das

Question 32.
In which year printing press was established at Cuttack in Odisha?
(a) 1829
(b) 1866
(c) 1869
(d) 1876
Answer:
(b) 1866

Question 33.
Magazine ‘Utkal Dipika’ was published by the editorship of whom?
(a) Fakir Mohan
(b) Gangadhan Meher
(c) Bichitrananda Das
(d) Gouri Shankar Ray
Answer:
(d) Gouri Shankar Ray

Question 34.
Who introduced the Hindi language in Sambalpur?
(a) Lord Curzon
(b) Andrew Frezan
(c) Major Impey
(d) Dr. Hansan
Answer:
(b) Andrew Frezan

Question 35.
By whom ‘Sambalpur Hitaisini’ was edited?
(a) Brajamohan Pattnaik
(b) Gangadhar Meher
(c) Dharanidhar Mishra
(d) Nilamani Bidyaratna
Answer:
(d) Nilamani Bidyaratna

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 36.
Who influenced Lord Curzon to visit Odisha?
(a) Gopabandhu Das
(b) Krushna Chandra Narayan Deo
(c) Madhusudan Das
(d) Gouri Shankar Ray
Answer:
(c) Madhusudan Das

Question 37.
Under whose leadership ‘Utkal Hitabadini Sabha’ was formed at Berhampur?
(a) Curzon
(b) Dr. Hansan
(c) Wiliam Mohanty
(d) Malati Devi
Answer:
(c) Wiliam Mohanty

Question 38.
In which year Rishley circular was published?
(a) 1902
(b) 1903
(c) 1904
(d) 1905
Answer:
(b) 1903

Question 39.
In which year Sambalpur detached from the central province and became a part of the Odisha Division?
(a) 1903
(b) 1904
(c) 1905
(d) 1906
Answer:
(c) 1905

Question 40.
In which year Utkal Union conference was formed?
(a) 1890
(b) 1899
(c) 1905
(d) 1903
Answer:
(d) 1903

Question 41.
Bihar Odisha province was created in
(a) 1910
(b) 1911
(c) 1912
(d) 1916
Answer:
(d) 1913

Question 42.
In which year the separate province was formed?
(a) 1932
(b) 1934
(c) 1935
(d) 1936
Answer:
(d) 1936

Question 43.
Who went from Odisha to raise the question of the formation of Odisha as a separate province in the first Round table Conference held at London in 1930?
(a) Baikunthanath Dey
(b) Krushna Chandra Narayan Deo
(c) Sri Ram Chandra Bhaja Deo
(d) Birakishore Dev
Answer:
(b) Krushna Chandra Narayan Deo

Question 44.
Which committee gave the final report to make Cuttack the capital of Odisha?
(a) Hubback Committee
(b) Philip-Duff Committee
(c) O’Donnell Committee
(d) Joint Parliamentary Committee
Answer:
(a) Hubback Committee

Question 45.
Who was the First Prime Minister of Odisha?
(a) Baikunthanath Dey
(b) Sri Ram Chandra Bhanja Deo
(c) Krusha Chandra Narayan
(d) Birakishore Dev
Answer:
(b) Sri Ram Chandra Bhanja Deo

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 46.
Who was the first Governor of Odisha?
(a) Ravenshaw Saheb
(b) Barlo
(c) Austin Hubback
(d) Hansan
Answer:
(c) Austin Hubback

Question 47.
In which village was Madhu Babu born?
(a) kheras
(b) Salepur
(c) Padmapur
(d) Satyabhamapur
Answer:
(d) Satyabhamapur

Question 48.
In which year ‘Utkal Sabha’ was formed?
(a) 1878
(b) 1880
(c) 1885
(d) 1904
Answer:
(a) 1878

Question 49.
When the Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani) was formed?
(a) 1866
(b) 1885
(c) 1888
(d) 1903
Answer:
(d) 1903

Question 50.
Who had established the Utkal Tannery?
(a) Madhu Babu
(b) Gopabandhu Das
(c) Rama Devi
(d) Malati Devi
Answer:
(a) Madhu Babu

Question 51.
When was the ‘Odisha Tennery Bill’ introduced in Bihar-Odisha Legislative Council?
(a) 1900
(b) 1911
(c) 1912
(d) 1913
Answer:
(d) 1913

Question 52.
Who is known as the ‘Gem of Utkal’ (Utkal Mani)?
(a) Madhu babu
(b) Gopabandhu
(c) Krushna Chandra Dev
(d) Gouri Shankar
Answer:
(b) Gopabandhu

Question 53.
Who has established the Open Air Middle English School at Satyabadi?
(a) Madhu Babu
(b) Fakir Mohan
(c) Gopabndhu
(d) Rama Devi
Answer:
(c) Gopabndhu

Question 54.
Who was the founder of the newspaper ‘Samaj’?
(a) Gopabandhu Das
(b) Acharya Harihar
(c) Malati Devi
(d) Madhusiidan Das
Answer:
(a) Gopabandhu Das

Question 55.
who was the first President of the Utkal Pradesli Committee?
(a) Acharya Harihar
(b) Krupasindhu Mishra
(c) Gopabandhu Das
(d) Dr. Ekram Rasool
Answer:
(c) Gopabandhu Das

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 56.
Who composed ‘Bandira Atmakatha’ (Poems of the Prison)?
(a) Radhanath Roy
(b) Madhusudan Das
(c) Gopabandhu Das
(d) Malati Devi
Answer:
(c) Gopabandhu Das

Question 57.
In which year the session of the Utkal Union Conference was held at Paralakhemundi?
(a) 1902
(b) 1903
(c) 1912
(d) 1914
Answer:
(d) 1914

Question 58.
The Bidyadharpur Rice Research Institute was introduced by whose effort?
(a) Gopabandhu
(b) Madhu Babu
(c) Krushna Chandra Gajapati
(d) Malati Devi
Answer:
(c) Krushna Chandra Gajapati

Question 59.
From Odisha who participated in the first Round Table Conference at London?
(a) Madhu Babu
(b) Krushna Chandra Gajpati
(c) Gopabandhu Das
(d) Rama Devi
Answer:
(b) Krushna Chandra Gajpati

Question 60.
Who was given the title ‘Meherbani-i-Dostan’?
(a) Krushna Chandra Gajpati
(b) Madhu Babu
(c) Fakir Mohan
(d) Gangadhar Meher
Answer:
(a) Krushna Chandra Gajpati

Question 61.
Who was the husband of Rama Devi?
(a) Gopabandhu Das
(b) Gopabandhu Choudhury
(c) Manmohan Chaudhury
(d) Bhagirathi Mohapatra
Answer:
(b) Gopabandhu Choudhury

Question 62.
In which Ashram of Jagatsinghpur did Rama Devi stay?
(a) Sevaghar
(b) Alakashram
(c) Anakhia Ashram
(d) Delanga Ashram
Answer:
(b) Alakashram

Question 63.
What is the name of the Ashram where Rama Devi stayed at Bari?
(a) Kujibar Ashram
(b) Alakashram
(c) Sebaghar
(d) Anakhia Ashram
Answer:
(c) Sebaghar

Question 64.
Name of the woman of Odisha who gets an award from Jamunalal Baj aj foundation?
(a) Rama Devi
(b) Malati Devi
(c) Sarala Devi
(d) Kokila Devi
Answer:
(a) Rama Devi

Question 65.
While reading at Banki School, Sarala Devi was inspired by her love for the motherland.
(a) Laxmi Bai
(b) Suka Dei
(c) Ahalya Bai
(d) Durga Vati
Answer:
(b) Suka Dei

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 66.
What was the name of the husband of Sarala Devi?
(a) Bhagirathi Mohapatra
(b) Naba Krushna Choudhury
(c) Gopabandhu Das
(d) Gopabandhu Choudhury
Answer:
(a) Bhagirathi Mohapatra

Question 67.
What was the name of the center which was opened by the efforts of Sarala Devi to train Satyagrahis?
(a) Karma Mandir
(b) Udyog Mandir
(c) Jana Mandir
(d) Swaraj Mandir
Answer:
(b) Udyog Mandir

Question 68.
In which Ashram Malati Devi was staying?
(a) Alakashram
(b) Sebaghar
(c) Anakhia Ashram
(d) Nemalo Ashram
Answer:
(c) Anakhia Ashram

Question 69.
Name of the lady of Odisha who attended the Karachi Session of India National Congress.
(a) Kama Devi
(b) Malati Devi
(c) Kokila Devi
(d) Sarala Devi
Answer:
(b) Malati Devi

Question 70.
Who established‘Navajeevan Mandal’at Angul?
(a) Malati Devi
(b) Rama Devi
(c) Sarala Devi
(d) Kokila Devi
Answer:
(a) Malati Devi

Question 71.
Who edited a Magazine named ‘Krusaka’ (farmer)?
(a) Gopabandhu Das
(b) Gourishankar Ray
(c) Malati Devi
(d) Rama Devi
Answer:
(c) Malati Devi

Question 72.
With Mahatma Gandhi, Malati Devi traveled to which area to pacify the communal riot?
(a) Cuttak
(b) Surat
(c) Calcutta
(d) Noakhali
Answer:
(d) Noakhali

Question 73.
Which lady freedom fighter was inspired by Vinoba Babe and actively participated in Bhoodan Movement in Odisha?
(a) Kokila Devi
(b) Sarala Devi
(c) Malati Devi
(d) Rama Devi
Answer:
(c) Malati Devi

Question 74.
Name of the husband of Malati Devi.
(a) Gopabandu Das
(b) Nabakrushna Choudhury
(c) Bhagirathi Mohapatra
(d) Madhusudan Das
Answer:
(b) Nabakrushna Choudhury

Question 75.
By whose proposal, the ‘Constituent Assembly’ was formed?
(a) Risely Circular
(b) Cabinet Mission
(c) Crips
(d) O’Donnell Committee
Answer:
(b) Cabinet Mission

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 76.
Where the meeting of the Constituent Assembly took place?
(a) Calcutta
(b) Madras
(c) Bombay
(d) Delhi
Answer:
(d) Delhi

Question 77.
Who was the first President of the Constituent Assembly?
(a) B. R. Ambedkar
(b) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Sachidananda Sinha
(d) Rajendra Prasad
Answer:
Sachidananda Sinha

Question 78.
Who is regarded as the founder of the Indian Constitution?
(a) Rajendra Prasad
(b) B. R. Ambedkar
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru
Answer:
(b) B. R. Ambedkar

Question 79.
When was the Constituent Assembly convened?
(a) 9 December 1946
(b) 27 December 1949
(c) 26 January 1950
(d) 9 March 1948
Answer:
(a) 9 December 1946

Question 80.
What was the desire of the Constituent Assembly?
(a) Establishment of Democracy
(b) Establishment of Diarchy
(c) Establishment of Monarchy
(d) Establishment of Nazism
Answer:
(a) Establishment of Democracy

Question 81.
What is the type of Indian Constitution?
(a) Unwriter
(b) Writer
(c) Flexible
(d) Rigid
Answer:
(b) Writer

Question 82.
In which country is found the largest written constitution of the World?
(a) America
(b) England
(c) Germany
(d) India
Answer:
(d) India

Question 83.
What is known as the Conscience of the Indian Constitution?
(a) Fundamental Rights
(b) Fundamental Duties
(c) Directive Principles
(d) Independent Judiciary
Answer:
(a) Fundamental Rights

Question 84.
The Right to Property became a Fundamental Right by which constitutional amendment?
(a) 42
(b) 43
(c) 44
(d) 62
Answer:
(a) 44

Question 85.
Before the amendment, which Article contained the Right to Property?
(a) 30
(b) 31
(c) 19
(d) 32
Answer:
(b) 31

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 86.
What is the minimum age to cast vote in India?
(a) 18
(b) 21
(c) 14
(d) 19
Answer:
(a) 18

Question 87.
By constitutional amendment, fundamental duties have been inserted into the Indian Constitution.
(a) 42
(b) 44
(c) 47
(d) 48
Answer:
(a) 42

Question 88.
Which of the following is the highest fundamental law given to the country?
(a) High Court
(b) Lok Adalat
(c) Supreme Court
(d) Constitution
Answer:
(c) Supreme Court

Question 89.
Indian Constitution forms which type of Government?
(a) Presidential form
(b) Parliamentary form
(c) Judiciary form
(d) Legislative form
Answer:
(b) Parliamentary form

Question 90.
Indian Constitution provides which type of citizenship?
(a) Single citizenship
(b) Dual citizenship
(c) Multi citizenship
(d) No citizenship
Answer:
(a) Single citizenship

Fill in the Blanks.

Question 1.
___________ was a pre-colonial city.
Answer:
Lahore

Question 2.
The Dutch established their colony at ___________ in India.
Answer:
Muslipattnam

Question 3.
The French established their colony in India.
Answer:
Pondicharry

Question 4.
The English first established their colony in India at ___________.
Answer:
Madras

Question 5.
Among the Europeans in India ___________ were very clever.
Answer:
English

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 6.
___________ was famous for an iron factory during colonial rule.
Answer:
Bhilai

Question 7.
From ___________ Viceroy, the census began in India.
Answer:
Lord Ripen

Question 8.
In the ‘White town’ ___________ lived.
Answer:
Europeans

Question 9.
In cities ___________ got entertainment through dance, song, tamsa, etc.
Answer:
common people

Question 10.
Viceroy ___________ first built a building at Calcutta for Governmental work.
Answer:
Lord Wellesley

Question 11.
Victoria Memorial was built in ___________.
Answer:
1906

Question 12.
At ___________ In Calcutta, High Court was built.
Answer:
Esplanade

Question 13.
By the guidance of ___________, the town hall of Bombay was built.
Answer:
Colonel Thomas Cooper

Question 14.
The clock at ___________ is built in the fashion of Big Ben of London.
Answer:
Rajabai Tower

Question 15.
The present name of Victoria Tenninus is ___________.
Answer:
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 16.
In the year ___________ the Bombay University was constructed.
Answer:
1957

Question 17.
Eros Cinema Hall is located at ___________.
Answer:
Bombay

Question 18.
In the year ___________, the Bombay High Court started functioning.
Answer:
1862

Question 19.
Elphinstone College is situated at ___________.
Answer:
Bombay

Question 20.
___________ laid the foundation stone of the Ripon Building.
Answer:
Lord Minto

Question 21.
___________ Church has been declared a national shrine in 2006.
Answer:
St. Thomas Mount Church

Question 22.
The Madras Museum is situated at ___________.
Answer:
Egmore

Question 23.
Chepak Palace is located at ___________.
Answer:
Madras

Question 24.
The ___________ City of Pakistan was the Pre-colon Ial City.
Answer:
Lahore

Question 25.
In ___________ year began the census in India.
Answer:
1881

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 26.
___________ Fort was built by the English at Madras.
Answer:
Fort St. George

Question 27.
___________was the first established hill station in India.
Answer:
Shimla

Question 28.
Viceroy ___________ had first shifted his residence from Delhi to Shimla during the summer.
Answer:
Lord Lawrence

Question 29.
Victorial Memorial is situated at ___________.
Answer:
Calcutta

Question 30.
The British occupied Odisha in ___________.
Answer:
1803

Question 31.
At Balasore, the Printing Press was established in ___________.
Answer:
1866

Question 32.
In ___________ year Madras Government declared Odia language to prevail in the Presidency.
Answer:
1890

Question 33.
___________ helped Nilamani Bidyaratna with the introduction of the Odia language in
Sambalpur.
Answer:
Gangadhar Meher

Question 34.
___________newspaper was published under the Patronage of Harihar Mardaraj.
Answer:
Prajabandhu

Question 35.
In ___________ year Utkal Sabha was formed at Cuttack.
Answer:
1882

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 36.
Sir S. C. Bele was ___________ of Bengal.
Answer:
Prajabandhu

Question 37.
Sir Andrew Frazer was ___________ of Central Province.
Answer:
Chief Commission

Question 38.
In ___________ year Sambalpur was separated from Central Province.
Answer:
1905

Question 39.
A.C. Duff was a member of ___________.
Answer:
Philip Duff Committee

Question 40.
Hubback Committee was formed in ___________.
Answer:
1933

Question 41.
Committee gave a proposal for the creation of the Odisha High Court.
Answer:
Hubback Committee

Question 42.
___________ took oath as the first Governor of Odisha.
Answer:
Sir John Austin Hubback

Question 43.
Lord Linlithgo was the Chairman of ___________.
Ans.
Joint Parliamentary Committee

Question 44.
Madhusudan Das died in ___________.
Answer:
1934

Question 45.
___________ told that teaching should be imparted in Bengalee in Odisha Schools.
Answer:
Umacharan Haidar

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 46.
___________ editorship Utkal Dipika was published.
Answer:
Gourishankar Ray

Question 47.
From ___________ place, the two newspapers named ‘Sambad Bahika’ and ‘Utkal Darsan’ were published.
Answer:
Balasore

Question 48.
___________ was the editor of ‘Sambalpur Hiteisini’.
Answer:
Nilamani Bidyaratna

Question 49.
___________ was the ruling region of Krushna Chandra Narayan Deo.
Answer:
Paralakhemundi

Question 50.
In ___________ year Simon Commission visited India.
Answer:
1928

Question 51.
__________ has been given the title the ‘Pride of Utkal’ (Utkal Gouraba).
Answer:
Madhusudan Das

Question 52.
___________is known as the ‘Grand old Man’ of Odisha.
Answer:
Madhu Babu

Question 53.
___________was elected as a member of Odisha and Chhotanagpur Municipality.
Answer:
Madhu Babu

Question 54.
___________had argued for the franchise of Odia women.
Answer:
Madhu Babu

Question 55.
___________had tried for the progress of filigree work at Cuttack.
Answer:
Madhu Babu.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 56.
Gopabandhu died in ___________.
Answer:
1928

Question 57.
___________ had started the Gandhian (Congress) movement in Odisha,
Answer:
Gopabandhu Das

Question 58.
___________ is the founder of the newspaper ‘Samaj’.
Answer:
Gopabandhu Das

Question 59.
___________had participated in the First Round Table Conference.
Answer:
Krushna Chandra Gajapati

Question 60.
Alakashrama was established on the river bank of ___________.
Answer:
Alaska

Question 61.
___________Committee had finalized the administrative function and territorial arrangement of Odisha Province.
Answer:
Hubback Committee

Question 62.
Rama Devi Participated in the Salt Satyagraha at ___________ of the Balasore District.
Answer:
Inchudi

Question 63.
___________had pacified the student agitation at Ravenshaw College in 1964.
Answer:
1964

Question 64.
In the Salt Satyagraha in Ganjam, Women freedom fighters ___________played a vital role.
Answer:
Sarala Devi

Question 65.
___________ translated the book ‘History of Indian National Congress’ into Odia language.
Answer:
Sarala Devi

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 66.
___________was the husband of Malati Choudhury.
Answer:
Nabakrushna Choudhury

Question 67.
___________had established Baji Rout Hostel at Angul.
Answer:
Malati Devi

Question 68.
___________had donated all her ornaments to the ‘Utkal Congress Socialist Workers Association’.
Answer:
Malati Devi

Question 69.
___________had played a vital role in the Garjat Movement.
Answer:
Malati Devi

Question 70.
Madhu Babu had accepted ___________religion.
Answer:
Christianity

Question 71.
In ___________village of Puri District Gopabandhu Das was born.
Answer:
Suando

Question 72.
After India became independent, in ___________ movement did Rama Devi join.
Answer:
Bhoodan Movement

Question 73.
In 1921, ___________session of the Indian Congress was attended by Sarala Devi.
Answer:
Nagpur

Question 74.
___________Magazine was edited by Malati Devi.
Answer:
Krusaka

Question 75.
___________, Women Freedom Fighter of Odisha had denied receiving the ‘ Jaimmalal Bajaj Foundation’Award.
Answer:
Malati Devi

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 76.
The Magazine titled ‘Satyabadi’ was published at ___________.
Answer:
Sarshigopal

Question 77.
The present name of Victoria High School is ___________.
Answer:
Bhakta Madhu Vidyapitha

Question 78.
For restoring communal harmony, ___________ traveled with Mahatma Gandhi in the Noakhali area of Bengal.
Answer:
Malati Devi

Question 79.
___________was a member of the Odisha Provincial Council from 1937 to 1944.
Answer:
Sarala Devi

Question 80.
In the Prajamandal Movement of Odisha, ___________ played a vital role.
Answer:
Malati Devi

Question 81.
The Indian Constitution came into force from ___________.
Answer:
26 January 1950

Question 82.
___________was the Permanent Chairman of the Constituent Assem iy.
Answer:
Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Question 83.
___________is the father of Indian Constitution.
Answer:
B. R. Ambedkar

Question 84.
The Indian Constitution was adopted in ___________.
Answer:
26 November 1949

Question 85.
The idea of ___________ freedom struggle has been reflected in the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
American War of Independence

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 86.
The idea of ___________revolution created an idea in forming the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
French Revolution

Question 87.
India is a Union of ___________.
Answer:
States

Question 88.
By ___________, the Supreme Court of India protects the interest of the Citizens.
Answer:
Writ

Question 89.
The Indian Constitution contains ___________ fundamental duties.
Answer:
10

Question 90.
The fundamental rights are the conscience of the Indian Constitution was told by ___________.
Answer:
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

Question 91.
The constitutional amendment procedure has been described in Article ___________.
Answer:
368

Question 92.
Article ___________ of the Indian Constitution empowers a citizen to profess and propagate religion as per one’s desire.
Answer:
Article 25

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 93.
The Indian Judiciary works on ___________.
Answer:
Integrated Judicial System

Question 94.
___________was the advisor of the Constitutional Drafting Committee.
Answer:
B.N. Rao

Question 95.
___________ is the objective of the constitution.
Answer:
Preamble

Question 96.
___________one is called as the ‘Lawyers Paradise’.
Answer:
Indian Constitution

Question 97.
___________ Indian first thought about the Constituent Assembly.
Answer:
Manabendra Roy

Question 98.
___________is regarded as the conscience of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Fundamental Rights

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Objective Questions

Question 99.
___________ Articles are there in the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
395

Question 100.
___________ schedules are there in the Indian Constitution
Answer:
10

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CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

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CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

Long Type Questions and Answers

Sources Of Odisha History Question 1.
Discuss the various aspects regarding the relevance of History?
Answer:
History is a pressing social need. Whether he may be a play writer, storyteller, doctor, scientist, pact, educationist, or the common. It is for all History teaches us about the past. The study of the past is important to understand the events of the present. history continuous story of one event leading to another, the present cannot be understood without understanding the past.

History provides identity to a nation. It is a natural instinct for the people of every country nation or society to know of their past. Because it contains the descriptions of generation. A nation needs its identity before the world community. History provides identity. History is not merely a certificate of praise for any nation. It is both a source of inspiration as well as of warning.

If some particular reasons lead to a downfall at one time, the nation should remain wide awake against those follies not to suffer again. Thus, to the thinking minds and the rulers of men, History holds lessons about the strength and weaknesses of the nation. History because learn many lessons from it. If we study history, there is a lesser chance of repeating the mistakes made by our ancestors.

History teaches us how harmful and destructive wars can be. History reminds the people of its past glories and inspires the nation to face the challenges with courage. For example, during the evil days of British rule, the Indian Nationalists thought of their glorious past and inspired the people to stand up against the foreigners. Thus, history proves, how a small band of united people can defeat a much stronger enemy.

History of ancient and great countries has greater relevance in modem age when the man has conquered time & distance of the world is regarded as a ‘global village’ countries with rich historical heritage invites countless visitors from all parts of the world. This led sot greater understanding among nations. The teachings of great men in the mirror of histories such as Buddha, Gandhiji, Gum Nanak, Sri Chaitanya, and many others are of great relevance.

We try to follow their teaching in our daily lives. This makes us better human beings and helps society to function better. History is regarded as the highest court of justice to pass judgment on the deeds or misdeeds of great men of the past. However, a great one could have been he cannot escape the verdict of history. History is the eternal witness to man’s virtues and vices, good deeds wind evil doings.

History also holds lessons about good and bad governments. It is witness to various systems such as monarchy, oligarchy, aristocracy, despotism, and democracy. Showing the merits and demerits of different systems of governance helps modem society to choose its own method. History holds examples of how smaller notions like Greece.

Italy could fight for Independence against stronger powers by deriving pride from its ancient past. History has relevance for self-revival in times of crisis. To sum up, it may be said that the relevance of History in the supreme lessons of upholds regarding the victory of truth over untruth of justice over injustice, and of moral values over forces of evil. History shows the causes and consequences of various actions. It provides an ideal for mankind to uphold.

Sources Of History Question And Answer Question 2.
Verify the dignity of Archaeological and Epigraphical sources of Indian History?
Answer:
Historians reconstruct events of the past system manually and scientifically using various tools and sources of information. They depend on archeological and literary sources along with the study of coins, inscriptions, and accounts of foreign travelers. Archaeological sources include houses, temples, tools, jewelry, fossils, and other objects left behind by people.

Archaeological sources:
For collecting information about the pre-historic, past historians have to depend solely on the remains or nuns of the past. Archaeologists dig up sites where people might have lived and bring out various objects which have been lived and bring out various objects which have been buried under the earth for many years. These objects may include fools, jewelry, fossils, and arts and crafts. At times houses where people lived, temples where people went to worship, and even the log out of an entire city have been excavated by archaeologists.

These provide valuable clues to historians for reconstructing the history of that period. The knowledge of most of the ancient civilizations such as Harapan, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian is based on archaeological evidence. Archaeologists while digging have found such objects which throw light on the life of the people and give information about the objects they used.

However, the task of archaeologists is extremely difficult because in most cases, the excavated objects are in fragments and archaeologists have to study the pieces minutely and carefully to get an idea about their use. In their work, they have to take anthropologists, physicists, and biologists to determine the bone structure or age of an object, etc. However, in the case of monuments, buildings, and other objects found above ground level, they may not have such problems.

Epigraphy:
The study of inscriptions in knowledge as Epigraphy. In the absence of paper, people used sharp instruments to write on hard surfaces. These are referred to as inscriptions. Inscriptions may be found on seals, copper plates, stone pillar rocks, or temple walls. They provide valuable information. Though the Harappan were the first to inscribe their script on seals, these have not yet been deciphered.

The oldest Indian inscriptions to have been deciphered so far are those issued by Asoka in the third century B.C. Though the earliest inscriptions have been found on stone, copper plates were used by the First century A.D. such copper plates have been found near Taxila. Earlier inscriptions were in Prakrit. Ashok and edicts were inscribed in Greek Aramaic and karoshi Scripts in the language of the local people.

Sanskrit was used in inscriptions bearing the history of the Mauryan post-Mauryan and the Gupta period has been published like. Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta, Junagarh inscription of Rudraman I. Aihole stone inscription of pulses II, etc. From the language, script style of composition, and the occasion when inscriptions were engraved we come to know about the political, social, economic conditions of the period to which they belong. The inscriptions being engraved on metals and stones cannot be tampered with without detection.

Numismatics:
The study of coins is known as numismatics coins struck at different times by different rules provide valuable clues regarding dates names of rules, regions where these have been struck as well as the metal sued. Ancient coins were made of Copper, Gold, Silver, or lead coin molds made of burnt clay have been found in large numbers. Coins made of metal first appeared in the Buddhist period.

They were made of silver or copper and were called punch-marked coins because pieces of these metals were punched with certain marks such as trees, fish, etc. Early coins were known as cricks or stamina. Most of the coins however belonged to the Kushana. period. People kept the coins in earthen or bronze used as precious hoards, to be used in times of heed. Such hoards coins have been found in the southern part of India especially in Arikameda on the eastern coast, indicating commercial contact with the Roman empire.

The Gupta period is well known for gold coins. Coins bore the names of the rules and often carried the image of the gold they worshipped. For example “Samudragupta’s coins show him playing the veena, so we can see that coins provide various types of information about a particular period. Socio-economic and cultural aspects of a particular period may be inferred from the details Quailable on coins. Thus, coins are important sources of information.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

Sources Of History Question Answer Question 3.
Stress regarding the builders of the Indus valley civilization?
Answer:
Who were the builders of the Indus civilization on this point, historians hold different opinions. According to some, long before the Aryans came to India, the Dravidians lived on the soil of this land. They were highly civilized. They built the Indus civilization. It was thus pre-Aryan and pre-Vedic civilization. To others, Ariane was the makes of Indus civilization. They came much earlier than it is supposed.

Their early settlements were in the northwestern regions of India and the Indus valley. Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa were their work. The third opinion is the builders of the Indus civilization were the Sumerians of Mesopotamia or some other people of that group of men. It is for this reason that there is a good deal of similarity between the civilizations of the Samer and Indus valley. The last of the three opinions do not seem to be correct.

There were trade relations between Mesopotamia and India from very ancient times. Different goods of Mesopotamia came to this country and many Indian goods were sold in Samer or Babylon. It is for this reason that similar goods have been found from the rains of the Samer and Indus cities. It is also natural that many ancient peoples used similar things for their livelihood. But comparing such things one cannot say that people of both places belonged to the same race or group.

Thus the Indus Valley people and the people of Sumer or Babylon were not the same. The question, however, remains if they were Dravidians or Aryans. Enough though has been to this subject. It is seen at last that there were some basic differences between the Indus civilization and the Aryan civilization. In view of these differences, it is difficult to suggest that the Aryans were the author of the Indus civilization. John Marshall has described those differences in the following manner. The Vedic Aryans worshipped the Bull.

The Aryans were the worshippers of Nature, they performed yajna and offered prayers to their Gods. But the Indus people were devoted to a mother Goddess and they worshipped trees, animals, and snakes. The Aryans did not like to live in cities, they loved to live in a simple rural atmosphere a mind the beauty of Nature. But the people of Indus culture built beautiful cities and loved to live prosperous urban life.

The Aryans were not in great favor of trade and commerce, they did not like sea Voyages. But the Indus people were fond of trade and commerce for which they traveled far and wide across the seas. The ancient script and writings of the Aryans have not yet been discovered. But the Indus valley people had developed scripts that are available in plenty from the rains. The Aryans were a race of warriors, they used various weapons to attack others. But the Indus people seem to have been a peace-loving race.

The Aryans used horses very much. But the Indus people knew very little of that animal. With such differences between the Aryans and the Indus people, it will be perhaps wrong to say that the Aryans built the Indus civilization. It is imagined, therefore, that the Indus valley civilization was the work of the Dravidians. It may be said, however, that history needs still more evidence to accept this theory.

Sources Of History Questions And Answers Question 4.
Explain the Chief features of town planning in Harappan civilization?
Answer:
The ruins of the cities of the Indus valley civilization display the remarkable skill of the people in town planning and sanitation. The main features are cities with their wide and straight stress efficient and covered drainage, structurally comfortable houses with bathrooms, and built of burnt bricks of various shapes.

Roads:
The cities of the Indus valley were well-planned. The main roads followed a straight course from north to south and east to west intersecting at right angles. Houses were constructed in an orderly fashion on both sides of the Street. Harappa was famous for its town planning.

Drainage:
The drainage system was very impressive. The main drains covered with bricks or stones ran below the streets and were connected with the house drains. The bathrooms had sloping floors and drain that were connected to the street drains. The kitchen too had drained. The street drains ran along the sides of the street and were covered with bricks. They were cleaned at regular intervals. This system shows that the people paid great attention to health and Sanitation.

The citadel:
The cities were divided into two parts. The upper part has built on raised ground. It has been called the citadel or the acropolis. The citadel had high walls which provided protection during floods. It contained public buildings, religious structures, and granaries probably, the rating classes lived here. The lower part called the lower town was much bigger. It contained the houses and workplaces of the common people.

The Great bath:
The most striking feature of Mohenjodaro is the Great Bath. It is a rectangular structure resembling a swimming pool. There were some small bathrooms attached evidently for bathing before entering the Great bath provision was made for draining the bath when needed.

Granaries:
At Harappa, a number of granaries have been found surplus grains were stored in these granaries. Granaries were located near the bathroom. Near the granaries, circular brick platforms have also been found. They were probably used for threshing grain.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

Sources Of History Question Answers Question 5.
Explain the socio-economic and religious life of the Indus valley people?
Answer:
Many things have been discovered from Mohenjodaro and Harappa. They include small images and seals. From the designs on the seals and the images, scholars, from ideas regarding the social economic, and religious conditions of the Indus civilization. There is other evidence also to give a clear picture of the Indus life. Below is given a brief account of the social, economic, and religious life of the Indus Valley people.

Social life :
The social life of the Indus people was highly developed. The Indus people were as advanced as the ancient. Egyptians and Sumerians are spheres of education. This is proved countless seals which contain very find scripts. Unfortunately, scholars have not yet been able to read the Indus scripts.

Attempts are being made to read them when they will be read many things will be known about the culture of that time. For the time it is enough to say that the existence of letters meant the existence of the art of writing. As many as 396 letters have been discovered so far. The Indus people lived a luxurious life. It is known from their ornaments and dress. People were fond of beautiful ornaments. The rich and the poor alike used them. The rich people used ornaments of gold, silver costly stones, and ivory.

The poor people used ornaments of copper, bones, and even burnt clay. Neckless, rings, earrings, and armlets are commonly used by women. Even men used different types of ornaments. The ornaments were artistic and attractive. The Indus people also used good dress. They were experts in the art of weaving.

In their food habits, the Indus people were quite advanced. They ate wheat, rice, barley, meat, fish, fruits, and vegetables and drank milk. They used cows, lambs, pigs, buffaloes, camels as domestic animals. Elephants were also used for various purposes. It is, however, not yet clear if they knew the use of horse and dog. The latest discoveries suggest, perhaps they did know. The Indus people knew the use of several metals.

They prepared many things of day to day use from those metals. Gold, silver, copper, tin bronze and lead were of common use. It is to be noted however that no iron has been discovered from the ruins of Mohenjodaro and Harappa. People made their utensils in copper or bronze. Earthen pots were used in plenty. They were painted in color. Toys of many kinds have been recovered from the rains.

Small figures of animals, birds men, and women were prepared in clay. Perhaps children used those as toys. The grown men and women played different games. They lived happy life. They enjoyed dancing. An attractive dress was used. Both men and women used combs and they liked attractive hairstyles. The bathrooms in every house prove that people believe in cleanliness. The Indus people were patrons of art.

Excellent ornaments, painted earthen pots, earthen toys of any kind, images made of bronze or stone, and the attractive designs on the seas give testimony to the love of the people for art. The figures of animals on the seas prove that the Indus artists and craftsmen were very competent in their work. The Indus valley people used copper and bronze weapons.

Battle axe dagger, spear, bow, and arrow were their main weapons. It is not yet clear if they used swords and shields. The Indus people used to bum or bury their dead. All these points give some idea about the social aspects of the Indus Valley civilization.

Economic life :
It can be easily said that the people who built great cities like Mohenjidaro and Harappa were economically prosperous. It is on economic foundations that an Urban civilization grows up. Mohenjudara and Harappa passed that foundation. It is believed that in those remote days there used to be heavy rains in the Indus region. Side by side the river Indus supplied much water for rice cultivation.

The soil was fertile and the Indus people were hardworking. They produced plenty of wheat and barley. According to some scholars, the living standard of the common men of the Indus valley than the standard of the common people in the Nice valley and Mesopotamia. The areas around Mohenjodara are still known as Pakistan or the ‘Garden of Singh’. The Indus people were also efficient in art and Crafts.

They were excellent weavers. They prepared beautiful dresses both in cotton and wool. Ornaments, weapons, utensils toys, and other goods of luxury were prepared by able artisans. Those groups of people were economically well off. The people of the Indus valley is wre great in trade and commerce. Inside India, they carried their business from the Kashmir Valley to the Deccan. For external trade, they moved far and wide. That was one of their chief achievements for fame.

They had trade relations with outside countries both through land and sea routes. It is known that the Indus people had close commercial relations with Sumeria, Egypt, and create. The seals of Mohanja-dar have been discovered in Mesopotamia. Similarly, the cuneiform writing of Mesopotamia has been discovered at Mohenjo- Daro. This proves the contact with the people at those two distant times. Agriculture, industry, and trade were the three chief occupations of the Indus valley people. Their economic condition, therefore, was prosperous.

Religious life :
From the relies on the Indus valley we get some idea about the religious life of that time from small female figures discovered from the rains some scholars believe that the people perhaps worshipped a mother Goddess, of course, it has not yet been possible to form a clear idea about that goddess. A female figure on a seal has created much interest. Some say it is the figure of the Earth Goddess. To others, it is the goddess of Nature.

The worship of the mother Goddess was prevalent in many ancient societies. The Indus people also might have believed that some people think that Mother Goddess of the Indus religion appeared as Goddess Durga or kali in the Indian Religion of the future ages. Besides the Mother Goddess, the people also worshipped a God. A beautiful figure appears on a seal which is like a powerful God.

Fie has three faces. There are harps on his head. He is sitting in the posture of a Yogi. On his four sides, there are figures of four animals, such as elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, and buffalo. Near his feet is the figure of a deer scholars feel that this god was Siva Pashupati. From a study of these figures, Sir John Marshall imagined that perhaps Saivism was the earliest religion of India. No temple has been discovered from the reigns of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, It is not clear, therefore how the people worshipped their Gods and Goddess.

May be the temples of Mohenjodaro are still lying buried under the Indus sands, not yet discovered. Similarly, the temple bricks of Flarappa might have been carried away from their original sites. The images or figures were all found in the dwelling houses of common men. It may be that the people of the Indus valley offered worship in their own houses. Besides the Mother Goddess and Siva, the Indus people also worshipped several other things and symbols.

They paid religious respects to the Bull, Tiger, Elephant, and some other animals that were also considered sacred, Perhaps these animals were regarded as the bananas of the deities. Some say that the Indus valley people worshipped even snakes. Similarly, worshipped several trees. It seems as if the religion of the ancient Indus Valley and the future Hinduism of India have similarities in many respects worship of Gods and Goddesses, animals, and frees, as was prevalent in the Indus valley, is also seen in the Hindu mode of worship.

It may be that the earliest religion did not disappear with the fall of the Indus civilization. The Aryans were influenced by the prevailing faiths of the Indus region. They accepted many features of pre-Aryan worship. From the faiths of the early Aryans later Hinduism developed. Sir Mortimer Wheeler believed that the worship of Siva came to later Hinduism from the ancient Harappan religion. The Harappans regarded the Bull as sacred.

So too, did the Hindus of later times. The similarities between the Indus religion and the later Hinduism prove that the civilization of India has maintained its unbroken continuity from a remote pre-historic past to recent times. The religion of India is a product of ages. It is vast and broad enough to cover the faiths of all peoples of all times who lived on the soil of this great country.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

Sources Of Odisha History Pdf Question 6.
Discuss the authenticity of foreign accounts and their impact on Indian history?
Answer:
Accounts of Indian life and civilization written by foreign travelers are important sources for the writing of ancient Indian history classical or Greek writers have recorded information about India beginning from the Persian invasion in the 6th century B.C. Hero dots and Ofesias have narrated the history of the Persian domination over north-western India. The floodgate of Indian contact with the west was opened with the invasion of India by Alexander the Great.

The historians like searches, one serious, etc. who accompanied Alexander have recorded remarkable accounts about North-Western India and the story of Alexander’s invasion. Among the classical authorities in India, the most renowned is Megasthenes, the Seleukidian envoy to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. He wrote a remarkable book named the Indika, which depicts the political, and social life of the Indians.

The value of Indika as a source of ancient Indian history of Immense. Unfortunately, the contents of the book are not available in full. Strabo has recorded fragments ofMegasthenes account in their books. Dr. Sehwanbeek has collected and edited them. Platarch wrote a biographical sketch of Alexander in which narratives about his invasion of India are included. Justin wrote a book named Epitome which throws light on the early life of Chandragupta Maurya.

The periplus of the Erythralan sea supplies accounts for Indian ports, harbors, and goods. An unknown Greek sailor wrote this book in the first century A.D. No. a correct account of the economic and commercial life of India for the late centuries before Christ and for the late centuries before Christ and for the early Gentries can be written without the help of this book. Ptolemy’s Geography is a famous work.

Pliny has furnished a study of India’s flora and fauna in his Natural History. Quintus has written an account of Alexander’s Invasion of India depending on earlier records. The spread of Buddhism in China promoted contact of china with India. Buddhist pilgrims from china came to India to visit the holy places of Buddhism in India. Some of the pilgrims left valuable accounts about life and society in India.

Chinese historian SSA-ma chiefs composed an annual about India in the first century B.C. Chinese historian Fan-ye recorded information about the Yue-chi and the Kushanas. The Chinese pilgrim Fa- Hien visited. India in the reign of Chandra Gupta II. He left a good narrative about India which is regarded as a source of Gupta history. Fa-Hien visited North-western India and the Gangetic Valley.

His writing is devoid of any political matter. He was interested in Buddhism and social life in India. He lived in Pataliputra for six years and sailed for China from the port of Tamralipta in Bengal. He wrote several books on Buddhism in India, was Hiuen-Tsang. He visited India during Harshavardhana and left a detailed account of the political and social life of India. The name of his book is si-ya-ki.

This narrative is more descriptive and elaborate than the account left by Fa-Hien. But Huen-Tsang was not above a Buddhist bias which is evident from his unblessing eulogy for the Buddhist emperor Harsha. Tibetan historian Lama Taranatha’s writings named Dawa and Tangyur are also valuable sources. A comparative study of the classical and the Chinese sources would reveal that the classical writers were particular in the observation of political and administrative matters.

The Chinese travelers being mostly Buddhist pilgrims were indifferent to political events and administrative matters. They, however, give emphasis on the condition of Buddism and the social fragments contain details about Chandragupta’s administration his court and camp life, and the general condition of the People the flora and fauna of India. The Chinese accounts are not so complete and versatile.

From the 8th century AD, Arabian scholars like Al-Beruni visited India. Al-Beruni was a great scholar of Sanskrit. He has left a capital account in India. Al-Beruni’s work is named Tahaki Hind. It is a mine of information about India and her people other Arab writers like At Biladuri etc. may also be mentioned. The historical value of the foreign accounts about India can hardly be exaggerated.

These foreign writers often wrote with great detachment and critical observation. But their narratives suffer from several general defects. Firstly, most of the writers did not know the local languages and customs. Secondly, they did not stay in India for a long time. Thirdly, some of these writers particularly the Greeks did not always write from personal observation but from hearsay. As a result, they occasionally recorded wrong information,

Question 7.
Evaluate the relationship of the Indus civilization with the Sumerian civilization?
Answer:
Sumerologists find a striking resemblance between the Indus civilization and the ancient civilizations of Sumer and Mesopotamia. pictorial writings, the developed city life, burnt bricks, wheel-made potteries, the cult of the mother Goddess, the hairstyle of-Indus women, the use of bronze and copper for making implements are great points of similarities between the civilizations of the Indus, the summer and that of Mesopotamia.

The second notable point of resemblance between the three civilizations is that they flourished in the valley of great rivers like the Indus, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. The above similarities coupled with the mature character of the Harappan civilization have led some scholars to suggest that the Indus people had borrowed the pattern and ideas of their culture from the Sumerians and the Mesopotamians.

It is also argued that the citadels found at Harappa and Maheiijodaro bear the influence of the architectural designs of Sumer. Probably the firsts at Harappa and Mahenjodaro were erected by a foreign race most possibly the Sumerians. They built these first in order to impose their authority upon the local urban population. The citadels were drowning the cities with a hint of alien domination.

However, on a sober consideration of the matter, the theory of the Sumerian authorship of the Indus, civilization is-still in-the speculation. There is still a lack of concrete evidence to prove the theory of the Sumerian origin of the Indus civilization. Despite its close contact with Sumer, the Indus civilization had many peculiarities and features of its own. This has led prof Gordon childe to emphasize the distinctive character of the two cultures. In spite of many appearances.

Similarities between the two, the Harappan was distinctly Indian. In its origin, the Harappa culture was not a fruit of burrowing transplanting from the Sumerian culture. Dr. Basham has pointed out that the Indus civilization was the creation of a people who lived in the Indus valley for several centuries and that this great civilization and little to the Sumerian culture of the Middle East. Firstly, there was very little intellectual exchange between the two sister cultures.

Secondly, the Indus style of sculpture, the stone saving, the terra-cotta, and the art of Indus seals are basically local and peculiar to the Indus people. They bear no trace of foreign Influence. Thirdly, the resemblances between the two, civilizations may be their inherent cousinship or due to the Dravidian authorship of the Sumerian civilization. The same Dravidians are also supposed to be authors of the Indus civilization.

Thus, the integrity of the Indus civilization stands unchallenged. Kumaraswamy has suggested that the Indus civilization spread from the Indus Valley to the valleys of the Euphrates and the Tigris and became known as the Sumerian Mesopotamia civilization sir ariel stein has concluded that possibly a parent civilization grew up in a place in between the Indus valley and the Euphrates Valley and branched off to the east and the west. However, all these are hypothetical theories.

Their authenticity has not yet been proven. Though the theory of the Sumerian origin of the Indus civilization is a hypothetical one the fact remains that there was a good deal of intercourse between the Indus, Sumer, and Mesopotamia people. There is an overwhelming through the land route via Baluchistan and probably through the sea routes across the Persian Gulf also. Numerous Indus types of deals have been discovered at Sumer. Akkad and Elan. Again Sumerian articles though fewer in number have been discovered in the Indus Valley.

Question 8.
Discuss regarding the earliest home of the Aryans and their coming to Indian Soil?
Answer:
Among the various groups of mankind, the Aryans are the most famous. In the Sanskrit language, the word Arya means the man of noble character the ‘free-born’. The descendants of the ancient Aryan race spread over wide areas of Europe and Asia. From the, earliest Aryan language, classical languages such as Sanskrit, Latin, and Greek came into being. From these languages, several other languages developed. They are all from the Aryan family of languages.

The Earliest Home of the Aryans :
Nobody can say exactly which place on earth was the earliest home of the Aryan people. To some Indian scholars, the Aryans were the original inhabitants of India and they did not come to this land from outside. On the other hand, some Patriotic European scholars believe that the Aryans originally lived on the shores of the faraway Baltic sea. The majority of historians, however, believe that the early Aryans lived in that region of Europe which now comprises such places as Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia.

From their original home, the ancient Aryans spread away to different places. Going south and westward they divided themselves into several branches and entered Greece. Italy, Germany, Spain, and England came in another direction, they entered into Iron and India. The name Iran (Persia) comes from the word Aryanam which is the country of the Aryans In India, the Aryans first settled in the area known as Punjab.

At first, the name of that place was captained, or the land of the seven rivers. Subsequently, it was called Panchanada, or the land of the Five Rivers. Punjab means the land of the five1 Rivers. The fact that the Aryan tribes of Europe and Asia came; from common ancestors is known from their earliest religious and social ways of life. From the original Aryan word Dyu, came the words Deva in Sanskrit, Deas in Latin Zeus in Greek.

Tiu in Saxon and Zio in German. The original fire God of the ancient Aryans became Agni in India, is in Italy, and in East European lands. The use or Dawn of the Indian Aryans was the same as the EOS of the Greeks and Aurora of the Italians. Similarly from the root family terms of the ancient Aryans came such words as Peter Matar.

Bharat and Duhitar in Sanskrit and Father, Mother, Brother, and Daughter in English. Many such words in Sanskrit and several European languages came from the same Aryan roots. Though they came from the same ancestors, the different branches of the Aryan people in course of time lived as separate races and developed their separate individualities.

Coming of the Aryans to India:
The time when the Aryans entered India is yet a subject of debate. Attempts are made to know that time from Vedic literature. According to some learned Indians like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the earliest Veda, favors as the Rigveda, was composed about 4,500 years before Christ. The Aryans must have come, therefore, several generations before that time. According to a famous western scholar. H.T. Colebrooke discovered the Vedas for the Western people the composition of all the Vedas was perhaps finished by the 14th century B.C.

For several centuries before that, they must have settled in Punjab. Max Muller believed that the Vedas were composed about 1500 years before Christ. Another western scholar Whitney believed that the hymns of the Rigveda were composed between 2,000 B.C. and 1,500 B.C. Most likely, the Aryans entered India around 2,000 years before the birth of Christ.

This opinion is held by the majority of historians. Soon after their entry into India, the Aryans began to compose the Vedas. Much about their early life in India is known from the descriptions in the Vedas. At first, they settled in the Punjab region where the rivers, Sindhu, Vitasta, Chandrabhaga, Iravati, Bipasa, Satadru, and Saraswati flowed.

At that time they had to fight against the primitive people of the land as well as perhaps with the civilized Dravidians. The enemies were described in the Vedas as Dasyus and Asuras. In course of time, the Dravidians migrated towards the south, and the primitives retired into mountains, hills, and forests. The conquered or subjugated enemies were described as the Dasas.

From Punjab, the Aryans moved eastward into the river valleys Ganges and Yamuna. They called that region Madhya Desa. Gradually they spread over the whole of the Uttarapatha. The Landmass between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas and from the western seas east was named as the Aryavarta.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

Question 9.
Evaluate Regvedic society and discuss their economic life?
Answer:
The early Vedic society represented human quality and simplicity at their best. It was a society of high moral standards. It showed advanced civilization, a settled and organized human relationship. The Aryan families were the backbone of the society. Society was organized on the basis of the family as a unit. Each home was like an abode of happiness. This is because the Aryans laid great emphasis on the virtues of family life.

A good family man was a good social being. Usually, the father was the head of the family. As the head, he controlled the other members. The younger members senior members. The relationship between father, mother, brother, and sisters rested on a sense of duty, devotion, affection, and cordiality. The size of a family could be big enough to contain many members from grandparents to grandchildren.

But they all lived in peace. In their daily life, the Aryan householders lived in plain living and high thinking. Truth, mercy kindness, goodness, mutual help, and understanding were the ideals of family life. The Aryans believed in the system of Chaturashrama or the four-fold division of one’s life. At a young age when the man received education and training, he practiced Brahmacharya.

Thereafter he married and led the Garhasthva life or the life of a house-holder. When the man reached the third stage of his life, he adopted Vanaprastha. During that period he lifted in a cottage away in the forests to perform religious duties. In the final phase of life in old age, he practiced the Sannyasa Vrata by renouncing everything. These practices showed the disciplines of the Aryan life.

Women held a high position in the Aryan Society. Inside the family, they played a prominent role. They exercised much influence in domestic affairs. In religious ceremonies and festivals, women enjoyed equal place with men. Before their marriage, Aryan daughters received education in the house of their parents. The word Duhitri in Sanskrit and Daughter in English came from the root Aryan word Dough which means milking the cow.

Perhaps the Aryan girls were fond of looking after the cows as their domestic duty. There was no child marriage in the Rigvedic society. Girls lived in the house of their parents till they attained marriageable age. They had the freedom to select their husbands of arranged marriages were a more usual custom. Marriage was considered a sacred obligation in Vedic culture.

It was indissoluble. There was no secession of women in the Vedic society. The Vedic women took part in the highest socio-religious duties. They studied the Vedas. Some of them like Lopamudra Ghosh, Vishwavara and Apala became mortal as the authors of the Vedic hymns.
The most praised worth feature of the early Vedic society was the social equality of men. All Aryans were equal among themselves.

There was no caste system to separate man from man. Every Aryan could learn the Vedas could fight battles as a soldier, and work as a cultivator. It is only the conquered people who were given a lower rank in society as the basis. In brief, the Rigvedic Aryans lived in an ideal society that was unique in the ancient world.

Economic Life:
The economic condition of the people in the early Vedic society was prosperous. The Aryans were a hard-working race. They were also believers in the simple life. They loved to live in villages. Their economic activities mostly centered around their villages. Agriculture was the Chief occupation of the Vedic Aryans. They regarded cultivation as the main source of their livelihood. Around every village, there were plenty of cultivable lands and wide pastoral fields for cattle.

Each family had its own land to grow crops. Grasslands for the animals were held in common by all villagers. The lands under cultivation were called kshetra. The Aryans depended much on the rains and rivers for agriculture. They also took water from canals to their fields. To make the land service, they used manure. Dhan and you were the two chief products of agriculture. Since the lands were fertile in those days and the population was small, there was enough food in Vedic India to keep the people happy and self-sufficient.

Next to agriculture, the Vedic Aryans paid great attention to the rearing of cattle and various other domestic animals. Milk was regarded most useful and cows paid the minimum care. In every village, there were cowherd boys to drive the cattle to the green pasture lands. Sheep, goats, and horses were the other useful animals in Vedic society. The early Aryans also developed trade, commerce, and industry.

Merchants were there to carry various useful goods from place to place. Varieties of cloth, metal goods, and skin products were sold by traders in different markets. Carts drawn by horses and oxen usually carried the articles of trade. Boats were used in rivers for internal movements of goods. Rare evidence is also there to prove that the Vedic Aryans had maritime activities across the seas.

Cottage industries flourished in Vedic society. In most villages, there were weavers smiths, metal – workers carpenters, and also tanners. Artistic goods were made at select centers ornaments, weapons, chariots, implements for cultivation, utensils, and many other useful things were made by the people for regular use. The Aryans loved to eat rice, barley, milk, meat fish, and fruits.

In festivals and religious occasions. They used to drink soma rasa, on the whole, the economic life of the Vedic period was a life of plenty and prosperity. It is said that the early Aryans did not build big cities or Nagara. But they built strongholds and forts known as PURA with walls around and strong houses inside.

Question 10.
Evaluate the political status of the early Vedic people?
Answer:
The Aryans were a powerful people. The Aryans were a powerful people. They came to India in an organized way. As they spread themselves in India and settled permanently they developed political organizations in their society for a better life.

The nature of the Vedic political organization was as follows:
Several families formed a village or the Gram. The head of the Grama was called Gramani. He regulated the affairs of the village maintained peace in his area. Several villagers formed a district or canton which was very big in size, and the visit ruled more or less like a king. Several districts formed A Jana or people, which was like a big political unit or the Rastra. The Rastra or the state or the Jana was ruled by a head named the Rajan or the king.

He was said to be “without a rival and a destroyer of rivals” In later times, when the territory became big in size the Rajan became a Samrat In Vedic India, the kingship was generally a hereditary institution. The kind occupied a position of honor. He was appointed by the chief priests. He usually enjoyed the confidence and loyalty of the people. He lived in his palace. In dress, manners, and style he maintained the dignity of royalty. The son of the king had his right to his father’s kingdom.

Because of such continuity, it was the duty of the railing king to train his successor in the art of good government as well as in various virtues required of a monarch. In places, the subjects also could elect or select a king for their land. The king appointed several officers. Among such officers, the purohit or chaplain, the scenario or the commander of the army, the Duta or the messenger, and the Gramani or village headman played a prominent role.

The king also had his adviser or ministers. He appointed spies to collect information about the people. The king was required to perform two main duties. One was the protection of his land and the people from outside enemies. For this, he maintained his army. The other was to serve and please tie people. The king or the Rajan of the Vedic age was not an autocrat.

He governed according to the laws and customs of the land according to religious beliefs and with the advice of the seers, Sagar, and elders. There was even some kind of popular assemblies in those days called Samiti to give opinions on the affairs of the state. There was also the Sabha or council of Elders, containing wise men to advise the Government. The monarchy was thus limited. It is also understood that in places there was some kind of republican can government among some of the Aryan tribes.

The term Gana or people was perhaps used for such a state. Its head was called Ganapati or Jyeshtha (elder). On the whole, the Vedic political organizations were sound and stable. The state rested on the foundations of ethics, morality, virtue, and popular will. In course of time, smaller kingdoms fielded place to bigger kingdoms. Powerful monarchs wanted to rule over larger territories. Stronger political units and organizations thus became the need of the time.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

Question 11.
Narrate the religious life of the early Vedic people?
Answer:
The Aryans were deeply religious. Their spiritual thoughts were of the highest order. Among the ancient races of the earth, no race was equal to the Indian Aryans of the early Vedic age in spiritual and religious thoughts. While the whole world was in the darkness of ignorance and blind beliefs, Rigvedic India held the lamp of wisdom. Among the ancient most religious of mankind, the Vedic religion is considered the best.

The Rigvedic Aryan’s thoughts of the supreme creator through the creation. Nature represented the different manifestations of that creation. They, therefore, became the worshippers of Nature. The mighty elements of Nature were regarded by the Aryans as their gods. All the useful elements of Nature appeared in divine form in the Aryan religious thoughts.

While the whole world was in the darkness of ignorance and blind beliefs, Rigvedic India held the lamp of wisdom. Among the ancient-most religions of mankind, the Vedic religion is considered the best. The Rigvedic Aryans thought of the supreme creator through creation. Nature represented the different manifestations of that creation. Therefore became the worshippers of Nature.

The mighty elements of nature were regarded by the Aryans as their Gods. All the useful elements of nature appeared in divine form in the Aryan religious thought. Dyaus or the shining sky, Prithivi or Mother Earth Indra or the God of Rain and Thunder, Varuna or the Lord of waters, Surya or the illuminator Market or the Lord of stones, Vayu pr the God of wind.

Agni or the God of Fire, and Usha, or the goddess of Dawn, were the famous divinities of the Aryan worship. Every one of them was a part of nature. While believing in several Gods and Goddesses the early Aryans developed faith in the supreme Being who was the creator of all Every other god was only his representation.

Therefore, they sang:
“They call him, Mitra, Varuna, And Agni To what is one the poets give much anime, They call it Agni, Yama, Matrisvan.” The seers and sages of Vedic India were the epitomes of wisdom. They searched for the origin and meaning of the universe and came to know the first cause of creation. “Neither death nor deathlessness existed of day and night there was yet no distinction. Alone that one breathed calmly, supported, other than it was none, nor aught above it.”

While the religious faith of the Vedic Aryans was deeply spiritual their religious practices were simple. They performed Yajnas in which they made offerings of ghee, milk, grain, and other things while singing hymns in honor of gods and goddesses. In their religious conduct, they became virtuous, kind charitable, and truthful. This was the early Vedic civilization glorified. The social political and religious conditions of the time were the brightest proofs of that great civilization.

Question 12.
Explain the inner system of Later Vedic Society?
Answer:
The greatest change that the later Vedic period saw in the Aryan society was the rise of the rigid caste system. It destroyed the values of human equality of the earlier days and created a distinction between man and man. It was natural that there should be different kinds of work in any society at any time. Generally, the people were required to perform four sets of duties. Some were bound to perform worship, prayers, and religious rites.

The second group of men had to learn the arts of warfare to fight battles against enemies or invaders. The third set of people was called upon to cultivate lands, carry on trade and commerce, and produce necessary goods for the need of tire society. The fourth group of people had to perform various social-service works from sweeping or cleaning to other works of personal needs. Any man could do any such work according to his own free choice or ability.

In course of time, these four main works led to the rise of four main castes. Those who performed religious duties formed the priestly caste known as the Brahmana those who looked to agriculture, trade, or other productive works came to be known as the Vaisya. And finally, those who performed social and menial services to the society formed the lowest caste and were called the Sudra.

The supreme tragedy of this division of labor was that the castes became hereditary. son of a Kshatriya even if learned could not be a Kshatriya. Secondly, the Brahmana and ‘the Kshatriya regarded themselves as higher classes and made a monopoly of social privileges. key looked down upon the other classes. Intermarriage among the castes stopped. Two more evils followed. First, some castes broke into several sub-castes.

For example among the Vaisya caste, several divisions rose up according to hereditary professions. Cultivators, merchants, smiths, carpenters, and artisans formed distinct castes. The studies were also divided into many sections. Secondly the Sudras, because of their mental works, came to be regarded as impure. The Upper castes needed their services in most matters but denied them many social privileges.

The non-Aryan tribes who were taken into society became members of the Sudha caste. That also was a reason for considering the Sudra as inferior. The caste system became more and more rigid. The evils of inequality became more painful to the lower castes. A time, therefore, came when Buddhism and Jainism appeared as strong movements against such evils. During the later Vedic age, women also lost their earlier status. Polygamy or marrying several wives by the man became a social vice.

The higher castes practiced this system because of their wealth child marriages also appeared. The Dowry system was practiced. Women gradually lost their right to property cause women still enjoyed their equal position with men in religious matters. They still received education and could show their talent. Celebrated women like Gargi and M’aitreyi showed their merit in the spheres of highest learning. On the whole, the later Vedic Society became the forerunner of the social systems of the future Hindus India.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

Question 13.
Evaluate the religious life of the later Vedic People?
Answer:
During the later Vedic period, much of the simplicity of the Rigvedic religion was lost. The hold of the priestly class became more absolute. The priests developed complicated modes of worship. Sacrifices became more common. The rites and rituals became difficult. Superstitions entered in the name of religion. Fear of evil spirits and witches came in. Philosophical and theological speculations became more complex.

In the spirit of such developments, the later Vedic sages laid greater emphasis on the faith in the supreme being the Absolute. The concept of the param Brahma or the Paramatma dominated the man’s mind. The supreme Gods like Vishnu or Siva were paid greater devotion. The later Vedic period produced many religious doctrines to influence Indian thought forever. The doctrine of karma or results according to deeds.

Maya or illusion, Mukti or the supreme release, Jan antra or the transmigration of souls, etc. made a deep impact on the Aryan mind. The individual soul or Jiva came from the universal soul or Brahma and could go back to that origin. This was possible through the most correct ways of life and thought. Tat Twain Asi or That Thou Art was the identification of the individual Atman with the universal Atman.

The supreme goal of life was the Moksha or the liberation when the individual sous were absorbed in the universal soul. Thus, cm side there developed deep spiritual ideas in the later Vedic age which had no parallel elsewhere in the world. The deep-rooted superstitions began to dominate the mind of the common man making religious practices mostly meaningless. Amid such developments future Hinduism was beginning to take its shape.

Ramayana and Mahabharata:
Towards the dose of the Vedic age the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were composed. These two great Epics became the fountain source of Indian religious and spiritual thoughts, Balmiki was the author of the Ramayana. The Chief .characters of this Epic represented the highest ideals of worldly life. The Aryan virtues and nob RV were reflected in them.

The political social and religious conditions of that time arc known from the Ramayana. Vyasa was the author of the Mahabharata. describes every aspect of life and thought of that remarkable period. Its influence on the future is deep. Srimad Bhagavad Gita is a part of the Mahabharata. It contains the highest spiritual thoughts of everlasting value

Question 14.
Narrate the economic condition of later Vedic Aryans?
Answer:
In the later Vedic age the economic activities of the Aryans grew greatly. The population began to increase and so also did the number of Aryan settlements. New kinds of works and efforts appeared side by side. New means of livelihood were discovered and developed. The Aryans became more concerned with the progress of agriculture. In the fertile soil of the Gangetic valley, they cultivated many types of crops. They improved the modes of cultivation.

For example, for using heavy plows in fields, they even engaged as many as 24 bullocks in each plow. The Aryans learned more and more about the use of different metals. They made different types of weapons, ornaments agricultural implements, various tools for work, and other equipment. With the expansion of Aryan settlements and the rise of bigger kingdoms, roads and communication systems, began to develop.

As a result, the volume of trade and commerce increased. It is known from the Atharva Veda that there were different types of roads in those days. There were ordinary paths for walking winder roads for bullock carts, and better roads for swift-running chariots. The traders and merchants carried their goods to distant places for better communication facilities. Side by side, travel by boats in rivers became more common.

Trade relations between distant places on the river banks developed rapidly. Both by land and water routes the merchants carried on their economic activities. It was during this time that the Aryan traders ventured into the seas for external trade. This was a notable feature of the later Vedic age. It was during the later Vedic age that the Aryans improved the art of weaving to a remarkable extent.

Various types of costly and attractive dresses and clothes were made to meet the new social demands. As the people became richer, there were greater demands for gold ornaments. Goldsmiths of that time were more advanced in their profession than in earlier times. They made ornaments in new designs and in a good many numbers. The art of pottery was also developed.

The blacksmith, too, enlarged the scope of their work to meet new demands. During the later Vedic age, plenty of fertile lands were available all over the Indo-Gangetic plains. Being very hardworking, the Aryan Cultivatoks produced enough to meet the needs of society. On the whole, the later Vedic Aryans Lived an economically prosperous Life.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Long Answer Questions

Question 15.
Discuss the socio-economic condition in the 6th century B.C. or at the time of sixteen Mahajanasadas?
Answer:
In the sixth century B.C., most of the people of India lived in the villages. The villages were of varying sizes. They were inhabited by a number of families. These families were very large consisting of various members from the grand-father to the grandsons including their wives and children. Agriculture particularly the cultivation of rice was the Chief occupation of the. people, other kinds of grains, sugarcane fruits, and vegetables were also cultivated.

A method of irrigation by community attempt and protection of field by community fencing came into vogue. Channels were dug at the boundary of each plot for cooperative irrigation. The village headman supervised the operation of these schemes. Arable land was absent of big estates-peasant proprietorship was the general custom. Land could be sold by the owner. But custom demanded that he should not sell his land to an outsider of the village.

There were common pasture lands for grazing cattle. The burden of taxes varied from 1/6 to 1/12 of the produce which collected through village headmen. The tax was generally paid in kind. We have no direct evidence regarding the system of taxation in the republican states. But Prof. Rhys Davids has suggested that the republics must have some system of taxation. Famine and scarcity due to floods or failure of rain were not unknown. The Buddhist records refer to famines.

Cattle rearing trade and commerce formed other occupations of the people. Partnership for trade was a common practice. Trade relation within India was wide. Trade with foreign lands by sea became fashionable also. Inland trade was carried by caravans while foreign trade was carried by ocean-going vessels. Many parts grew up along the coast for the export and import of goods. Bhrigukachchha or Bharuch, support known so para on the western coast became famous parts.

Inland cities like Taxila, Ujiaini, Champa, Rajagriha, and Ayodhaya also became great emporiums for trade. Occupations tended hereditary in the sixth century B.C. caste system began to be crystallized in this period. Though there was no iron-bound truth for the son to follow the calling of the father. There are many instances of the chance of occupation. A brahmana became a cultivator or a trader.

Again many Kshatriyas were cultivators of the soil spite of such departures there was a marked tendency towards rigidity of caste. Change of hereditary occupation was disliked inter-dining and inter-marriage between different castes were disfavoured. The barter system has ceased to exist and transactions were made with copper coins called Kar shaping weighing 140 gains.

Gold coins were rare in this period. Arts and crafts in this period were generally practiced for the needs of society. The black-smith, gold-smith, fanner, potter, etc made their articles for the people. Specialization in arts tod crafts appeared. Guides of work with elected presidents were also formed.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Long Questions With Answers

Bhakti Movement In Odisha And Its Impact On Society Question 1.
Estimate the life of Al-Biruni and his contribution in the sphere of Mathematics and Astronomy?
Answer:
Al-Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in Physics, Mathematics, Astronomy and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. He studies almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenceons work.

Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to cover certain findings. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age. In which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion.

In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greek who her took inspiration from when he fumed to studies of philosophy.

He was conversant in Khwarezmia, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit and also knew Greek. He brew and Syriac. He Spent a large part of his life in ghazani in modem day Afganisthan, Capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, which was based in what is now central eastern Afghanistan.

In 1017 he traveled to the south Asia and authored Tarikh-al-Hind (History of India) after exploring the Hindusm practiced in India.

He was given the title “founder of Indology”. He was in impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations and was given the title at us-tadh (“The master”) for his remarkable description of early 11th century India.

Life: He was born in the outer district of Kath, the capital ofthe Afrighid dynasty ofKhwarezm (now a part of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) (or Chorasmia) The word Bintni means“from the outer- oustricf’ in Persian, and so this became his nisba “albiruni- “The
Birunian.

Al-Biruni’s relatives also took interest in the studies of science as well. So he grow up in an environment encouraging to his interests. He even had ties to royalty as there are links in his family to the families of prestigious elties.

To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields he studies.

Many consider Al-Biruni one of the greatest scientists in history, and specially of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research.

Al-biruni spent the first twenty five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studies Islamic jurisprudence, theology, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, vedics, philosophy and also dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well.

The Iranian khwarezmian language, which was the language of Biruni survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, and so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient khwazem, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vaccum.

He was sympathetic to the Affighids, who were overthrown by the river dynasty of manunids in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara, then under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the Son of Nuh. There are corresponded with Avicenna and there are extent exchanges of views between the two scholars.

In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan, shams-at -moali Aboshasan Ghaboos Ibn Washmgir. There he wrote his first important work, at Athar al- Baggija can al-Qorun al-khaliya cuterally.

“The remaining traces of past centuries” and translated as “chronology of ancient nations” or vestiges of the past”) on historical and scientific chronology, probably around 1000 A.D., though he later madesome amendments to the book.

He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Affighids at the hands of the mamunids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled khwarezm. There court at Gorganj (also in khwarezm) was gaining fame for its gathering of brailliant scientists.

In 1017, (Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey most Scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghaznis the capital of the Ghazinavid dynasty. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India living there for a few years.

He was forty four years old when he went on the Journeys with Mahamud of Ghazin. Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India. He may even have learned some Sankrit.

During this time he wrote the Kitabtarikh al-Hind, finishing it around 1030. Along with his writing, Al-Biruni also made sure to extend his study to science while on the expenditions.

He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun and created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose. A1 Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India.

Mathematics and astronomy: Ninety five of 146 books known to have been written by Biruni were devoted to astronomy, mathematics and related subjects like mathematical geography His religion contributed to his research of astronomy as in Islam, Muslim customs require knowing the directions of certain sacred locations, which can actually be found through this type of scientific study.

Biruni’s major work on astrology is primarily an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication. His endorsement of astrology is limited in so far as he condemns honorary astrology as ‘sorcery’.

In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the earth, Biruni acknowledge that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates.

He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Kitab ta rich al-Hind in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth’s rotation in a work on astronomy that is no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai a (key to Astronomy):

The rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible.

This questions is most difficult to solve. The most prominent of both modem and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the questions of the moving of the earth and tried to refuge it.

We, too have composed a book on the subject called Muftan-ilm-alhi’a (key to Astronomy), in which we think we have surpassed our predecessors, if not in the words, at all events in the matter. In his description of Sijzi’s astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth.

He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibnsina, in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristottle’s celestial physics he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist, he is amazed “ by the weakness of Aristotle’s argument against elliptical orbits on the basic that they would create vacuum, he attacks the immutability of the celestial sphers, and so on.

In his major extant astronomical work, the Mas’ud Canon, Biruni utilizes his observational data to disprove ptolemy’s immobile solar apogee. Not only did he perform research on theories, but he also wrote an in-depth analysis and explanation of an astrolab and how it should work.

He drew many different depictios of various instruments that are considered to be the precursors of more modem objects such as clocks and the coming years.

More recently Biruni’s eclipse date wras used by dunthome in 1749 to help determine the acceleration of the moon and his observational data has entered the larger astronomical historical records and is still used today in geophysics and astronomy.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Bhakti Movement In Odisha And Its Impact On The Society Of Odisha Question 2.
Estimate Ibn Battuta as a pilgrimage and his coming to India?
Answer:
All that is known about Ibn Battuta’s life comes from the autobiographical information included in the account of his travels, which records that he was of Barber descent, born into a family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier, Morocco on 25 February 1304, during the reign of the Marinid dynasty.

He claimed descent from a Berber tribe known as the Lawata. As a young man he would have studied at a Sunni Maliki madhab (Islamic jurisprudence school) the dominant form of education in North Africa at that time.

Maliki Muslims requested Ibn Battuta serve as their religious judge as he was from an area where it was practiced.

In June 1325, at the age of twenty-one. Ibn Battuta set off from his home town on a hail or pilgrimage, to Mecca, a journey that would ordinarily take sixteen months. He would not see Morocco again for twenty-four years.

I set out alone, having neither fellow traveller in whose companionship. 1 might find cheer, nor caravan whose part I might join, but swayed by an over mastering impulse within me and a desire long cherished in my bosom to visit these illustrious sanctuaries.

So I braced my resolution to quite my dear ones female and male, and forsook my home as birds for sake their nests. My parents being yet in the bonds of life, it weighted sorely upon me to part of them and both they and I were afflicted with sorrow at this separation.

He travelled to Mecca overland, following the North African coast across the sultanates of Abdul Wadid and hauled. The route took him through them, bejalla and then Tunis, where he stayed for two months.

For safety Ibn Battuta usually joined a caravan to reduce the risk of being robbed. He took a bride in the town of fax, the first in a series of marriages that would feature in his travels.

In the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km. (2,200 mi) Ibn Battuta arrived at the port of Alexandria, at the time part of the Bahrimamluk empire.

He met two ascetic pious men in Alexandria. One was sheikh Burhanuddin who is supposed to have foretold the destiny of Ibn Battuta as a world traveller saying, “it seems to me that you are fond of foreign travel.

You will visit my brother Fariduddin in India. Rukonuddin in Sind and Burhanuddin in China. Convey my greetings to their”.

Another pious man sheikh Murshidi interpreted the meaning of a dream of Ibn Battuta that the was meant to be a world traveller. He spent several weeks visiting sites in the area.

And then headed inland to Cairo, the capital of the Mamluk Sultanate and an important city. After spending about a month in Cairo, he embarked on the first of many detours within the relative safety of Mamluk territory of the three usual routes to Mecca.

Ibn Battuta chose the least-travelled, which involved a journey up the Nile valley, then east to the Red sea port of Avadhab, upon approaching the town, however, a local rebellion forced him to turn back. Ibn Battuta returned to Cairo and took a second side trip, this time to Mamluk-controlled Damascus.

During his first trip he had encountered a holy man who prophesied that he would only reach Mecca by traveling through Syria.

The diversion held an added advantage because of the holy places that lay along the way including Hebron, Jerusalem, and Bethleham the Mamluk authorities spared no efforts in keeping the routes safe for pilgrims, without this help many travellers would be robbed and murdered.

After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan in Damascus, he joined a caravan travelling the l,300Km (810 mi) south to Medina, site of the tomb of the. Islamic prophet Muhammad.

After four days in the town he journeyed on to Mecca, where completing his pilgrimage he took the honorific status of El-Hajji Rather than returning home, Ibn Battuta instead decided to continue on. choosing as his next destination the Likhanate, a Mongol Khanate, to the northeast.

After his third pilgrimage to Mecca, Ibn Battuta decided to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughlug. In the autumn of 1330 (or 1332), the set off for the selling controlled territory of Anatolia with the intention of taking on overland route to India.

He crossed the Red sea and the Eastern Desert to reach the Nile valley and then headed north to Cairo, From there be crossed the Sinai Peninsula to Palestine and then travelled north again through some of the towns that he had visited in 1325.

From the Syrian port of Latakia, a Genoese ship took him (and his companions) to Alanya one the southern coast of modern-day Turkey.

He then journeyed westwards along the coast to the port of Antalya, to the town he met members of one of the semi-religious fityan associations.

These were a feature of most Anatolian towns in the 13th and 14th centuries. The members were young artisAnswerand had at their head a leader with the title of Akhis. The associations specialized in welcoming travellers.

Ibn Battuta was very impressed with the hospitality that the received and would later stay in their hospices in more than 25 towns in Anatolia. From Antalya Ibn Battuta headed in land to Egindir which was the capited of the Hamid dynasty. He spent Ramadan (Tune 1331 on mary 1333) in the city.

From this point the itinerary across Anatolia in the Rihla is confused Ibn. Battuta described travelling westwards from Egiradier to milas and then skipping 420km. (260mi) eastward past Egidir to Kenya.

He then continuous travelling in a eastery direction, reaching Erzurum from where he skips 160 km (720 mi) back to Birgi which lies north of milas. HistoriAnswerbelieve that Ibn Battuta visited a number of towns in central Anatulia, but not in the order that he describes.

After returning to Quanzhou in 1346, Ibn Battuta began his journey back to morocco. In Kozhikode, he once again considered throwing himself at the mercy of mahammad bin Tughluq in Delhi, but thought better of if and decided to carry on to Mecca.

On his way to Basra he passed through the strait of Hormuz, where he learned that Abu said last ruler of the “Khanate dynasty had died in Persia.

Abu Said’s territories had subsequently collapsed due to a fierce civil war between the pensions and mongous. In 1348, Ibn Battuta arrived in Damascus with the intention of refracting the route of his first hajj.

He then learned that his father had died 15 years earlier and death became the dominant thene for the next year or so. The Black Death had struck and he was on hand as it spread through Syria,Paustine and Arabia.

After reaching Merra he decided to return to morocco Nearly a quarter of a century after leaving home. On the way he made one last detour to Sardinia, then in 1349, returned to Tangier by way of Fez, only to discover that his mother had also died a few months before.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Bhakti Movement In Odisha Question 3.
Analyse the role of Francois Berrien as a physician as well as a traveller?
Answer:
Franco is Bernier (25 September 1620-22 September 1688) was a French physician and traveller. He was born at Jpue-Etiau in Anjou.

He was briefly personal physician to Mughal prince Darashikoh (28 October 1615 – 30 August 1659) the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and after Dara Shikons demise, was attached to the court of the Mughal emperor Aurongzeb (14 October 1618-20 February 1707), for around 12 years during his slay in India.

His 1684 publication Nouvelle division delaterre par us different espece ouraces quiphabitent (A new division of the Earth) is considered the first published post classical classification of humans, into district races.

He also wrote Travels in the M dial Empire, which is mainly about the reigns, of Dora Shiloh and Aurangzeb. It is base, on his own extensive journeys and observations and on information from eminent Mughal courtiers who had witnessed the events at first hand.

Bernier abridge and translated the philosophical writings of his friend Pier Gassendi from Latin into French. Initial editions of Bemar’s Average dela philosophic de Gassendi were published in Paris in 1674 by the family langloies and m 1675 by Estienne Michalet.

A complete edition in eight volumes was published byAnisan and,Posual at Lyon in 1678. Anisson and Posual joined with Rigaud to publish a second edition in seven volumes in 1684.

Berrier objectively and faithfully rendered. Remained uncomfortable with some of Gassendi’s notions in 1682, Estiene Michaflet was again his publisher, putting forth his Doutes de Mr. Bernier sur quelquesuns des principaux chapitres de son Abrege de la philosophie de Gassendi.

A son of a fanner, Francois Bernier, was orphaned very young and was cared for by his uncle the care dechan zeaux.

At the age of 15 he moved to Paris to study at the college declarment (the furure lyces lucis legrand) where he was invited to stay at the home of his younger friend chapelle the nature son of luilliar who was a councilor at the parlement in metz.

There Bernier most probably met Cyrano de Bergerac and Moliere, and certainly the philosopher piece Gassendi (1592-1655) whose aide and secretary, he became.

He developed a ‘taste for travel (1647) in the company of monsieur d Arpojan, the French ambassador to Poland and Germany.

In 1652 during a prolonged stay with Gassendi in the south of France he managed to became a medical doctor on the strength of a speed course at the famous Faculte de Montpellier an intensive three month course gave the medical degree providing one did not practice on French national territory.

Liberated from his ties to France by the death of Gassandi in 1655, he sent but his twelve year journey to the East, at 36 years of age, Palestine Egypt, one year in Cairo, Arabia and an attempt to enter Ethiopia which was frustrated by civil war in the interior.

In 1658 he debarked at Surat in India, in Gujarat state. Attached at first and for a short while to the retinue of Darashikoh the history of whose downfall he was to record he was installed as a medical doctor at the court of Aurangzab, the last of the great Mughal emperors.

A tour of inspection by Aurongzeb (1664-65) gave Bernier the opportunity to describe Kashmir, the first and for a long time the only European to do so.

In “Voyagres la description .des Etets du Grand Mogal, de Plndoustan, du royaume de kachemire” (David-paul mare ted. Amsteralry 1699). He subsequently visited the other extreme of the empire in Bengal.

European medical training was highly esteemed amongst the Mughal and gave him access to all ranks of the Court, even on medically required occasions to the Emperor’s haren.

After his return from Kashmir, he travelled around on his own, meeting with jean- baptiste Tavernier in Bengal and white preparing for a journey to Persia at Surat with jean chardin, that other great traveller in the Orient (1666).

He returned once more to Surat (1668) to write a memoir on Indian commerce for the use of jean. Baptiste Colbert (who recently had founded la Compagnie des Indes oriental in 1669 Bernier left India for Paris, to stay.

In 1671 the almost was jaiced for writing in defense of the ideas of Rena Descartes, against whom a-judicial arrest had been issued an exploit he followed with an (Aberge dela philosophile de Gassendi” also not a subject to arouse official approval (1674).

Meanwhile he was a favoured guest at some of die great literary salons,” for example that of marguerite de la sabliere who introduced him to jean de la Fontaine, or at that of Ninon de Lericlos His much debated text on “races” – A new division of the Earth” of which second half is dedicated to feminine-beauty may be read against his background.’

In 1685 Bernier visited Ldftdon where he met with some famous exices from France, Hortense mancine, duchessd de Mazafin, niece of the redoubtable cardinal Saihf-E remind, others.

He returned to Paris via the Netherlands where he probably visited the philosophical correspondent Pierre Bayle.

Bernier died in 1688, the year that saw the publication of his “Lettre des India” (see note : Talk: Idries shah # the way of the scholar) Formost among his correspondents whife he was in India had been Jean Chapelin, Who shipped him crates of books. Melchisedech Thevenot, and Francois de la mothe le vayer.

From chapelain’s correspondence we know of a link with the elder petis de la croix. Whose sojn franco is petis de la croix was sent on a language course to Persia two years after berriier’s return from India.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Bhakti Movement In Odisha Pdf Question 4.
State the Chief characteristics of the state of Delhi Sultanate?
Answer:
The period from 1206-1526 is known as the age of the Delhi sultanate. Many dynasties ruled from Delhi during this period. The following are chief characteristics of nature of the state.

  • The state was expected to be a theocratic state.
  • The government of the Delhi sultanate worked with the Islamic principals of sovereignty.
  • The govt, followed the Islamic law in all administrative matters.
  • The sultan of India took pride to call himself the Deputy of the Caliph.
  • The Sultan usually thried to believe in the light of divine right of kings.
  • The Sultanate state was a military state to a considerable extent.
  • The sultanate state was a Feudal state.
  • The sultanate was greathly influenced by the Ulemas in general.
  • The state revenue was levied in accordance with Islamic law.
  • The nobles tried to exercise their influence over the appointment of the Sultan as well as his survival.
  • There was no clear-cut law of succession to the throne.

The Delhi sultAnswerand the caliphate: According to the Islamic theory the Caliph was the spiritual and temporal head of the entire Muslim world.

A ruler of any Muslim state wherever it might be located he must consider himself as deputy of calpiph. The SultAnswerof Delhi paid ceremonial homage to the Caliph.

The critic state and the Ulemas: The Muslim divines, cailed the Ulemas were the authoritative interpreters of Islamic law. They were a highly influential body.

The sultans consulted them not only on points of Muslim law but also on matters of state policy. The Ulemas had a great influence over the sultans.

The sultan as the superme sovereign: According to the Muslim theology sovereignty was vested in the Muslim law.

Subject to general conformity with the law the sultan was the head of the state and he enjoyed unlimited powers. All legislative, executive and judicial powers were concentrated in him.

His order was the Law in the state. The sultan was the highest commander of the army. He appointed all ministers nobles and other officers of the state.

What could curb the despotism of the rulers was that they could not defy the Muslim Jaw. But in fact not in theory many rulers were the supreme interpreters of the law. Everything depended on the personality of the ruler.

Impact Of Bhakti Movement Question 5.
Why is the age of Shaha Jahan called Golden Age?
Answer:
Mughal architecture reached perfection during, the reign of Shah Jahan, the great patron of architecture. He is often called the Engineer king as he built a large number of buildings.

He was a perfectionist and looked into the minutest details of his building projects. The buildings constructed by him have the finest features of Indian Persian and central Asian architecture.

Shah Jahan’s patronage to architecture stemmed from his love for monuments. He also wanted to establish his identity as a ruler and also set an example for the coming generations. The monuments constructed by him are majestic and graceful in appearance.

Features of the monuments: Under Shah Jahan there was a change in the building style as well as material. The emphasis was now on uniformity and symmetry. Red sandstone, popular with Akbar and Jahangir was replaced by white marble.

The walls began to be decorated with precious and semi-precious stones. This method of decoration is called pietra-dura. Domes and Minarets also began to form an important part of the buildings.

Monuments constructed: Shah Jahan constructed many mosques. The Moti Masjid in Agra was completed is 1653.

It was built entirely of white marble and has three domes. The Jama Masjid in Delhi was completed in 1656. It is the largest mosque in India.

Taj Mahal the most famous monument is as tall as a 20 storey skyscraper. It took 22 years to build and was constructed at a cost of 32 million rupees. Over 20,000 labourers worked on it day and night Ustad Isa khan and Ustad Ahmad Lahori were its chief architect. The Taj is a mix of several architectural styles.

It is placed in the middle of a garden. It is built of white marble which was obtained from Makrana in Rajasthan. Shah Jahan used the pietradune ornamentation of white marble on a large scale in his favourity Taj. The Taj Mahal reflects the glory of Mughal architecture.

Red Fort in 1639, Shah jahan laid the foundation of a new city. Shajahanabad. He bult the Red Fort here. It was numerous beautiful structures as :
• Diwan -I – Aam built in red sandstone, this was the place where the king head his court.
• Diwan – I- Khas – Shah Jahan’s peacock throne was kept here.
• Khwabgah: It was the private chambers of the king.
• Rang mahal: it was a piece for the women of the royal household.

With Shah Jahan’s death the Mughal art in all in manifestations began to decline. His son Aurangeb cared. Little for architecture and loss for painting and music lack of royal patronage led to the decline of Mughal architecture.

To Sumup, Shah Jahan was the most prolific and magnificent builder among the Mughal Emperons. In the time the art of building in India reached its zenith of perfection. Shah Jahan’s buildings are upparalled and unequalled.

They may be regarded as ‘Jewels Caskets magnified into architecture? Therefore, his reign is regarded as ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Mughal’s art and architecture.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Question 6.
Write a notes on Din-I-Ilhahi.
Answer:
The Din-I-IIhai was a unique conception introduced by Akbar in 1582. It was a gift of Akbar so far as his religious policy is concerned. After interacting with people of different religious. Akbar concluded that all religious preach a common message of love for humanity.

He felt that it the best points of all religious could be combined, the people of his empire would greatly path called the “Din-I-ffliahi” or divine monotheism-religion of one God. It was on the main ideals given in all religions.

The basic principles of Din-I-IIahi were very simple. It encouraged belief in one God. Akbar declared himself as the spiritual guide of his people. He discouraged the killing of animals people.

He discouraged the killing of animals giving cruel punishments to criminals, the custom of sati, eating flesh, onion, Garlic, etc.

The practice of worshipping the sun, fire and other sources of light was an important part of it. Akbar also popularized the principle of sulh- i-kul or peace with all.

This was primarily aimed at achieving eace, tolerance and unify in a county of diverse religion. According to some historian Akbar’s din-i9llahi was very similar to asoka’s Dhamma.

Din-i-llahi was not a new religion. It did not have any sacred books, rituals, priests or places of worship. It was only a code of moral conduct.

To most people, it appeared to be very heavy on philosophy. Hence, few people accepted it. Raja Birbal has one of the few who accepted it. Akbar respected the views of everyone and never forced anyone to follow it.

Din- i-llahi feded out after Akbar. Indeed, to preserve the unity of India and to maintain religious harmony between Hindus and Muslim Akbar promulgated the Din-i-ilahi.

Question 7.
Write a notes on Mughal Painting.
Answer:
The art of painting was shall mark of Islamic culture. The Mughal emperors were patronized the beautiful painting of the day. The period of Jahangir was called ‘Garden Age’ in the field of Mughal painting. The mosques, tombs & palace testified to the artistic acumen of the masons.

Special the floral designs, adorning the walls of mausoleums and mosques were copied from the embroidery and textile work of the Indians.

There were well known styles of painting such as the Gujarati, Rajasthani and Kashmiri before the Mughals, established their rule. The Mughals added new styles of painting.

The Mughal emperors encouraged the Indian artists to draw pictures on Subjects its of stories written in India and foreign languages. They inspired them to pain pictures of historical events and famous persons.

By that time the most interesting stories of the Indian ‘Panchatantra’ were translated to different Mulsim languages. Akbar advised his artists to decorate the Panchatantra stories with paintings.

The pages of the manuscripts of the Panchatantra were covered with life like small paintings of various creatures in different colours. Those paintings made the stories very attractive and very popular.

The time of Emperor Jahangir had been described as the golden age of the Mughal painting. Jahangir paid greeter attention to painting than to architecture.

The artists of his time were experts in painting of nature scenes of landscape of birds & beats and human beings. The pictures were small in size, but looked realistic.

The emperor patronized the painters and honoured them in the royal court. The memories of Jahangir known as Tazuki Jahangir contained many pictures of real scenes, such as the scene of coronation picture of the emperor, of the court and hunting of animals etc. The most celebrated printers of Jahangir’s time were abul Hasson, Muhammad nadir Bishan Das & Son.

The Miniature paintings were persevered inside picture albums. Such albums were may in number. The paintings contained the names of the painters.

They used such fine brushes than even the hairs of the beards of the saints or on the father of birds could be counted. After the decline of the Mughals, foreign merchants took away many of the picture albums to western countries.

Such albums are now available in the muslum of Tehran, London, Berlin. The western artists were greatly influenced by the Indian miniature painting and painted the stories of the Bible in that pattern.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Question 8.
Analyse the impact of Bhakti movement.
Answer:
The Bhakti movement brought about harmony between the Hindus and the Muslims. It gave birth to a new sect. i.e. Sikhism. Akbar’s broad out look was no other its impact.

Social impact: The most important social impct of the Bhakti movement was that the followers of the Bhakti movement rejected the caste distination. They began to mix together on the basis of equality.

They took their meals together from the common kitchen. The movement tried to bosen the bond of caste. A spirit of harmony among different sections of society and religion received impectus.

The evil practice of sati received some set back. The status of women received more importance.

Religious impact: The movement aroused awakening among the Hindus and Muslims Regarding the futility of ritualism and superstitions. The feeling of appreciation of the two religions emerged. The movement encouraged religious toleration.

Guru Granth Saheb the holiest book of the Sikhs which was complied later on included the messages of saints belonging to different sects. This was on account of the spirit of toleration preached by the Bhakti saints.

Promotion of regional languages of the common people: In place of Sankrit, Arabic and Persian, the Bhakti saints preached through the medium of local languages which could be understood very easily.

For instance the language of Kabir was a mixture of several languages of everyday use. Sudar used ‘Brig’ dialect. Goswami Tulasi Das composed his works in ‘Awadhi’

Political influence: Some of the rulers adopted liberal religious policies due to the impact of the Bhakti movement. For example Akbar the great.

Moral influence: The movement attempted to infuse a spirit of piety in the daily life of the people. It emphasized earning of wealth through hard work and honest means. It encouraged the value of social service to the poor and the needy.

It developed a humanitarian attitude. It pointed out the virtues of contentment anger greed and vanity. To sum up the Bhakti movement succeded to some extent to reform Hindu religions and society during medieval period of India.

Question 9.
Discuss the life and teachings of Kabir :
Answer:
Kabir was a great reformer of the Bhakti movement in India during mediaval age. His parentage and childhood are shrouded in mistery. It is however, believed that he was bom in 1440 A.D. He was nourished by a Muslim weaver named Niru. A muslim couple. Nima and Niru took proper care of Kabir.

As the couple were poor, they could not provide him any education. But Kabir developed-a-love for religion. Ramananda was his spiritual preceptor.

Mean while he married a girl named-Lohi and became the father of two children. Gradually he started preaching his faith, in the Hindi language. In 1510 Ad he died at Moghar in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh.

Teachings: The teachings of Kabir was very simple. He emphasized the unity of God. He used to say Ram and Rahim Were the two different names of the same God. Further he used to say that all the Hindus and muslims are-the children of the same God. To him the Hindus and the Muslims are brothers.

He advocated that there was no distinction between man and man between caste and caste high and low rich and poor. Kabir strongly denounced idol worship, going on pilgrimages, bathing in holy rivers, performance of rituals etc.

To him devotion to God and love for man are the best one should have purify of heart.

This can be had ‘ not by reading the Vedas or the karan not by performing rites and rituals, but by chanting the glories of God. Through love and devotion one could achieve salvation.

He acknowledged no caste distinctions. He condemned the orthodox practices of the Brahmins and maulvis. For the worship of God. The teachings of Kabir were of great appeal to both the Hindus and the Muslims.

His followers were known as Kabir Panthis. Since he was not very educated, he wrote nothing. His teaching was oral. He expressed it through little poems which are popular as do has or couplets.

It was after his death that all his do has were collected in a book named Bijak (the sed book), it is regarded as the principal religious text of the Kabirpanthis.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Question 10.
Discuss the life and teachings of Nanak.
Answer:
Nanak (1469-1538 A./D.) was the founder of Sikhism, Nanak was an exponent of the Bhakti Movement. He was born in 1469 A.D. at Talwandi in Lahore district now in Pakistan. His father’s name was Kalu. His mother’s name was Tripath. Nanak had no interest in his studies during his childhood.

He engaged himself in religious discussion with saints and sages. Due to this unusual development in Nanak, his tather got him married off to a girl named Loi got two sons.

There after his brother in-law (sister’s husband) jairam took him to Sultanpur and arranged a job for his under Stultan. Daulat khan Lodi. But he gave up his job and home and led the life of an ascetic.

He was then thirty years old. He travelled extensively in and beyond India to acquire knowledge different religions. He breathed his last in 1538 A.D. at Kartafpur in the Punjab on the eve of his death Nanak nominated one of his disciples, Angada be his successor.

Teaching: Firstly, Nanak heralded the brother hood of man. He said that there is no distinction between the Hindus and the Muslims, between high caste and low between religions and religion, Secondly he taught that God is one and he is formless.

Thirdly, he taught that through love and devotion (Bhakti) one can get the grace of God.

Fourthly, Nanak believed in the existence of the soul and his views on the soul were simple. He stated that man is bonded to the cycle of birth and death.

Fifthly, Nanak opposed all evil rituals and practices which were creating hurdle in the name of religion. He stated that merely by going on pilgrimage or bathing in pure water did not help man reach God. Purity of mind truthfulness and good work helped one in attaining Godhood.

Sixthly, for the attainment of Godhood Nanak used to say only a pure heart helps one in realizing God, One’s heart can be made pure by praeticihg-morality and good qualities such as truth, honesty, humanity, mercy and moral character.

Seventhly, Nanak did not attach any importance to the supremacy and influence of the Brahmin priests of Maulavis, Nanak laid stress on the rede of the Gurus for the spiritual development of a person.

Nanak spread his teaching all over India with his disciple Mardana. Punjab, written in Gurumukhi, was the language of his teachings. He used to teach by reciting Bhajanas.

Nanak laid the foundation of a new religion named as Sikhism. The word Sikh is derived from the Sanskrit term sishya meaning disciple. The teachings of Nanak have been in coporated in the book Adigrantha.

It is popularly known as Granth Saheb. It is the sacred text of the Sikhs. The fourth Guru Ramdas constructed the famous Golden temple at Amritsar which is now the chief centre of Sikhism. Inspired by Nanak’s teaching many people embraced Sikhism.

Question 11.
Discuss the life & teachings of Sri Chaitanya.
Answer:
Sri Chaitanya (1486-1533 A.D.) was an exponent of Bhakti Movement. He was born at Nawadip (Naida) situated on the banks of the Bhagirathi in West Bengal.

His father was Jagannath Mishra and mother Sachi Devi. His early name was Biswambhar. He was popularly known as Nimai. His parents used to call him Gama as he was white (Gaura) in complexion. Nimai studied in Sanskrit school and became a great pundit in Sanskrit, literature, grammar and logic.

After formal education he was married to Lakhsmi. But he has no desire to lead a worldly life. At the age of twenty two Chaitanya went to Gaya to offer Pinda to his deceased father.

There he met a saint named Ishwarapuri who initiated him with the Krishna Mantra. Thereafter he went on reciting the name of Lord Krishna. In 1510 he left home and became a sanyasi.

Then he came to Puri. From Puri, Sri Chaitanya went to South India, Varindaban, Mathura kasha, Prayag, Somnath, Dwaraka and a few other places or religious importance. He travelled all over India for six years. Chaitanya returned to Puri in 1515 and stayed there till his death in 1533 A.D.

Teachings: The fundamental teachings of Sri Chaitanya was love and love for Krishna. He put emphasis the name of Krishna and Radha. By uttering the name of Krishna and by having deep faith on one’s Gum or preceptor, one could attain salvation one of his principal disciples was a Muslim named Yavan Hari Das.

Sri Chaitanya was opposed to rites and rituals. He was against the priestly system. Speaking of the means to come nearer to God he said, “See everybody equally, treat man as your brother give up ego and anger, show kindness to animals and recite the name of God.

Then only you can attain god. While praying Sri chaitanya used to say O Krishna. I do not want education, power or followers. Give me a little which will enhance my devotion to you.

Sri Chaitanya laid greater emphasis on Kirtans. In his opinion true worship of God depended on love devotion, music (song) and dance. He said that it was through Singing Kritans, one could attain godhood.

The kirtAnswertransformed the surroundings into a divine atmosphere. Hence he suggested reaching God through the medium of Kirtans.

He accepted Brahmins, Sudras, Chandalas and Muslims as his discriples and created a bond of fraternity among them. His other great message to mankind was to love all living beings.

Chaitanya accepted some fundamental principles of the Sankhya philosophy. According to this there was no difference between the name of God and his incarnation.

His personality and preaching of love won the heart of the people in all parts of India. Bengal, Orissa & Vrindabaft became main centre of Vaisnavism. After his death, he is being worshipped as Gouranga Mahaprabhu.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions

Question 12.
Stress the origin of the Sufi movement and its impact in India.
Answer:
There is no unanimity of opinion among the scholars regarding the origin of Sufism in India. Whereas Yusuf Hussain held the view that Sufism was born out of Islam and foreign ideas and practices A.L.S.

Srivastava believed that Sufism was profoundly influenced by Hindu thoughts, beliefs and practices. Prof. K. A. Nizami opines of the development of their order in India.

Such practices include bowing before the Shaikh, presenting water to visitors, circulating a bowl and shaving the head of new entrants of the Sufi order etc. Diversity of views persists regarding the origin of the word “Sufi”. Some scholars hold the view that die word “Sufi” is derived from the word “Safa” meaning pure.

Hence the Sufi saints are associated with a life of purity and renunciation of the world some other believe that the word Sufi originates from the word “Sooph” meaning wool.

Therefore the Sufi saints put on woolen clothes after the death of Prophet Muhammad. The third view is that the word “Sufi” is derived from the Greek world “Sophia” meaning knowledge.

The fourth view is that Sufis took shelter outside the Mosques constructed by Prophet Muhammed at Madina and got devoted to God. The Sufi saints in India succeeded in converting a large number of Hindus to Islam. The message of equality of Islam encouraged the lower castes to get converted into Islam.

The sufi saints adopted some of the practices of the Hindu Sadhus and their behavioural pattern in order to dispel any doubt from the minds of the Hindus. Even they did not hesitate to make use of the authority to compel the Hindu to embrace Islam.

Rabia of Basra was one of the earliest sufis who said “Love of god hat so absorbed me that neither Love nor hate of many other thing remains in my heart” A real metaphysical basis to Sufism was provided by Abu Himid-al-Ghazale.

Abdual Karim-al-Jili believed that man attains spiritual perfection by passing through four stages. He was very much influenced by Hindu Vedanta. A large number of sufi saints appeared in India, particularty after the Ghazanavid conquest of Punjab.

Prominent among them were Shaikh Islam of Lahore Date Ganj Baksh and Sayyid Ahmed Sultan Sakhir Sarwar During the period from 1200 to 2500 A.D. a large number of new Sects and movement formed a mid way between Hinduism and Islam.

According to Abul Fazl, the sufis were divided into fourteen orders in India, the important being the Chisti, the Suhrawardi, the Naqshbandi, the Quadiri the Qulandaria and the Shuttari orders.

The Chisti order was founded by Khwaja Abdul Chisti in Heart. Khwaju Muin-Din- Chisti bought it to India. He was the founder of the Chisti order in India and as such he is considered the greatest among the Sufi saints in India. He preached that the greatest form of devotion of God consisted in service to humanity.

Therefore he spent his life in the service of the lower caste and the downtrodden people. Saikh Hamid-ud-din and Shaikh Qutb-ud-din Bakhtyar Kaki were the best disciples of Khwaja Mainud-din Chisti. Jhaikh Farid-ud-din Masud Ganj-i-shakar was a disciple of Kaki.

He was one of the most respected sufis in India who believed that one should keep away from kings and nobles because the ultimate result of such friendship is grief.

Also Shaikh Nizam- ud-din Aaliya considered it below his dignity to pay a visit to a sultan. His principles were based in love nad humanity.

He wrote O Muslims I swear by God that he holds dear those who love him for the sake of God. This is the only way to love and adore God. Another great sufi saint was Saikh Nazir-ud-din Mahmud who avoided kings and their courts.

The Chisti sufi saints lived simple and pure lives. They considered that possession of property is a big hindrance in the development of their personality.

They cultivated fasting in order to weaken and control their basic desires. They asked their followers to lead a life of asceticism amidst poverty. The disciples of the Chisti-Sufi saints depended on the charity of ordinary people.

They practiced 40 days of hard ascetic exercise in a cell or some lonely place and 40 days of ascetic exercise performed with the head on the ground and the legs tied to the roof or a brunch of a tree and the control of meditation.

Shaikh Shibad-ud-din Suhrawardi founded the Sutrawarder order. Shaikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya Suharwardi founded the Suhardwardi order in India. He led a comfortable life and did not believe in political affairs.

He did not prefer to come in contact with ordinary people and accepted gifts from the nobles and kings.

Therefore, a large number of people belonging to the upper stratum became his followers. The Suhrawardis were keen to convert Hindus to Islam and they were taking the help of the rich persons and administration in this regard. The Firdausia order was founded by Shaikh- harf-ud-din.

Yahya who believed that he union with God is not like the union of a body or of a substance with a substance, or of an accident with an accident.

He laid emphasis on the service of humanity and wanted his followers to serve the needy. His view was that the nearest way God was to help the needy and offer a helping hand to the downtrodden.

The nakshabandi order was founded in India by the followers of Khwaja Pir Mahmmad. It reached its climax under the leadership of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi. He opposed the pantheistic philosophy of the Sufis and advanced his own theory of the unity of phenomena Sikhindi said.

The monarch is to the words as the heart is to the body. If the heart reains pure, so does the body and vice-versa. The purity and impurity of the state depends upon the ruler. He believed that Islam and Hinduism were the anti-theses of each other.

The sufis put emphasis on the unity of God and gave priority to the means of devotion over rituals and ceremonial pilgrimages and fasts. The Sufis also maintained a high standard of morality and discipline by voicing against all vices like drinking. Gambling slavery etc. They also preached the gospel of brotherhood of man.

Due to such reasons the Sufis could be able to attract the lower classes of the Hindus who were prevented from reading the scriptures or entering the temples thus the Sufis were instrumental in maintaining the social equilibrium of the medieval society.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Short Type Questions with Answers

Question 1.
From which Greek world History has come and what is its meaning?
Answer:
From the Greek word Historia the history word has. come. The meaning of it is investigation, discovery, and experiment.

Question 2.
Who is regarded as the father of history and he had tried to write which type of history?
Answer:
Herodotus is regarded as the father of history. He had tried his best to write history on truth matters yet sometimes be based on the facts of legend.

Question 3.
In ancient India how many important religions were promulgated and what are they?
Answer:
In ancient India, three important religions of the world were promulgated. They are Brahmanical Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism.

Question 4.
The eminent ancient personalities of ancient gave the name of the land as what and their inhabitants were called as what?
Answer:
The eminent ancient personalities gave the name of the land “Bharat Varsha” and the inhabitants were called “Bharat sanitation”.

Question 5.
The ancient Persians according to the name of which river gave the name India hind and in further times in which name it was popular?
Answer:
The ancient Persians gave the name of this Hind according to the Sindhu river. In further times this country became popular as India.

Question 6.
Historian Thusidydes belongs to which country and he prefers to write which type?
Answer:
Thucydides belongs to the country of Greece. He prefers to write scientific history.

Question 7.
What is regarded as an archaeological source and which compound secured place within it?
Answer:
Archaeology is the science to know about the past. Inscriptions and ancient writing on various things are the main sources of it.

Question 8.
Outside India from which source it is known regarding this country and what are the discovered sources?
Answer:
Outside India, we came to know some inscriptions which give information about this country. They are discovered the source of the Beghaj Kay inscription and the inscription discovered in Behistan of Persia.

Question 9.
Which monarch had told in his own language that he had engraved his administrative principles on stones and what was the reason for it?
Answer:
Monarch Ashok had told in his own language that he had engraved his administrative principles on stones. The reason of it that it will last for many years to come.

Question 10.
The ancient script of India was discovered from which civilizations’ archaeological remains and it was engraved on which materials?
Answer:
The ancient script of India was discovered from the archaeological remains of the Harappan civilization. It was engraved on seals.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 11.
Another ancient script of India was engraved in which century and was whose script?
Ans:
Another ancient script of India was engraved in the 3rd century B.C. These engraved scripts were of King Asoka.

Question 12.
What is Archaeology and at the time which Governor-General in India department created it?
Answer:
The science of digging up and its excavation of various materials is considered Archaeology. The Archaeological department was created by the then Governor General of India Lord Curzon.

Question 13.
Which coin is regarded as the source of history and this investigation is called what?
Answer:
Varieties of coins from different ages in the depth of the earth and their discoveries are considered as an important source of history. This investigation study is known as numismatics.

Question 14.
Ambassador Al- Beruni has given information about how many Puranas prevail in India and among them the names of the chief Puranas are?
Answer:
Ambassador Al-Beruni has given information about is Puranas prevailing in India among them the chief Puranas are “Vayu Purana”, “Bishnu Purana”, “Matsya Purana”, “Brahmanda Purana”, “Agni Purana” etc.

Question 15.
Name of the religious text of Buddhism and what are those?
Answer:
The name of the religious text of Buddhism is “Tripitaka”. Those are “Sutrapitak”, “Binaya Pitaka” and “Abhidharma Pitaka”.

Question 16.
The “Arthasastra” of Kautilya is divided into how many parts and it reflects the social and religious life of the people of which age?
Answer:
The “Arthasastra of Kautilya is divided into fifteen parts. It reflects the social and religious life of the people of the Mauryan Age.

Question 17.
Who was the writer of the “Astadhyayi” text and when it was written? The text stressed the importance of what?
Answer:
The writer of “Astadhyayi” was Panini and it was written in the 4th century. This text stressed the importance of state administration.

Question 18.
“Mahabhaya” text was written by whom and this text was written in which B.C.?
Answer:
The “Mahabhasya” text was written by Patanjali. This text was written in the 2nd century B.C.

Question 19.
“Mudra Rakshasa” was written by whom and this text narrates which subjects?
Answer:
“Mudra Rakshasa” was written by Visakhadutta. In this text, the social condition and cultural aspects of the time of Chandra Gupta Maurya have been described.

Question 20.
“Harsha Charita” was written by whom and in this text which article was reflected?
Answer:
“Harsha Charita” was written by Banabhatta. It was the life history of Harsavardhana and in it, the social religious and economic life conditions of the people of the 7th century had been described.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 21.
“Bikramarka Charita” was written by whom and in it the working condition of which king had been described?
Answer:
“Bikramarka Charita” was written by Bilharzia. In this book, the working condition of Chalukya king Vikramaditya had been described.

Question 22.
“Ram Charita” was written by whom and in it, the heroic episodes of whom had been described?
Answer:
“Ram Charita” was written by Sandhyakar Nandi. In this book, the Character of Bengal king Rampal had given importance.

Question 23.
“Prithviraj Charita” was written by whom and in it, the heroic episodes of whom had been described?
Answer:
“Prithviraj Charita” was written by Chand Kabi. In it, the heroic episodes of king Prithviraj are described.

Question 24.
When Kalhan’s “Rajatarangini” was written and in this text whom an elaborate description had given?
Answer:
Kalhanas “Rajatarangini” was written on 1149-50 A.D. In this text, the dynasty, state administration, and punishment system of the state have been given elaborate importance.

Question 25.
“Raja Vamsabali” was the text of which state and what for it was famous?
Answer:
“Raja Vamsabali” was the ancient text of Udara Desa or Odisha. The book gave enough information for writing an ancient history of Odisha.

Question 26.
“Malabikagni Mitram” was written by whom and this book is based on some aspects of which kings administration?
Answer:
“Malavikagnimitram” was written by eminent poet and dramatist Kalidasa.- This text described some aspects of king pushy amitraz sunga’s administration.

Question 27.
Drama “Sakuntala” was written by whom and in it what kind of facts were given?
Answer:
The drama “Sakuntala” was the eternal creation of the famous dramatist Kalidasa. In this drama, the social condition of people had given almost importance.

Question 28.
The drama “Swapna Vasabadutta” was written by whom and in it which picture had given importance? ,
Answer:
Drama “Swapravasabadutta” was written by Vasa. In it, the picture of then-political India had given importance.

Question 29.
“Goudabaha” was written by whom and what is it described?
Answer:
“Goudabaha” was written by Vakapati. This book described the adventurous works of Yasovarman.

Question 30.
“Dasakumara Charitam” text was written by whom and it reflects which condition of the then India?
Answer:
“Daskumara Charitam” was written by Dandi. In this text, the political and social condition of then India had been reflected.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 31.
Monal teaching text “Pancha Tantram” was written by whom and it reflects which principle of the then India?
Answer:
The moral teaching text “Pancha Tantram” was written by Vishnu Sharma. This text reflects the social principle of then India.

Question 32.
Sangam literature was written in which part of India and it had importance upon which language?
Answer:
Sangam literature was written for South Indian kings and their dynasties. It gave importance to the Tamil language.

Question 33.
“Chachanama” text belongs to which country and in it what had been reflected?
Answer:
“Chachanama” text belongs to Arab countries. In it, the Arab invasion of Sindh had been reflected.

Question 34.
“Tabata-I-Nasir” was written by whom and it was divided into how many parts and in it what had been described?
Answer:
“Tabata-I-Nasir” was written by Minhas-us-Siraj and it was divided into ten parts. In it, an elaborate description had given regarding Islam and India.

Question 35.
“Histories” text was written by whom and this text gave information regarding what?
Answer:
The “Histories” text was written by Herodotus, the father of History. This book gave information regarding the Persian Greek war and so also relation in between India and Persia.

Question 36.
Who gave details information about the Indian invasion of Alexander and on it what had been described?
Answer:
Arrian gave details information about the Indian invasion of Alexander from Greek. description it was known how Seleucus was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya. (Sandrokotus)

Question 37.
Name of the eminent ancient geographist and in his geography text what he had narrated?
Answer:
The name of the eminent ancient geographist was Talmy. In his Greek language, he described Indian ports.

Question 38.
Who was Megasthenes? The written information by him was named?
Answer:
Meghasthenes was a Greek Ambassador. The written information by him was named “Indika”.

Question 39.
Who Was Megasthenes? He was sent by which Greek King to the Mauryan court and settled at Pataliputra?
Answer:
Megasthenes was a Greek Ambassador. He was sent by the Greek king Seleucus to the Mauryan court and settled at Pataliputra.

Question 40.
Did fashion come to India at the time of the reign of which king? The book written by him was?
Answer:
Fabien came to India at the time of the reign of Chandragupta II. The book written by him was named “Fo-Kuo-ki”.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 41.
China ambassador Hiuen-Tsang came to India at the time of which emperor? The book written by him was?
Answer:
China Ambassador Hiuen-Tsang came to India during the reign of emperor Harshavardhan. The name of the book written.

Question 42.
Who was Hiuen-Tsang ? Which title was given to him?
Answer:
Hiuen-Tsang was Chinese Ambassador. The title “Prince of Pilgrims” was given to him.

Question 43.
Is-Tsing when came to India? What he had described regarding Buddhism?
Answer:
Is-Tsing came to India in the 7th century. At his time of coming to India Buddhism was in a deteriorating condition.

Question 44.
Who was Al-Beruni? The name of his text was?
Answer:
Al-Beruni was a famous Al-Abian writer. The name of his text was “Tahiq-i-Hind”.

Question 45.
Who was James Princep? In which year he was capable to study Asokan inscription?
Answer:
James prince was a western learned man. In 1837 A.D. he was capable to study the Asokan inscription.

Question 46.
In which year by archaeological excavation was the city Harappa & Mahenjodaro came established and who was it discovered?
Answer:
In 1922 A.D. by archaeological excavation the city Harappa & Mahenjodaro came to establish. The discoverer of it was Dayaram Sahani and Rakhal Das Banerjee.

Question 47.
Give information regarding the location of Harappa and Mahenjodaro?
Answer:
Harappa city was established in the Montogomery district of Punjab near the bank of the Rabi river. Another city Mahenjodaro or “Dead city” was situated in the Larkana district of Sindh near the shore of the Sindhu river.

Question 48.
Who was Charles Mason? What he had described Harappa?
Answer:
Charles Mason was an English archaeologist. In 1829 A.D. he described Harappa as a “Puinous Brick Castle”.

Question 49.
Where Lothal was situated for what it was famous for?
Ans:
Lothal was situated in Gujarat state. It was famous for its ancient port.

Question 50.
Who was Mortimer Wheeler? He had fixed which time as the time of Sindh civilization?
Answer:
Mortimer Wheeler was a famous personality in Archaeology. He had a fixed time of Sindh civilization from 2500 B.C. to 1500 B.C.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 51.
What was the chief livelihood of Harappans? For their economic development, we came to know from which?
Answer:
The Chief livelihood of Harappans was cultivation. For their economic development, we came to know from the excavation of granary found from it.

Question 52.
What was the eminent project of Harappa? What were its length and breadth?
Answer:
The eminent project of Harappa was the “Great Bath”. The entire home preserved the. bath had a length of 180ft. and breadth of 108ft.

Question 53.
Whether the people of ancient Sindh know the process of writing? Their writing was discovered from where?
Answer:
The ancient Sindh people knew one process of the writing system. Their writing is known from the discovered seals.

Question 54.
Whether the Sindhu people knew about the domestication of animals? They had not domesticated which animal?
Answer:
Yes, the ancient people knew about the domestication of animals. They had not to domesticated and could not know the use of horses and dogs.

Question 55.
Regarding the golden ornaments of the Harappan civilization analyze the version of John Marshall?
Answer:
John Marshall opined regarding the gold ornaments of Harappa that the ornaments of discovered Harappa were so beautiful, fine, and attractive that it was not 5000 years gold ornaments and as if it is available at the different gold shops of London’s bond road.

Question 56.
The weapons of the Harappan civilization were made in which metal? For which purpose they used it?
Answer:
The weapons of the Harappan civilization were made of copper and bronze. For the purpose of war and haunting, they used it.

Question 57.
In the developed time of the Harappan civilization which type of rainfall was continuing? At that time which food particles produced more?
Answer:
In the developed time of the Harappan civilization maximum rainfall was continuing. At that time wheat and barley produced more.

Question 58.
For cultivation purposes which type of utensils was used by the Sindh people? Now that place is called?
Answer:
For cultivation purposes the Sindh people used plow, sickle axe, etc, Now that place is called the “Garden of Sindh” (Nakhalistan)

Question 59.
In which industry the Sindh people were experts and for this which material has discovered from excavation?
Answer:
In the weaving industry, the Sindh people were experts. This we came to know from the discovery of knitting machines and engraved seals.

Question 60.
For the clay pot of Harappan civilization what was the opinion of Mortimer Wheeler?
Answer:
Regarding the clay pots of the Harappan people, Mortimer Wheeler opined that those were very attractive in comparison to Iran and Mesopotamia.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 61.
The Sindh people were accustomed to which metal and whether they knew the use of iron?
Answer:
The Sindh people were accustomed to copper, bronze, gold, silver, tin, etc. Whether they knew about the use of iron still no information is found regarding it.

Question 62.
Estimate the opinion of Hunter regarding the metal architecture of Sindh people?
Answer:
According to famous historian Hunter, the Sindh people were experts in metal architecture. From it, they were capable to make different types of ornaments also.

Question 63.
Whether the Sindh people were experts in the trade business? They were engaged for internal business from which place to which place?
Answer:
There availed enough evidence that the Sindh people were experts in the trade business. They were engaged in internal business from Kashmir Valley to Southern valley.

Question 64.
On which route the Sindh people had foreign trade relations and with which country they were engaged in trading?
Answer:
On the land route and sea routes, the Sindh people had foreign trade relations. They were engaged in trade with countries like Sumeria, Egypt, and Greece.

Question 65.
Give proof regarding the trade relationship between Mesopotamia civilization and Sindh civilization?
Answer:
They excavated Mahenjodaro seals in Mesopotamia and excavated cuneiform writing from the Mahenjodaro civilization tracing the trade relationship between them. So also Sindh people had trade relations with Akkad and other countries of Persia.

Question 66.
Whether the Sindh people were experts in the analytical and mechanical wing? Whether their weight and measurement, the system in comparison with England’s ounce and Greek Unica system?
Answer:
From the excavated archaeological things and their examination, we came to know that they were experts in the analytical and mechanical wing. Their weight and measurement system was inaccurate with the ounce system in England and unrar system in Greek.

Question 67.
In 2001 the archaeological excavation from Mehergarh in Pakistan describes the medical treatment of Sindh people?
Answer:
In 2001 the archaeological excavation from Mehergarh in Pakistan. We came to anticipate that the Sindh people acquired knowledge about teeth treatment.

Question 68.
The Sindh people worshipped to which force? The woman’s picture engraved on the seal gave which information?
Answer:
It came to be known that the Sindh people worshipped to “Mother Goddess”. The woman’s picture engraved in the excavated seal indicates that the picture may be the picture of the Dharitri Goddess.

Question 69.
The excavated Yogi posture was surrounded by which four figures? Analyze the statement of John Marshall regarding this figure?
Answer:
The excavated seal with Yogi posture was surrounded by four animals and they were elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, and buffalo. From this study, Sir John Marshal imagined that perhaps Saivism was the earliest religion of India.

Question 70.
Evaluate the statement of Mortimer Wheeler regarding the decline of the Indus civilization? When this Civilization came to an end?
Answer:
According to Mortimer Wheeler, Harappa and Mahenjodoro were destroyed by the Aryan invaders. In the Vedas, the early Aryans described their God Indra as the destroyer of the cities of the Asuras. According to wheeler the fall of this civilization occurred about 1500 years before the birth of Christ.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 71.
Analyze the statement of other scholars about the fall of the Indus valley civilization?
Answer:
To other scholars, the climatic changes led to the decline of the cities. It may be that the rivers Indus and Ravi changed their courses for which the cities were badly affected frequent floods of those rivers made it difficult for people to live. Being deserted the cities perhaps got buried under the earth in course of many many years.

Question 72.
Give an estimate of the legacies of the Indus civilization?
Answer:
The influence of the Indus civilization on the future can not be denied. The civilization had two faces. Spiritual and material. But the spiritual faiths of the Indus people survived forever.

Question 73.
Which Eastern eminent scholar when given the opinion that the Sanskrit language of India and other western languages had derived from one common language?
Answer:
Eminent Eastern scholar Sir William Johns gave an opinion in 1786 that the Sanskrit language of India, the language of Persia language of Greece, and Rome, and the German language had deep relations and those languages had derived from one original language.

Question 74.
Regarding the unity of various tribes which western scholar has given which opinion?
Answer:
Regarding the unity of various tribes eminent western scholar Maxmuller opined strongly in 1861 that “The forefathers of Indian, Persian, Greek, Romans skills, Kelat, and Germans not only lived in the same place rather they lived under one home.

Question 75.
The Aryans first settled in which place in India and how many rivers flowed there?
Answer:
The Aryans first settled in Punjab India. At that time in Punjab, seven rivers were flowing.

Question 76.
The Aryan gave which name Punjab and define the name of the seven rivers?
Answer:
The Aryan given name to Punjab was Saptasindhu. The name of those rivers is Sindhu, Vitasta, Chandrabhaga, Iravati, Bipasa, Satadru, and Saraswati.

Question 77.
What was the first literature of the Aryans and when it was written?
Answer:
Veda happens to be the earliest literature of the Aryan race coming to India they began to write it.

Question 78.
What are the meaning of Veda and other names for it?
Answer:
The word Veda means supreme knowledge. The Aryans believed that the Vedas were the words of God. The other name of Veda is called Shruti.

Question 79.
Veda is divided into how many parts and what is the earliest Veda?
Answer:
Veda is divided into four parts such as Rigveda, Samveda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda. The name of the earliest Veda is Rigveda.

Question 80.
Give an opinion against “Aranyaka”?
Answer:
Aranyaka is a part of Veda. There is a philosophical theme in it. There is six Aranyakas. In future times it was enlarged and came to be known as Upanishad.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 81.
Who was the head of the Aryan family and estimate his relation with family members?
Answer:
Father was the head of the Aryan family. The relationship between father, mother, brothers, and sisters rested on a sense of duty, devotion, affection, and cordiality. The younger members obeyed the senior members.

Question 82.
The Aryans believed in which system of life and what are they?
Answer:
The Aryans believed in the system of Chaturashrama or the fourfold division of life. They are Brahmacharya, Garhasthya, Vanaprastha, and Sanyasa.

Question 83.
Give an account of the tradition of the education system of the Aryans?
Answer:
In Vedic society, there was Gurukul where the students earned their education. With obtaining knowledge they also imported education for work efficiency, building good character, truth, honesty, etc.

Question 84.
What was the position of women in Vedic Aryan society and they secured which position?
Answer:
Women held a high position in Vedic Aryan society. They secured an equal position with men and also exercised much influence in domestic affairs.

Question 85.
What is the meaning of the Aryan word “Dough”? Are the Aryan girls fond of looking at the cow?
Answer:
The Aryan word “Dough” means milking the cow. Perhaps the Aryan girls were fond of looking after the cow as their domestic duty.

Question 86.
Was there child marriage in the Rig-vedic society? Was there seclusion of women?
Answer:
There was no child marriage in the Rig-vedic society. Girls live in the house of their parents till they attained marriageable age. There was no seclusion of women in Vedic society.

Question 87.
Were the Vedic women taking part in the highest socio-religious duties? Give the name of some important women in Vedic society?
Answer:
The Vedic Women took part in the highest socio-religious duties. They also studied Vedas, some important women personalities in Vedic times were Lopamudra, Ghosha, Viswavara, and Apala.

Question 88.
What were the dress materials of early Vedic people and what are they?
Answer:
The Aryans generally used cotton and woolen garments, sometimes deer skins were also used for the dress. The men were generally one lower and one upper garment called vasa and Adhivasa. The women in addition to the above two used an undergarment called “Nivs”

Question 89.
What was the daily food of the Aryan people?
Answer:
The daily food of the Rigvedic people consisted of barley, rice, beans, vegetables, milk, milk products, and cakes. They also ate non-vegetarian foods like fish, birds, goats, bulls, horses, etc. Ox, goat meat, and mutton were eaten. Bull cow meat was not touched.

Question 90.
What were the game and amusement in the Aryan society?
Answer:
The virile people in the Aryan society passed their time in boxing, hunting, and chariot race. The Aryans used many musical instruments like drums, flutes, harps, and cymbals.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 91.
What was the principal occupation of the Vedic Aryans for plowing the land? How many bullocks did they use?
Answer:
Agriculture was the principal occupation of the Vedic Aryans. For plowing land they used as many as 8,10 and 12 bullocks.

Question 92.
What type of industry was prevalent in Aryan times?
Answer:
The weaving of cotton and wool was the principal industry. Carpentry was a lucrative profession. The blacksmiths made weapons household implements and gold smith mode ornaments.

Question 93.
Give a short note about the internal trade of the Aryan people?
Answer:
The Rigvedic people carried trade among the members of the same tribe and also with other tribes sometimes traders made journeys to distant lands for larger profits on the trade.

Question 94.
What was the medium of exchange of Aryan trade? Name of the gold coin used by the Aryans?
Answer:
The medium of exchange in the Aryan trade was the barter system. The gold coin used by the Aryans was named “Nishka”.

Question 95.
Whether the Aryans had overseas trade?
Answer:
We do not know definitely whether the Aryans had overseas trade with west Asian countries. The Harappans had extensive trade with West Asia. Whether the Aryans were able to continue is not certain.

Question 96.
Which was the lowest unit in the Rigvedic society and what is a clan?
Answer:
The lowest unit of the Rigvedic society was the family. A number of families bound by ties of blood and other relations formed a clan.

Question 97.
Which unit formed in Rigvedic society as a union of several gramas and which was the higher unit?
Answer:
The union of several gramas formed a vis. The Jana was the higher unit.

Question 98.
Name of the leaders of grama, vis, and Jana?
Answer:
The leader of the grama was called Brahmani and that of a vis was called visit. The lord of the Jana was called Copa.

Question 99.
What was the prevailing form of Government and by which term the king was denoted?
Answer:
Kingship was the prevailing form of government. The king was denoted by the term “Rajan”.

Question 100.
Which form of government was by the Vedic tribes and what was the title of their leader?
Answer:
The Vedic tribes did not have a monarchical constitution. They were ruled by tribal chiefs, who formed an oligarchy. The title of their leader was known as Ganapati.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 101.
What was the prime and supreme duty of the king and the administered justice with the help of whom?
Answer:
The king had the prime and supreme duty to protect the life and property of his people from external and internal enemies. He administered justice with the help of (Priest).

Question 102.
The Rigvedic king had to consult popular bodies in grave political matters and act according to their decision?
Answer:
The Rigvedic king had to consult with popular bodies like “Sabha” and “Samiti” in grave political matters and act according to their decision.

Question 103.
The king attended to which meeting and what Rigveda suggested regarding the decision of this popular body?
Answer:
The king attended the meeting of the Samiti and took part in the debates. The Rigveda urged people to be unanimous. One-minded in taking decisions of the Samiti.

Question 104.
The Aryans expanded to which valley in the later Vedic period which places are mentioned in later Vedic literature?
Answer:
The Aryans expanded to the Ganga Yamuna valley in the later Vedic period. The places like Kosala and Videha are mentioned in the later Vedic literature.

Question 105.
Which high-sounding title of Raj came into vogue and which sacrifices were performed to signify the imperial of the monarchs?
Answer:
High-sounding titles like Ekrat now came into vogue. The sacrifices like Rajasuya, Vajapeya, and Asvamedha were performed to signify the imperial of the monarchs.

Question 106.
Apart from the officials in the Rigvedic period in the later Vedic age which new officials were appointed?
Answer:
Apart from the officials in the Rigvedic period in the later Vedic age new officials like treasurer, Ceuta or royal announcer, superintendent of gambling, etc.

Question 107.
In the later Vedic period far-reaching changes took place in the sphere of the four caste systems. Which two castes now enjoyed the highest privileges in society?
Answer:
In the later Vedic period far-reaching changes took place in the sphere of the four caste systems. Brahmanand Kshatriya now enjoyed the highest privileges in society.

Question 108.
What was the condition of women in the later Vedic age?
Answer:
The high position of women in the early Vedic age deteriorated. They lost their right to perform religious duties and lost their position in political affairs.

Question 109.
Were the four Ashramas became more regularised in the later Rigvedic age and the students got an education in which subject?
Answer:
The idea of four Ashramas became more regularised in the later Vedic age. The students got an education in philosophy, Vedas, scriptures ethics, etc.

Question 110.
What became the staple food of the later Vedic Aryans and what were the other items of food?
Answer:
Rice became the staple food of the later Vedic Aryans. The other items of foods were vegetables, meat, fish, etc. killing of cows was looked disfavor. Drinking wine on sure was still favored.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 111.
What were the chief crops of the later Vedic people and how many bullocks were used for deep plowing?
Answer:
The chief crops of the later Vedic people were rice, wheat, and barley. There were 24 nos of bullocks were used for plowing purposes.

Question 112.
What was the opinion of reference of Atharva Veda regarding the navigation in the seas by the later Vedic people?
Answer:
The later Vedic people became familiar with the navigation of the seas. According to the reference of the Atharva Veda, the people were aware of the eastern and western seas perhaps trading contact with Mesopotamia was established.

Question 113.
In later Vedic times who were hereditarily engaged in trade and by which name the rich merchants were called?
Answer:
In later Vedic times, the vaishyas were hereditarily engaged in trade. The rich merchants in this period.

Question 114.
Were there coins used in the later Vedic period and who used these coins as a unit of exchange?
Answer:
There was a coin named “Mishka” which was not ordinarily used. The merchants used this coin as a medium of exchange.

Question 115.
Who was the most powerful and popular God in the later Vedic age and in which name he was described in Rigveda?
Answer:
India was the most powerful and popular God in the later Vedic age. In Rigvedic he is described as the “Purandara” because he has destroyed the puas of the non-Aryans and ensured the security of his devotees the Aryans.

Question 116.
In the Vedic period language became the vehicle of expression of thought and towards the later Vedic age. This language became the language of which class?
Answer:
In the Vedic period, Sanskrit became the vehicle of expression of thought. Towards the later Vedic age, this language became the language of the upper class.

Question 117.
Atharva Veda contains which information?
Answer:
The Atharva Veda contains information on political, and social sciences, medicines, and also magic.

Question 118.
Regarding slavery in ancient Indian society what Meghasthenes has described?
Answer:
Meghasthenes came to India in the 4th century B.C. He found that slavery was unknown to Indian society.

Question 119.
Which kingdom was popular as Varanasi and in the remote past who was the ruler of Varanasi and what was his name?
Answer:
The Kasi kingdom was popular as the Varanasi kingdom. The name Varanasi is derived from the name of two rivers i.e.” Varuna” and “Asi”. The ancient king or ruler of Varanasi was Asvasena.

Question 120.
By consisting which modern area Kosala kingdom was constitute and what was the capital of Kosala?
Answer:
By consisting Ayodhya area of Uttarpradesh the ancient Kosala kingdom was constituted. Sribasti was the capital of Kosala.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 121.
Which two states were the democratic states in sixteen Mahajanapadas and here it was developed?
Answer:
Among the sixteen Mahajanpadas, Vrije and Malla were two democratic states. These two states were developed in the North-Western areas of India i.e., on the foothills of the Himalayas.

Question 122.
Anga was the neighbor of which kingdom and from which Veda we came to know about its name?
Answer:
Anga was a neighbor of Magadha. From Atharva Veda we came to know about Anga.

Question 123.
In the 6th century B.C. who was the ruler of Vatsa and he was initiated in which religion?
Answer:
In the 6th century B.C. Udayana was the ruler of Vatsa. He was initiated into Buddhism.

Question 124.
In the modern which area the Panchali kingdom was developed and in which century the democratic system established there?
Ans:
In the modem Rohilakhand area the Panchali kingdom was developed and in this century the democratic system was established there.

Question 125.
In Buddhist J a taka what had described regarding the port of Bhrugukachcha and now it is compared with which port?
Answer:
In Buddhist Jataka, it had described that Bhrugukachcha was an eminent port in ancient
Indian sea. Now it is compared with the port of Broch.

Question 126.
Define the word History?
Answer:
The word History comes from the ancient Greek word ‘histo’ meaning ‘known this’. History is the Study of the past. If we look closely at the word, we will find the word ‘story’ in it. In fact, history is the story of how people lived in earlier times.

Question 127.
What is the sources of History?
Answer:
With the help of historical clues, a historian writes the history of the past without which he can not reconstruct the past so these clues are called the sources of history. This source material can be divided into two categories, that is, archaeological and literary.

Question 128.
Archaeological Sources?
Answer:
For collecting information about the pre-historic, past historians have to depend solely on the remains or rains of the past. Archaeologists dig up sites where people might have lived and bring out various objects which have been buried under the earth for many years. These objects may include tools, jewelry, fossils, and arts and crafts. At times, houses where people live, temples where people went to worship, and even the layout of an entire city have been excavated by archaeologists. These provide valuable clues to historians for reconstructing the history of that period.

Question 129.
Epigraphy?
Answer:
The study of inscriptions is known as Epigraphy. In the absence of paper, people used sharp instruments to write on hard surfaces. These are referred to as inscriptions. Inscriptions may be found on seals, copper plates, stone pillars, rocks or temple walls. They provide valuable information. Though the Harappans were the first to inscribe their script on seals, these have not yet been deciphered so fax are those issued by Ashoka in the third century B.C.

Question 130.
Numismatics?
Answer:
The study of coins is known as numismatics coins struck at different times by different rules provide valuable dues regarding dates, names of rulers, regions where these have been struck as well as the metal sued. Ancient coins were made of copper-gold, silver, or lead. Coin molds made of burnt clay have been found in large numbers. Coins made of metal first appeared in the Buddhist period.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 131.
Write briefly about the position of Big Vedic women?
Answer:
Women enjoyed freedom. Some of the outstanding women of the age were like Gargi, Maitree, Apala Visvabara, Ghosha Sikata Lapamudra. They did not remain confined within the four walls of the house.

Question 132.
Write about the Sabha of the Rig Vedia age?
Answer:
The Sabha was a popular assembly to advise the King on administrative matters. The Sabha was the council of elderly people representing the wealthy and leading persons of the society. It was used to assist the king in the discharge of his functions.

Question 133.
Write about the Samiti of the Rigvedic Age?
Answer:
The Samiti was a popular assembly to advise the kings on administrative matters. It was a larger body consisting of representatives from each village or group. The Samiti was concerned with taking decisions on the matters of war and peace, maintenance of law and order selection of the King.

Question 134.
Write about the Chaturashram of the water Vedic age?
Answer:
Chaturashram or the four stages of life was a feature found in the society of dying later Vedic age. One’s life span was divided into four stages, namely, Brahmacharya. Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Samnyasa. To make life healthy and regulated, the divided into four stages.

Question 135.
How was the marriage system in the later Vedic Society?
Answer:
Polygamy and polyandry were practiced during this time by the kings and nobles. Marriage among near relations was not the practice. More rituals were observed in the marriage ceremony.

Question 136.
Write about the religion of the Harappan civilization?
Answer:
The Harappan worshipped the mother goddess, Lord Shiva as Pashupati, Pipai tree. Snake etc. The Harappans believed in life after death. They adopted the disposal of dead bodies.

Question 137.
Write about the dress of the Aryans?
Answer:
The dress of the Aryan was plain and simple. The Rigvedic Aryans wore three pieces of clothing. The upper piece was called Vasa paridhana. The undergarment was called Aivi or Antalya. Besides these two, they also wore an over garment called Adhi.

Question 138.
Write about the food of the Rigvedic Aryan?
Answer:
The food habit of the Rig Vedic Aryans was very simple. By and large, they were vegetarians. Barley, wheat, honey, fruits, milk, and products like curd, and Glu; end butter constituted their staple food.

Question 139.
Write about the political organization of the Vedic Aryans?
Answer:
A number of families constructed one Grama or Village, a group of villages constituted one vis and a group of vis constituted. A Kingdom or Janapada. The head of the village was called Grammar. The head of the vis was called visit and the head of the janapadas was called Rajan. The family was the foundation of the political organization of the Vedic Aryans. The head of the family was called Grihapati.

Question 140.
Chief features of town planning of Harappan civilization?
Answer:
The rains of the cities of the Indus valley civilization display the remarkable skill of the people in town planning and sanitation. The main features are cities with their wide and straight streets, efficient and covered drainage, structurally comfortable houses with bathrooms, and built of burnt bricks of various shapes. The most striking feature of Mahenjodaro is the Great Bath. It is a rectangular structure resembling a swimming pool. At Harappa, a number of granaries have been found.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions

Question 141.
Family system In early Vedic society?
Answer:
The evolution of the family system in the early Vedic period provided a bedrock for a healthy, happy, and prosperous society. Society was organized on the basis of the family as a unit. Each family was considered a cradle of values. A training ground for learning the duties and obligations towards individuals, the family, society, and humanity at large.

Question 142.
The rigidity of the caste system in the Later Vedic Age?
Answer:
The later Vedic period saw the rise of the rigid caste system Brahmanas, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra. It destroyed the values of human equality of the earlier days and created a distinction between man and man. Those who performed religious duties formed the priestly caste known as the Brahmana. Those who fought battles formed the warrior class called the Kshatriya. Those who looked to agriculture, trade or other productive works came to be known as the vaisya, and finally, those who performed social and human services to the society formed the lowest caste and were called the Sudra.

Question 143.
Gurukul system of education?
Answer:
The education system was formalized, the ‘Gurukul’ system emerged and the students began to live as family members with their teacher. This system became the forerunner of the modem boarding system. Besides Vedas, the Puranas, the Upanishads, Astronomy, Mathematics, and Military education also formed part of the curriculum. After the completion of education, ‘Dakshina’ or gifts and presents were offered to the teachers.

Question 144.
Position of women in the later Vedic period?
Answer:
During the later Vedic age, women lost their earlier status. Polygamy (marrying several wives of the man) was in vogue. Polyandry (possessing several husbands was also in vogue. The practice of swayamvar (choosing one’s husband) was prevalent in several sections of society. No doubt women had access to education but the status of women had been lowered during this period as compared with the Rigvedic Period.

Question 145.
Complicated Religious rituals in the later Vedic age?
Answer:
Elaborate rituals and sacrifices became the order of the day. Numerous rituals and animal sacrifices to appease these gods began to be performed. The kings performed sacrifices. Individuals also performed sacrifices in their homes. The chanting of mantras accompanied all the rituals. In course of time, rituals became so important that every important event was followed by an elaborate ritual. The priests performed these rituals and sacrifices and were given cows horses, gold, and cloth as gifts. The priests were looked upon as messengers of God. As a result, they enjoyed tremendous power and prestige.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Multiple Choice Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Ambassador Al-Beruni belongs to which country?
(a) Middle East
(b) Arab
(c) Europe
(d) China
Answer:
(b) Arab

Question 2.
At the time of Al-Beruni’s tour to India who was the administrator of Gajni?
(a) Mohammad-Bin-Quasim
(b) Hand Rashid
(c) Dahir
(d) Mamud
Answer:
(d) Mamud

Question 3.
Al-Beruni was expert in which education?
(a) Philosophy
(b) History
(c) Mathematics and astrology
(d) Sanskrit
Answer:
(c) Mathematics and astrology

Question 4.
In which language Al-Beruni took education at India?
(a) Hindi
(b) English
(c) Tamil
(d) Sanskrit
Answer:
(d) Sanskrit

Question 5.
How many books about India wrote by Al-Beruni?
(a) 22
(b) 19
(c) 20
(d) 15
Answer:
(c) 20

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 6.
Which Indian language was translated to Arabic by Al-Beruni?
(a) Sanskrit
(b) Pali
(c) English
(d) Devnagiri
Answer:
(a) Sanskrit

Question 7.
Regarding which area of India Al-Beruni has not given any information?
(a) Middle India
(b) North India
(c) South India
(d) Western India
Answer:
(c) South India

Question 8.
Name of the book of Arabic writer Al-Beruni?
(a) Tahiq-i-Hind
(b) Si-Yu-Ki
(c) Tamai-It-Tawarik
(d) Akalu-law-Vilat
Answer:
(a) Tahiq-i-Hind

Question 9.
During whose administration Ibn-Batuta came to India?
(a) Mohammad-Bin-Tughlaq
(b) Kutabuddin Aibak
(c) Firoz Tughlaq
(d) Iltutmish
Answer:
(a) Mohammad-Bin-Tughlaw

Question 10.
The social picture of India was eulogised in which book of Ibn-Batuta?
(a) Tahiq-i-Hind
(b) Tabaqat-i-Nasir
(c) Rihala
(d) Tughlaqnama
Answer:
(c) Rihala

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 11.
Mohammad Bin-Tughlaw has sent Ibn-Batuta as ambassador to which country?
(a) Africa
(b) China
(c) Arab
(d) England
Answer:
(b) China

Question 12.
The personal doctor of which personality Francois-Berrier has appointed in India?
(a) Sahajahan
(b) Jahangir
(c) Aurangzeb
(d) Dara
Answer:
(d) Dara

Question 13.
In which book Francois Berrier has described regarding India?
(a) Tourism of Mughal empire
(b) Tabaqut-i-Nasir
(c) Rihala
(d) Tahiq-i-Hind
Answer:
(a) Tourism of Mughal empire

Question 14.
The Delhi sultanate state was which kind of state?
(a) Democracy
(b) Bureaucracy
(c) Theocracy
(d) Military state
Answer:
(c) Theocracy

Question 15.
The sultans were the representative of whom?
(a) Islam religion
(b) Prophet Mohammad
(c) Calipha
(d) Allah
Answer:
(c) Calipha

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 16.
What is Shariat?
(a) Islamic Law
(b) Christian Law
(c) Hindu Law
(d) Sikh Law
Answer:
(a) Islamic Law

Question 17.
In 8th century under Calipha who was the ruler of Iraq?
(a) Hejaj
(b) Dahir
(c) Mohammad Bin Quasim
(d) Sabuktagin
Answer:
(a) Hejaj

Question 18.
In 8th century which Hindu king was the ruler of Sind?
(a) Harshavardhan
(b) Dahir
(c) Skandagupta
(d) Kumaragupta
Answer:
(b) Dahir

Question 19.
In 712 A.D. who invaded sind?
(a) Hejaj
(b) Mohammad Bin Quasim
(c) Sultan Mamu
(d) Sabuktagin
Answer:
(b) Mohammad Bin Quasim

Question 20.
In Sultani administration what was the designation of Prime Minister?
(a) Wazir
(b) Naib Wazir
(c) Ariz-i-Mamalik
(d) Diwan-i-Insa
Answer:
(a) Wazir

Question 21.
Minister who was engaged in Religious donation work was known as?
(a) Diwar-i-Kwaja
(b) Sadar-us-Sadar
(c) Ariz-i-Mamalik
(d) Barid-i-Mamalik
Answer:
(b) Sadar-us-Sadar

Question 22.
Designation of Defence Minister in Sultan Administration?
(a) Ariz-i-Mamalik
(c) Diwan-i-Kwaja
(b) Wazir
(d) Sadar-us-Sadar
Answer:
(a) Ariz-i-Mamalik

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 23.
Name of the Agriculture minister in Sultan administration?
(a) Diwan-i-Kwaja
(b) Amir-i-Kohi
(c) Min-i-Ampat
(d) Sadar-us-Sadar
Answer:
(b) Amir-i-Kohi

Question 24.
Designation of Defence in charge Minister?
(a) Diwan-i-Insa
(b) Diwan-i-Rasayat
(c) Diwan-i-Wazrat
(d) Diwan-i-Ariz
Answer:
(d) Diwan-i-Ariz

Question 25.
Designation of External Affairs Minister in Sultan administration?
(a) Diwan-i-Ariz
(b) Diwan-i-Insa
(c) Diwan-i-Rasalat
(d) Mir-i-Amrat
Answer:
(c) Diwan-i-Rasalat

Question 26.
In Delhi Sultanate period the minister in charge of Royal correspondence was known as?
(a) Wazir
(b) Barid-i-Mamalik
(c) Diwan-i-Insa
(d) Sadar-us-Sadar
Answer:
(c) Diwan-i-Insa

Question 27.
In Sultan administration “Quazi-i-Mamalik” was in charge of which post?
(a) Chief Defence Minister
(b) Minister of Urban development
(c) Minister in charge of Religious institution
(d) Chief Justice
Answer:
(d) Chief Justice

Question 28.
In sultan administration head ofSpy and correspondence department was known as?
(a) Barid-i-Mamalik
(b) Diwan-i-Insa
(c) Dabir-i-Khas
(d) Mir-i-Amrat
Answer:
(a) Barid-i-Mamalik

Question 29.
Designation of Urban development minister?
(a) Amir-i-Kohi
(b) Diwan-i-Rasalat
(c) Mir-i-Amrat
(d) Aniz-i-Mamalik
Answer:
(c) Mir-i-Amrat

Question 30.
In sultan administration person in charge of capital administration was known as?
(a) Siyasat
(b) Chief Guard
(c) Karkoon
(d) Chief care-taker
Answer:
(b) Chief Guard

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 31.
In Sultan administration designation “Wali” referred to whom?
(a) Chief administrator of state
(b) High official of state
(c) Administration of Sikh
(d) Village headman
Answer:
(a) Chief administrator of state

Question 32.
What is the meaning of “Usher”?
(a) One kind of Religious tax
(b) Land tax to the Muslims
(c) Land tax to the non-muslims
(d) Import duty
Answer:
(b) Land tax to the Muslims

Question 33.
In Sultan administration the land tax collected from Non-muslims was known as?
(a) Zakat
(b) Kharaz
(c) Usher
(d) Rashad
Answer:
(b) Kharaz

Question 34.
Who was regarded as the real founder of Sultan administration?
(a) Iltutmish
(b) Allaudin Khilji
(c) Kutubuddin Aibak
(d) Giyasuddin Bulban
Answer:
(a) Iltutmish

Question 35.
Which Sultan of Delhi administration paid utmost importance in organisational matter and efficiency of military?
(a) Iltutmish
(b) Allaudin Khilji
(c) Mohammad Bin-Tuglaq
(d) Firoz Tughlaq
Answer:
(b) Allaudin Khilji

Question 36.
At the time of Allaudin Khilji the given sign in horse back was known as?
(a) Khairat
(b) Ikta
(c) Hulia
(d) Murkadam
Answer:
(c) Hulia

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 37.
In sultan administration “Ikta” was known to?
(a) State
(b) District
(c) Country
(d) Village
Answer:
(a) State

Question 38.
What was known to union territories in sultan administration?
(a) Ikta
(b) Khalsa
(c) Sik
(d) Adan
Answer:
(b) Khalsa

Question 39.
In sultan administration who was the chief of district administration?
(a) Sikdar
(b) Amir
(c) Kanoongo
(d) Nazir
Answer:
(a) Sikdar

Question 40.
Name of the Religious duty referred to Non-muslims?
(a) Zakat
(b) Ziziya
(c) Ushar
(d) Kharaj
Answer:
(b) Ziziya

Question 41.
In Delhi Sultan administration which type administration praised?
(a) Religious administration
(b) Generous administration
(c) Democratic administration
(d) Autocratic administration
Answer:
(d) Autocratic administration

Question 42.
Which sultan constructed Vandegan-i-Chihilgan (Army or Fourty)?
(a) Balban
(b) Allauddin Khilji
(c) Iltutmish
(d) Kutubuddin Aibak
Answer:
(c) Iltutmish

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 43.
Which sultan rested upon “Divine Autocratic Theme”?
(a) Iltutmish
(b) Allauddin Khilji
(c) Giyasuddin Balban
(d) Kutubuddin Aibak
Answer:
(c) Giyasuddin Balban

Question 44.
Which sultan introduced the principles of “Sizda” and “Pibus”?
(a) Giyasuddin Balban
(b) Allauddin Khilji
(c) Iltutmish
(d) Kutabuddin Aibak
Answer:
(a) Giyasuddin Balban

Question 45.
The renowned family members of Muslim society were known as?
(a) Khalaq
(b) Awam
(c) Ulema
(d) Umar
Answer:
(d) Umar

Question 46.
Which sultan of Delhi prevailed market control policy?
(a) Allauddin Khilji
(b) Firozsah Tughlaq
(c) Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
(d) Ibrahim Lodi
Answer:
(a) Allauddin Khilj

Question 47.
To whom “Ulema” was told?
(a) Muslim Religious experts
(b) Revenue Minister
(c) Defence Minister
(d) Prime Minister
Answer:
(a) Muslim Religious experts

Question 48.
Who was the head of Islamic society?
(a) Khalifa
(b) Ulema
(c) Sultan
(d) Amir
Answer:
(a) Khalifa

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 49.
What is the meaning of “Shariat”?
(a) Head of Law Department
(b) One type tax
(c) Islamic Law
(d) Punishment system
Answer:
(c) Islamic Law

Question 50.
What we understand regarding “Zakar”?
(a) Revenue officials of sultanate period
(b) Religious tax
(c) Some village
(d) Punishment system
Answer:
(c) Religious tax

Question 51.
Which sultan was not a slave from the beginning of his life?
(a) Iltutmish
(b) Mohammad-Bin-Tughiaq
(c) Giyasuddin Balaban
(d) Allauddin Khilji
Answer:
(a) Iltutmish

Question 52.
What do we understand regarding “Zital”?
(a) Copper coin of sultan age
(b) One type of tax in sultan period
(c) Business centre in sultan age
(d) Ministry of sultans
Answer:
(a) Copper coin of sultan age

Question 53.
Which sultan of Delhi sultanate had rejected the system of amputation from the empire?
(a) Iltutmish
(b) Allauddin Khilji
(c) Balban
(d) Firoz Saha Tughlaq
Answer:
(d) Firoz Saha Tughlaq

Question 54.
Which sultan has appointed the Indian Muslims in various spheres of his administration?
(a) Iltutmish
(b) Balban
(c) Allauddin Khilji
(d) Giyasuddin Tughlaq
Answer:
(c) Allauddin Khilji

Question 55.
When the Arabs captured Sind province?
(a) 709 A.D.
(b) 710 A.D.
(c) 711 A.D.
(d) 712 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 712 A.D.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 56.
Which Italian ambassador has came to India in Sultanate period?
(a) Ibn Batuta
(b) Mahuan
(c) Marco Polo
(d) Francois Berrier
Answer:
(c) Marco Pol

Question 57.
Which Mughal king has transferred capital from Agra to Delhi?
(a) Jahangir
(b) Akbar
(c) Babur
(d) Sahajahan
Answer:
(d) Sahajahan

Question 58.
Many things regarding the diet system of Amirs of sultanate period are known the accounts of which ambassador who came to India at the time of Jahangir?
(a) Ibn Batuta
(b) AbulFazl
(c) Francois Berrier
(d) Sir Tomas Roe
Answer:
(d) Sir Tomas Roe

Question 59.
In Mughal society who secured the highest position?
(a) Ulema
(b) Honourable class
(c) King
(d) Middle class
Answer:
(c) King

Question 60.
In Mughal count the higher officials were renowned in which name?
(a) Mansabadari
(b) Ekhazari
(c) Panchhazari
(d) Das hazari
Answer:
(a) Mansabadari

Question 61.
Who was the author of Ain-i-Akbari?
(a) Akbar
(b) Abul Fazl
(c) Fayaji
(d) Abdul Nabi
Answer:
(b) Abul Fazl

Question 62.
Who wrote “Humayun Nama” ?
(a) Gulbadan Begum
(b) Salima Sultana
(c) Sitiunnisha
(d) Jebaunisha
Answer:
(a) Gulbadan Begum

Question 63.
In which year Akbar exempted the pilgrimage tax from the Hindus?
(a) 1560 A.D.
(b) 1561 A.D.
(c) 1562 A.D.
(d) 1563 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1563 A.D.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 64.
In which year Akbar exempted the henious Zizya tax from the Hindus all over India?
(a) 1562 A.D.
(b) 1563 A.D.
(c) 1564 A.D.
(d) 1565 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1564 A.D.

Question 65.
When Akbar introduced a new religious Cult “Din-i-Illahi”?
(a) 1580 A.D.
(b) 1581 A.D.
(c) 1582 A.D.
(d) 1583 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1582 A.D.

Question 66.
Among the Hindus who has initiated in the new religious cult “Din-i-Illahi”?
(a) Birbal
(b) Bhagwan Das
(c) Mansingh
(d) Badauni
Answer:
(a) Birbal

Question 67.
For what purpose Akbar has constructed “Ibadat Khanna’ at Fatehpur Sikri?
(a) Smooth running of administration
(b) Religious discussion
(c) Shelter for poor
(d) Rest house for Ulemas
Answer:
(b) Religious discussion

Question 68.
Which two Hindu pundits were invited by Akbar and engaged in religious discussions?
(a) Purusottam and Devi
(b) Abdul Nabi and Sultanpuri
(c) Hirabijay Suri and Bhanu Upadhyaya
(d) Bihari Malla and Mansingh
Answer:
(a) Purusottam and Devi

Question 69.
Which two Pundits of Jaina Religion has invited by Akbar to Ibadat Khanna?
(a) Biharimall and Mansingh
(b) Hiravijay Surin and Vijaysen-Sun
(c) Abdul Nabi and Sultanpuri
(d) Purusottam and Devi
Answer:
(b) Hiravijay Surin and Vijaysen Suri

Question 70.
By whom the precious structure “Taj-Mahal” was built?
(a) Humayun
(b) Jahangir
(c) Sahajahan
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(c) Sahajahan

Question 71.
For tower structure which Monarch has brought the disciples of Veteran architect Siiian from Constantinople to India?
(a) Babar
(b) Humayun
(c) Akbar
(d) Sahajahan
Answer:
(a) Babar

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 72.
The Sasanam grave tomb was built in Islamic style but its inner system was of Hinduist formulla by whom it was built?
(a) Babur
(b) Humayun
(c) Akbar
(d) Sher Saha
Answer:
(d) Sher Saha

Question 73.
The grave of Humayun was built in the style ofTaimurlang who was the architect?
(a) Sinar
(b) Mirza Giyas
(c) Kasim Khan
(d) Istadlasa
Answer:
(b) Mirza Giyas

Question 74.
The Agna Red Fort of Akbar was in of new structural system basing upon old. Under whose jurisdiction it was built?
(a) Kasim Khan
(b) Akbar
(c) Bairam Khan
(d) Istadisa
Answer:
(a) Kasim Khan

Question 75.
“Buland Darwaza” was built for which ruler’s southern victory memory?
(a) Jahangir
(b) Sahajahan
(c) Aurangzeb
(d) Akbar
Answer:
(d) Akbar

Question 76.
Who told “Fatepur architecture is of occeleration of stone. Under any time and any circumstance it is unthinkable and impossible”?
(a) Iswari Prasad
(b) V. A. Smith
(c) S. R. Sharma
(d) R. C. Majumdar
Answer:
(b) V. A. Smith

Question 77.
Which Mughal king has constructed “Mod Maszid’ for the honour of his own daughter Jahannara?
(a) Akbar
(b) Jahangir
(c) Sahazahan
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(c) Sahazahan

Question 78.
Who said “Taj-Mahal is a memorable tower of love and affection in between husband and wife”?
(a) V. A. Smith
(b) Percy Brown
(c) Iswari Prasad
(d) S. P. Sharma
Answer:
(c) Iswari Prasad

Question 79.
What was the excellent monument of Mughal administration?
(a) Taj-Mahal
(b) Red Fort
(c) Moti Masjid
(d) Buland Darwaza
Answer:
(a) Taj-Mahal

Question 80.
Who was the founder of “Din-i-Illahi”?
(a) Sahajahan
(b) Jahangir
(c) Akbar
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(c) Akbar

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 81.
Who constructed Fatepur Sikri?
(a) Akbar
(b) Jahangir
(c) Sahazahan
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(a) Akbar

Question 82.
By whom Red Fort was built?
(a) Akbar
(b) Jahangir
(c) Sahazahan
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(c) Sahazahan

Question 83.
Where “Round Tower” was constructed?
(a) Jayapur
(b) Bijapur
(c) Gwalior
(d) Rajasthan
Answer:
(b) Bijapur

Question 84.
Where ‘“Mana Temple” was built?
(a) Agra
(b) Gwalior
(c) Jayapur
(d) Punjab
Answer:
(b) Gwalior

Question 85.
Who was Agareja?
(a) Renowned painter
(b) Famous poet
(c) Renowned architect
(d) One king
Answer:
(a) Renowned painter

Question 86.
For what Bishan Das was famous?
(a) Architecture
(b) Poem
(c) Painting
(d) Drama
Answer:
(c) Painting

Question 87.
By whom the “Peacock Throne” was constructed?
(a) Akbar
(b) Jahangir
(c) Sahazahan
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(c) Sahazahan

Question 88.
Where “Hawa Mahal” is situated?
(a) Rajsthan
(b) Delhi
(c) Bombay
(d) Jaipur
Answer:
(d) Jaipur

Question 89.
Who built “Juma Maszid” at Delhi?
(a) Sahajahan
(b) Aurangzeb
(c) Humayun
(d) Jahangir
Answer:
(a) Sahajahan

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 90.
Where the grave tower of Sher Saha is seen?
(a) Fatepur Sikri
(b) Rajsthan
(c) Sasaram
(d) Jaypur
Answer:
(c) Sasaram

Question 91.
Who has wrote “Ramcharita Manas”?
(a) Sarala Das
(b) Valmiki
(c) Tulasi Das
(d) Jagannath Das
Answer:
(c) Tulasi Das

Question 92.
In Mughal architecture which place is regarded as “An epic of red Sandstone”?
(a) Old Fort
(b) Fatepur Sikri
(c) Taj Mahal
(d) Itmaudola grave
Answer:
(b) Fatepur Sikri

Question 93.
Who constructed Itmoudola grave?
(a) Sher Saha
(b) Nurjahan
(c) Humayun
(d) Mumtaz
Answer:
(b) Nuijahan

Question 94.
Where Auragzeb built his own grave?
(a) Sasharam
(b) Agra
(c) Sambal
(d) Aurangabad
Answer:
(d) Aurangabad

Question 95.
Which Mughal emperor has given utmost importance to indigenous painting and freed it from foreign influence?
(a) Akbar
(b) Jahangir
(c) Sahajahan
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(b) Jahangir

Question 96.
By 1510 A.D. which European power was powerful at Goa?
(a) English
(b) French
(c) Dutch
(d) Portuguese
Answer:
(d) Portuguese

Question 97.
Who was an eminent painter at the time of Jahangir?
(a) Asaf Khan
(b) Mir Sayad Ah
(c) Abul Hasan
(d) Abdul Samad
Answer:
(c) Abul Hasan

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 98.
Which Mughal emperor has converted Delhi city to Marble city?
(a) Jahangir
(b) Akbar
(c) Sahajahan
(d) Shersaha
Answer:
(c) Sahajahan

Question 99.
By whom “Moti Masjid” of Agra was constructed?
(a) Akbar
(b) Sahajahan
(c) Jahangir
(d) Jurjahan
Answer:
(b) Sahajahan

Question 100.
Who was the builder of Agra Fort?
(a) Akbar
(b) Humayun
(c) Sahajahan
(d) Jahangir
Answer:
(a) Akbar

Question 101.
Which Mughal emperor celebrated “Raksha Vandhan” festival in his court premises?
(a) Jahangir
(b) Sahajahan
(c) Humayun
(d) Akbar
Answer:
(d) Akbar

Question 102.
Which system of Hindu principle was opposed by Din-i-Illahi?
(a) Early marriage
(b) Purda system
(c) Polygamy
(d) Sati burning system
Answer:
(a) Sati burning system

Question 103.
In Mughal period which Indian text was famous and translated into various Islamic languages?
(a) Ramayan
(b) Mahabharat
(c) Meghadoot
(d) Panchatantra
Answer:
(d) Panchatantra

Question 104.
Which Mughal emperor’s reign is regarded as the golden age of painting?
(a) Jahangir
(b) Akbar
(c) Sahajahan
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(a) Jahangir

Question 105.
By whose endeavour the small drawings of Mughal age are seen in security at the London city’s library?
(a) Dara Siko
(b) Nurjahan
(c) Mumtaz
(d) Suja
Answer:
(a) Dara Siko

Question 106.
In the century who advocated the theory of omnism from the philososphy of Upanishad and Propounded it?
(a) Harisena
(b) Vishnu Sharma
(c) Sankaracharya
(d) Ramananda
Answer:
(c) Sankaracharya

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 107.
Who said “Hindus believed in omnism and omnisciency of God. They prayed stone image or tree or sun for the cause it were all created by God”?
(a) Amir Khusru
(b) Ziauddin Barani
(c) Nizamuddin Aulia
(d) Baba Farid
Answer:
(a) Amir Khusru

Question 108.
Which language was known primarily as “Jabar-i-Hindvi”?
(a) Hindi
(b) Urdu
(c) Arabi
(d) Persian
Answer:
(b) Urdu

Question 109.
Which Muslim saint was the founder of Chisti clan?
(a) Shaikh Hamiuddin
(b) Shaikh Fariuddin
(c) Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti
(d) Nizamuddin Aulia
Answer:
(c) Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti

Question 110.
Which Sufi saint was in Ajmir at the reign of Prithviraj Chauhan?
(a) Baba Farid
(b) Nizamuddin Aulia
(c) Muiuddin Chisti
(d) Shaik Hamiuddin
Answer:
(c) Muiuddin Chisti

Question 111.
Who was the first preacher of Sufi cult at India?
(a) Saikh Salim
(b) Nizamuddin Aulia
(c) Nizamuddin Chirag
(d) Muinuddin Chisti
Answer:
(d) Muinuddin Chisti

Question 112.
Name of the eminent young disciple of Muinuddin?
(a) Shaikh Hamiuddin
(b) Shaikh Fariduddin
(c) Nizamuddin Aulia
(d) Shaikh Nasiruddin Aulia
Answer:
(a) Shaikh Hamiuddin

Question 113.
Which Sufi saint born at Badaun in 1236 A.D.?
(a) Shaikh Salim
(b) Nizamuddin Aulia
(c) Baba Farid
(d) Muinuddin Chisti
Answer:
(b) Nizamuddin Aulia

Question 114.
Which Sufi saint began his working life as Giyaspur near Delhi?
(a) Shaikh Salim
(b) Baba Farid
(c) Nizamuddin Aulia
(d) Muinuddin Chisti
Answer:
(d) Nizamuddin Aulia

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 115.
Which Sultan of Delhi contacted many times Nizamuddin Aulia to meet him?
(a) Iltutmish
(b) Alauddin Khilji
(c) Balaban
(d) Kutabuddin Aibak
Answer:
(b) Alauddin Khilji

Question 116.
Which sultan ordered Nizamuddin Aulia to leave Delhi?
(a) Alauddin Khilji
(b) Kutabuddin Aibak
(c) Iltutmish
(d) Giyasuddin Tughlaq
Answer:
(d) Giyasuddin Tughlaq

Question 117.
Which sufi saint is regarded as the “Chirag of Delhi”?
(a) Shaikh Narsiruddin
(b) Baba Farid
(c) Shaikh Salim
(d) Muinuddin Chisti
Answer:
(a) Shaikh Narsiruddin

Question 118.
Which sufi saint wandered many places of India and made popular the sufi cult?
(a) Shaikh Nasirudin
(b) Nizamudding Aulia
(c) Shaikh Allaudin Mohammad Sabir
(d) Shaikh Salim
Answer:
(c) Shaikh Allaudin Mohammad Sabir

Question 119.
Which sufi saint established sufi cult at Daulatabad?
(a) Shaikh Alluddin Mohammad Sabir
(b) Moulana Gharib
(c) Sayad Mohammad Zafar Ah
(d) Khwaja Banda Nawaj
Answer:
(b) Moulana Gharib

Question 120.
Which sufi saint was an eminent writer and philosopher?
(a) Moulana Gharib
(b) Khwaja Banda Nawaj
(c) Nizamudding Aulia
(d) Muinuddin Chisti
Answer:
(b) Khwaja Banda Nawaj

Question 121.
Which Sufi saint has established branch of sufi cult at Bengal?
(a) Shaikh Sherazuddin Usman
(b) Moulana Gharib
(c) Khwaja Banda Nawaj
(d) Saikh Allauddin Mohammad Sabir
Answer:
(a) Shaikh Sherazuddin Usman

Question 122.
Name of the introducer of suravardi branch of sufism?
(a) Khawaja Banda Nawaj
(b) Moulana Gharib
(c) Shaikh Shiabuddin
(d) Shaikh Sherazuddin Usman
Answer:
(c) Shaikh Shiabuddin

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 123.
Which saint preached Vaishnavism during the first part of 12th century and introduced Bhakti movement?
(a) Ramanuja
(b) Nimbark
(c) Ramananda
(d) Kabir
Answer:
(a) Ramanuja

Question 124.
Which saint was famous for his “Dis-similitary policy”?
(a) Ramanuja
(b) Nimbark
(c) Madhab
(d) Ramananda
Answer:
(b) Nimbark

Question 125.
Which Bhakti cult saint first preached Bhakti message in Hindi language?
(a) Ramanuja
(b) Nimbark
(c) Madhab
(d) Ramananda
Answer:
(d) Ramananda

Question 126.
When Kabir was born?
(a) 1434 A.D.
(b) 1435 A.D.
(c) 1438 A.D.
(d) 1440 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1440 A.D

Question 127.
Who was the first preacher of Bhakti cult at North India?
(a) Kabir
(b) Nimbark
(c) Ramanuja
(d) Nanak
Answer:
(a) Kabir

Question 128. Muslim weaver Ninu and his wife Nima reared upon to whom?
(a) Nimbark
(b) Nanak
(c) Kabir
(d) Sri Chaitanya
Answer:
(c) Kabir

Question 129.
The divine songs of Kabir are known as?
(a) Stanza poem
(b) Doha
(c) Sun Sagar
(d) Divine epilogue
Answer:
(b) Doha

Question 130.
Which saint of Bhakti movement was the follower of “Nirguna” cult?
(a) Ramananda
(b) Kabir
(c) Nanak
(d) Dadu Dayal
Answer:
(d) Dadu Dayal

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 131.
Who first preached Bhakti cult as south India?
(a) Ramanuja
(c) Kabir
(b) Nimbark
(d) Ramananda
Answer:
(a) Ramanuja

Question 132.
Which preacher of Bhakti cult burn at Prayag?
(a) Ramanuja
(b) Ramananda
(c) Nimbark
(d) Nanak
Answer:(b) Ramananda

Question 133.
The followers of which Bhakti cult saint are known as “Kabirpanthi” (Followers of Kabir)?
(a) Nanak
(b) Sri Chaitanya
(c) Kabir
(d) Nimbark
Answer:
(c) Kabir

Question 134.
Who established Sikh religion?
(a) Kabir
(b) Nanak
(c) Sri Chaitanya
(d) Ramanuja
Answer:
(b) Nanak

Question 135.
In 1469 who born at Talwandi near Lahore?
(a) Ramanuja
(b) Ramananda
(c) Kabir
(d) Nanak
AAnswer:
(d) Nanak

Question 136.
Whose verses are indebted in Gugu Granth Sahib or Adi Grantha?
(a) Nanak
(b) Kabir
(c) Ramanuja
(d) Sri Chaitanya
Answer:
(a) Nanak

Question 137.
When the demise of Nanak occured?
(a) 1536 A.D.
(b) 1537 A.D.
(c) 1538 A.D.
(d) 1539 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1538 A.D

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 138.
Which saint selected Angada as his succession before his death?
(a) Kabir
(b) Ramananda
(c) Nanak
(d) Sri Chaitanya
Answer:
(c) Nanak

Question 139.
The famous “Ram Charita Manas” is written by whom?
(a) Nanak
(b) Mirabai
(c) Suradas
(d) Tulasi Das
Answer:
(d) Tulasi Das

Question 140.
Which personality was born in 1486 A.D. at Nabadwip in West Bengal?
(a) Nanak
(b) Sri Chaitanya
(c) Kabir
(d) Ramanuja
Answer:
(b) Sri Chaitanya

Question 141.
Jagannath Mishra and Sachi Devi were the parents of whom?
(a) Nanak
(b) Sri Chaitanya
(c) Kabir
(d) Ramanuja
Answer:
(b) Sri Chaitanya

Question 142.
Who was popular as Biswambara and Nimain?
(a) Sri Chaitanya
(b) Kabir
(c) Nanak
(d) Nimbark
Answer:
(a) Sri Chaitanya

Question 143.
Who was famous as Gouranga Mahaprabhu”?
(a) Nanak
(b) Kabir
(c) Sri Chaitanya
(d) Ballavacharya
Answer:
(c) Sri Chaitanya

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 144.
When at Puri the demise of Sri Chaitanya occured?
(a) 1530 A.D.
(b) 1531 A.D.
(c) 1532 A.D.
(d) 1533 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1533 A.D.

Question 145.
Which saint wrote Bhagvat Gita in Marathi language?
(a) Jnaneswar
(b) Namdev
(c) Tukai-am
(d) Nanak
Answer:
(a) Jnaneswar

Question 146.
Which saint was a culprit in his primary life?
(a) Jnaneswar
(b) Namdev
(c) Tukaram
(d) Angada
Answer:
(b) Namdev

Question 147.
Which saint was the contemporary to Eminent Shivaji?
(a) Jnaneswar
(b) Angada
(c) Namdev
(d) Tukaram
Answer:
(d) Tukaram

Question 148.
Which saint got initiation from the Godly man Iswarpuri?
(a) Nimbark
(b) Nanak
(c) Sri Chaitanya
(d) Kabir
Answer:
(c) Sri Chaitanya

Question 149.
Name of the Chief religious book of the followers of Kabir?
(a) Doha
(b) Bijaka
(c) Granth Sahib
(d) Gurumukhi
Answer:
(b) Bijaka

Question 150.
Which Muslim poet first composed poem in Urdu language?
(a) Abdul Fazl
(b) Fayaji
(c) Amir Khusru
(d) Amir Hasan
Answer:
(c) Amir Khusru

Fill in the Blanks.

Question 1.
Al-Beruni has come to India at the time of sultan______.
Answer:
Mamud

Question 2.
The book of AI-Beruni was _______.
Answer:
Tahiq-E-Hind

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 3.
Alberuni has born in_______ state of middle Asia.
Answer:
Khwarijam

Question 4.
At the time of attacking _______temple, Al-beruni was with sultan Mamud.
Answer:
Somanath

Question 5.
“Tahiq-E-Hind” book divided in to________ parts.
Answer:
80

Question 6.
In the language of Al-beruni the new muslims of India were called as________.
Answer:
Savage or unholy

Question 7.
According to the description of Al-beruni Indian social system was conducted by mainly_______system.
Answer:
Caste system.

Question 8.
Al-beruni his not given any information regarding the________part of India.
Answer:
Southern

Question 9.
Al-beruni was expert in_______and study.
Answer:
Mathematics and Astrology.

Question 10.
At India Al-beruni acquired _______ language.
Answer:
Sanskrit

Question 11.
Regarding India_______books were composed by Al-beruni.
Answer:
20

Question 12.
Alberuni has translated many books to Arabian language from________language of India.
Answer:
Sanskrit

Question 13.
Ibanbattuta was the ambassador of _______country.
Answer:
Africa

Question 14.
Ibanbattuta reached at sind in_______ A.D.
Answer:
1333

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 15.
According to the description of Ibanbattuta_______system was rigorous in Hindu society of India.
Answer:
Caste System

Question16.
According to Ibanbattuta_______system was hand and fast within the women of India.
Answer:
Parda System

Question17.
According to the description of Ibanbattuta the Muslim students got their education at________.
Answer:
Muktab

Question 18.
At the reign of_______ Sultan Ibanbattuta had come to India.
Answer:
Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq

Question 19.
The social condition of India was described in the_________ book of Ibanbattuta.
Answer:
Rihla

Question 20.
Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq has send Ibanbattuta to________country.
Answer:
China

Question 21.
The book “Travels in the Mughal Empire” was written by _______.
Answer:
Francois Bernier

Question 22.
Francois Bernier was born in_______ country.
Answer:
France

Question 23.
According to Francois Bernier_was the chief food in the North India.
Answer:
Roti

Question 24.
Francois Bernier has come as the personal doctor of________.
Answer:
Dara

Question 25.
According to_________ law the Turkish Muslims administered in India.
Answer:
Duoran

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 26.
In the Sultan administration at Delhi_______was the Supreme authority in administration and law.
Answer:
Sultan

Question 27.
The sultan kingdom of Delhi was the kingdom of________type.
Answer:
Religious

Question 28.
Sultans were regarded as the representative of________.
Answer:
Khalifa

Question 29.
According to Islamic law___________ was the representative of God.
Answer:
Sultan

Question 30.
In the beginning of Eighth century_________ was the administrator of Iraq under Khalifa.
Answer:
Hejaj

Question 31.
In eighth century _______ was the Hindu king of Sindh.
Answer:
Dahir

Question 32.
In 712 A.D________attacked sindhu province.
Answer:
Muhammad-bin-kasim

Question 33.
________ principle of Islam was given importance in sultan age.
Answer:
Sariyat

Question 34.
The religious crusade in sultan age was known at_______.
Answer:
Zihad

Question 35.
In sultan administration the knowledgious and eminent persons were called as _______.
Answer:
Ulem

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 36.
In sultan times the muslims were taught in_______ language.
Answer:
Persian

Question 37.
In the name of Khalifas _______ was recited.
Answer:
Khutwa

Question 38.
_______ were realised utmost power at the time of sultan administration.
Answer:
Ulema

Question 39.
In sultan times the muslims were taught in language.
Answer:
Persian

Question 40.
Minister engaged in religious work was known as _______.
Answer:
Sadar-as-Sadar

Question 41.
Military Minister was called as _______.
Answer:
Ariz-E-Mamalik

Question 42.
Agriculture Minister was called as _______.
Answer:
Amin-E-Kohi

Question 43.
Defence Minister was called ________.
Answer:
Diwan-E-Ariz

Question 44.
Foreign Minister in sultan age was known as______.
Answer:
Diwan-E-Rishalat

Question 45.
Minister engaged in royal corresponding known as _______.
Answer:
Diwan-E-Insa

Question 46.
In sultan administration Kazi-E-Mamalik was installed in_______ posts.
Answer:
Chief Judg

Question 47.
Chief in spy and news corresponding was known as_______.
Answer:
Barid-E-Mamalik

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 48.
Urban development minister was called________.
Answer:
Mir-E-Amrat

Question 49.
In sultan age was _________engaged peace and discipline in the urban area.
Answer:
Katuala

Question 50.
In sultan administration the wali designated persons were __________.
Answer:
Administration of states

Question 51.
_________is the meaning of “Ushan”.
Answer:
Revenue collected from Muslims

Question 52.
Revenue collected from non-muslims in sultan age was known as _________.
Answer:
Kharaz

Question 53.
Religious revenues collected from muslims known as_________.
Answer:
Zakat

Question 54.
Religious revenues collected from non-muslims known as__________.
Answer:
Ziziya

Question 55.
According to Islamic law people not giving ________revenue was not able to settle in the state.
Answer:
Ziziya

Question 56.
The real founder of Delhi Sultan administration was________.
Answer:
Iltutmish

Question 57.
________sultan in Delhi administration given utmost importance in military activities and efficiency of soldiers.
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji

Question 58.
To give maximum facilities to soldiers ________sultan introduced market regulatory system.
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 59.
At the time of Allauddin Khilji a symbol was engraved in every horse and________was its name.
Answer:
Hulia

Question 60.
In sultan administration states were known as________.
Answer:
Ikta

Question 61.
The union territories in sultan administration called as_______.
Answer:
Khalsa

Question 62.
________were engaged in district administration in sultan age.
Answer:
Sikdar

Question 63.
Each State was divided into many_______.
Answer:
Sik

Question 64.
Officials engaged for moral character and market control policy in sultan administration called as_________.
Answer:
Mohatosib

Question 65.
Sultan administration based on ________power.
Answer:
Military power

Question 66.
Sultans of Delhi established_______type administration.
Answer:
Dictatorship

Question 67.
sultan constructed Bandegan-e-chihilgan (forty groups).
Answer:
Iltutmish

Question 68.
________sultan believed “Divine Monarchical system”.
Answer:
Giyasuddin Balban

Question 69.
________sultan introduced “Sizda” and “Pybus” principles.
Answer:
Giyasuddin Balban

Question 70.
________sultan began the works of famous Kutab-Minar.
Answer:
Kutabuddin Aibak

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 71.
________sultan finished the eminent Kutab-Minar work.
Answer:
Iltutmish

Question 72.
Delhi sultan________prevailed market regulating system.
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji

Question 73.
________sultan from beginning was not a slave.
Answer:
Iltutmish

Question 74.
________sultan from kingdom abolished the system of amputation limbs.
Answer:
Firozsaha Tughlaq

Question 75.
_______sultan first employed the Indian Muslims in Govt, administration.
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji

Question 76.
In sultan age _______foreign ambassador has come to India.
Answer:
Marcopolo

Question 77.
In sultan age both in Hindu and Muslim community, the position of _______deteriorated.
Answer:
Women

Question 78.
In sultan age in Muslim society________ system was developed.
Answer:
Slave

Question 79.
In sultan administration the status oriented people were called as_______.
Answer:
Umar

Question 80.
In sultan age_______ visitor come to India and stayed here from 1334 A.D. to 1342 A.D.
Answer:
Ibanbattuta

Question 81.
In India_______ was the founder of Mughal empire.
Answer:
Babar

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 82.
_______Mughal emperor has transferred capital from Agra to Delhi.
Answer:
Sahajahan

Question 83.
Many things regarding the food menus are known from the description of the visitor_______ , who has come at the time of Jahangir.
Answer:
Sir Thomas Roe

Question 84.
In mughal society_________was secured the highest position.
Answer:
King

Question 85.
The higher officials of Mughal court were popular in________ name.
Answer:
Mansabadari

Question 86.
Aeen-E-Akbari was written by _______.
Answer: Abul Fazal

Question 87.
The book “Humayun Nama” was written by_______.
Answer:
Gulbadan Begum

Question 88.
Akabar ejected pilgrimage tax from Hindus on _______ A.D.
Answer:
1563

Question 89. In the entire kingdom Akabar abolished the Zizya tax on_A.D.
Answer:
1564

Question90.
On the grave of________ Akbar constructed a memorable Masjid.
Answer:
Salim Chisti

Question 91.
In ______A.D. Akbar constituted a new religioius particle “Din-I-IIlahi?
Answer:
1582

Question 92.
By assembling the cream of each religion Akbar created a new religion and it was _____.
Answer:
Din-I-Illahi

Question 93.
Akabars Din-I-Illahi was based upon_______“Ism”.
Answer:
“All-Isms”

Question 94.
Among the Hindus_______ accepted “Din-I-IIIahi” religion.
Answer:
Birbal

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 95.
At Fatepur Sikri Akbar constructed Ibadat Khanna for _______ purposes.
Answer:
Religious discussion

Question 96.
_______ and______ Hindu Pundits invited by Akbar to Fatepur Sikri for religious discussions.
Answer:
Purusottam and Devi.

Question 97.
Ibadat Khanna built Taj-Mahal.
Answer:
Sahajahan

Question 98.
Tajmahal regarded as best Ibadat Khanna sculpture.
Answer:
Indo-Islamic

Question 99.
From the account of_______ it was known that for the construction of Taj-Mahal it took twenty two years time and expenditure of three crores rupees.
Answer:
Javenier

Question 100.
Eminent sculpturist _______has described the grave of Humayun as “persian emotion of Indian description”.
Answer:
Percy Brown

Question 101.
For the construction of various towers in India________had brought the disciples of sinan of Constantinople to India.
Answer:
Babur

Question 102.
Sasaram grave tower though build in Islamic style still its inner position shows Hinduist culture and its creator was _______.
Answer:
Shersaha

Question 103.
The Dome of Humayun was built in the style of Taimurlangs dome. Name of its sculpturist_______.
Answer:
Mirza Giyas

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 104.
By__________ guidance the Red Fort of Akbar was built.
Answer:
Kasim Khan

Question 105.
To memorise the southern vistory of_________ emperor Buland Darwaza was built.
Answer:
Akabar

Question 106.
_______opined that the “Fatepur sculpture is the acceleration of stone under any circumstances it is unthinkable and impossible.
Answer:
V.A.Smith

Question 107.
_________ Mughal emperor had built Moti Masjid to commemorate his daughter Jahannara.
Answer:
Sahajahan

Question 108.
__________ told that “Taj Mahal is the eternal emmorable tower of love and affection in between husband and wife.
Answer:
Iswariprasad

Question 109.
The best cultural episode was__________ in Mughal age.
Answer:
Taj Mahal

Question 110.
The meaning of Dil-I-Illahi is __________.
Answer:
Eternal faith

Question 111.
Son of Sahajan__________was an eminent artist.
Answer:
Dara

Question 112
In Mughal age Mirsaysd Ali was famous for________.
Answer:
Art

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 113.
The builder of Fatepr Sikri was _______.
Answer:
Akbar

Question 114.
The builder of Red Fort was _________.
Answer:
Sahajahan

Question 115.
Sahajan spent the last stage of life at ___________.
Answer:
Musmumkunz

Question 116.
Mir Hasan was the best _________ in the time of Sahajahan.
Answer:
Artist

Question 117.
In _________ A.D near Delhi Sahajan constructed a new city Sahajahanabad.
Answer:
1638

Question 118.
Jahangir slain to _________.
Answer:
Aijun Singh

Question 119.
Chief artist of Taj Mahal was __________.
Answer:
Ustad Isa

Question 120.
The round tower constructed at__________.
Answer:
Bijapur

Question 121.
Mana Mandira was built at___________.
Answer:
Gwalior

Question 122.
Agareja was an eminent __________.
Answer:
Artist

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 123.
Bishan Das was famous for __________.
Answer:
Drawing

Question 124.
Mayur throne was built by ___________.
Answer:
Sahajahan

Question 125.
Hawa Mahal is seen at____________.
Answer:
Jaypur

Question 126.
At Delhi Juma Masjid constructed by_____________.
Answer:
Sahajahan

Question 127.
At___________ the grave tower of Sher Saha came into existance.
Answer:
Sasharam

Question 128.
Ramcharita Manas was written by __________.
Answer:
Tulsidas

Question 129.
_____________ place is popular as “Land of Red sand stone’s epic”.
Answer:
Fatepur Sikri

Question 130.
Builder of Itmudoula dome was _____________.
Answer:
Nurjahan

Question 131.
Aurangzeb has built his dome at_____________.
Answer:
Ourangabad

Question 132.
______________ Mughal emperor has freed Indian art from foreign influence.
Answer:
Jahangir

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 133.
By 1510 A.D.__________Europeans were powerful in Goa.
Answer:
Portuguese

Question 134.
_____________was an eminent artist at the time of Jahangir.
Answer:
Abul Hassan

Question 135.
_____________ Mughal emperor converted Delhi city to a manual city.
Answer:
Sahajahan

Question 136.
Moti Masjid of Agra was built by_____________.
Answer:
Sahajahan

Question 137.
Builder of Agra Fort was ____________.
Answer:
Akbar

Question 138.
_____________ Mughal emperor had celebrated “Rakshayabandhan Festival” in his court premises.
Answer:
Akbar

Question 139.
In Din-I-Illahi ___________ Hindu system was vehemently protested.
Answer:
Sati system

Question 140.
In middle____________famous Indian text had its importance and it was translated into many Islamic language.
Answer:
Panchatantra

Question 141.
Reign of________ Mughal emperor regarded s the Golden age in art.
Answer:
Jahangir

Question 142.
By the endeavor and collection of ___________he small art particles of Mughal period are seen in the libraries of London.
Answer:
Dara shiko

Question 143.
In nineth century___________ preached the theory of unilaternalism from Upanishad.
Answer:
Shankaracharya

Question 144.
__________told the Hindus believed in unilateralism and they had utmost faith in God and the cause of various worshipping is that they think it is the creation of God.
Answer:
Amir Khusru

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 145.
________language was told at first tole “Yavan-E-Hindu”.
Answer:
Udru

Question 146.
Chisti clan was founded by________ muslim saint.
Answer:
Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti

Question 147.
In _________A.D. Chisti clan begun.
Answer:
966

Question 148.
Sufi “Ism” in___________ century widely preached in India.
Answer:
Twelve

Question 149.
The meaning of sufi is__________.
Answer:
A material made in Ullen

Question 150.
At the reign of Pritviraj Chauhan__________ sufi saint lived in Ajmer.
Answer:
Muinuddin Chisti

Question 151.
The first preached preacher of sufi “Ism” in India was________.
Answer:
Muinuddin Chisti

Question 152.
Name of eminent young disciple of Khawaja Muinuddin Chisti was_________.
Answer:
Shaikh Hamiduddin

Question 153.
In I236 A.D. at Badaun________Sufi Saint had born.
Answer:
Nizamuddin Aulia

Question 154.
__________Sufi saint had begun his working life at Giyaspur near Delhi.
Answer:
Nizamuddin Aulia

Question 155.
____________ Sultan many times requested to meet Sufi saint Nizamuddin Aulia.
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 156.
__________sultan had ordered Nizamuddin Aulia to left Delhi.
Answer:
Giyasuddin Tughlaq

Question 157.
__________sufi saint was known as “Chirag of Delhi”.
Answer:
Saikh Nasiruddin

Question 158.
_______sufi said had visited to many places of India and popularise sufi movement.
Answer:
Shaikh Allauddin Muhammad Sabir

Question 159.
Sufi saint_________ established Chisti clan at Daulatabad.
Answer:
Maulana Gharib

Question 160.
__________ sufi saint was an eminent written and Philosopher.
Answer:
Khwaja Banda Nawaz

Question 161.
At Bengal__________sufi saint established Chisti branch.
Answer:
Saikh Sherajuddin Usman.

Question 162.
Founder of Suravardi clan of sufism was _________.
Answer:
Shaikh Sihabuddin

Question 163.
Saint__________in twelvth. century’s first part preached Baishnavism and introduced Bhakti movement in india.
Answer:
Ramanuja’.

Question 164.
Saint________was popular for his “Divident” policy.
Answer:
Nimbark

Question 165.
________saint at first preached Bhakti cult in Hindi language.
Answer:
Ramananda

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 166.
Kabir was born in ________A.D.
Answer:
1440

Question 167.
First preacher of Bhakti movement in North India has________.
Answer:
Kabir

Question 168.
Muslim weaver Niru and his wife Nima brought up to _______.
Answer:
Kabir

Question 169.
Divine songs of Kabir are popular as_______.
Answer:
Doha

Question 170.
__________saint of Bhakti movement was the follower of “Nirguna”.
Answer:
Dadu Dayal

Question 171.
__________saint first preached Bhakti cult in South India.
Answer:
Ramanuja.

Question 172.
Preacher of Bhakti cult_____________had born at Prayag.
Answer:
Ramananda

Question 173.
Disciples of__________saint of Bhakti movement were known as “Kabirparthi”.
Answer:
Kabir

Question 174.
Sikhism was founded by __________.
Answer:
Nanak

Question 175.
Nanak was born in ___________A.D.
Answer:
1469

Question 176.
Nanak was born at__________near Lahore.
Answer:
Talwandi

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 177.
From___________word of Sanskrit “Sikh” word came into existance.
Answer:
Sisya

Question 178.
In “Guru Granth Sahab” on “Adi Granth” the verses of________saint are found.
Answer:
Nanak

Question 179.
In __________A.D. Nanak breathed his last.
Answer:
1538

Question 180.
__________ saint had chose angad as his successor before his death.
Answer:
Nanak

Question 181.
In 1486__________saint has born in Nabadwip of West Bengal.
Answer:
Sri Chaitanya

Question 182.
Jagannath Mishra and Sachi Devi were the parents on____________.
Answer:
Sri Chaitanya

Question 183.
__________was popular as Biswambara and Nimain.
Answer:
Sri Chaitanya

Question 184.
___________ was famous as “rourranga Mahaprabhu”.
Answer:
Sri Chaitanya

Question 185.
In___________ A.D. the death occured to Sri Chaitanya at Puri.
Answer:
1533

Question 186.
Saint__________composed “Bhagabat” in Marathi language.
Answer:
Ynameswara

Question 187.
__________ said was a culprit in his primary life.
Answer:
Namadev

Question 188.
Saint__________was contemporary to Chhatrapati Shivaji.
Answer:
Tukaram

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 189.
_______ has took initiation from eminent saint Iswarapuri.
Answer:
Sri Chaitanya

Question 190.
Religious text of “Kabirpanthis” is known as__________.
Answer:
Bijaka

Question 191.
__________ muslim poet first composed Urdu poem.
Answer:
Amir Khusru.

Question 192.
Fourth sikh Guru_________constructed Golden Temple at Amritsar.
Answer:
Ramdas

Question 193.
At Punjab in__________ place the death of Nanak occured.
Answer:
Kartarpur

Question 194.
The composer of “Chaitanya Chanitamamtra” is__________.
Answer:
Krushnadas Kabiraj

Question 195.
The other preacher ofBaishnavism___________had obtained pioneer ship of Krushnadeva Ray.
Answer:
Ballavacharya

Question 196.
Sufism in__________ century had eminent impact allover India.
Answer:
Twelvth

Question 197.
The presentation of woolen dresses and money purse given by____________ sultan was discarded by saint Shaikh Nasiruddin.
Answer:
Mahammad-Bin-Tughlaq

Question 198.
The famous “Panchasakha” of Odisha accepted the discipleship of_________.
Answer:
Sri Chaitanya

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Objective Questions

Question 199.
If one get God by worshipping a stone, then I will worship a hill _________ said it.
Answer:
Kabir

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions

Long Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Give a note or permanent settlement and analysis its principles.
Answer:
Give, the founder of the British Empire, could not give to Bengal a good land system. The land revenue was collected from peasants through oppressive agents Warren Hastings tried his best to bring a better system. He established the Board of Revenue. He appointed European District Collectors to remain in charge of revenue collection.

But still, the difficulties continued. The real problem of the government was how to go to the countless villages and get land revenue from millions of peasants according to the size and nature of their lands. It was impossible for the European district collector, who was only one for each district, to do that work through his subordinate officers.

So, Warren Hastings thought of a system of auction. By that system, any man, who promised to collect the largest amount of revenue from an area, was given that land for 5 years. That man collected land revenue from villagers and paid it to the district authorities. The system proved dangerous. Those who promised to pay the maximum tried to collect as much as possible by oppressive means.

The people suffered badly. Hastings also experimented with the annual settlement of lands. But, that too, failed. That was the condition of the land revenue system when Cornwallis came. He came from a family of landlords in England. On Thursday, the British landlords were regarded as the permanent masters of their lands.

They locked to the interests of the peasants and their lands and collected revenue from them. As the landlords were hereditary their interests in the land were of a permanent nature. Cornwall thought of such a system in India. He thought of creating a class of hereditary landlords who should become permanent masters of their lands.

They should collect land revenue from the people and deposit it at the government treasury regularly at all times. In this work, the Governor-General was lapsed by an able administrator of that time. John-shore. He justified the need for a permanent class of landlords or zamindars, for the “security of government with respect to its revenues and the security and protection of its subjects.”

In Bengal before the British conquest, there were old Zamindar families who enjoyed hereditary rights on lands for a long. But after the country was conquered by the English, those Zamindars disappeared. Their lands were taken over by the Government. And the Government collected revenues by various methods, as already discussed. Cornwallis and share wanted to revive the class and give them the responsibility of revenue collection.

So, at last, Cornwallis issued a proclamation in 1973, introducing the permanent settlement. The proclamation ran as follows. Marquis Cornwallis, knight of the noblest order of the Garter Governor General- in-council now notifies all Zamindars, independent palookas, and other actual proprietors of land in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, that he has been empowered by the Honorable Court of Directors of the East India Company to declare the Jumma which has been or may be assessed upon their lands, fixed forever.

Firstly, it recognized the landlords as the proprietors of the land. It also recognized the rights of hereditary succession for the heirs or lawful successors of the landlords. Secondly, the landlords were given the right to transfer or sell their lands if they liked. Thirdly, all rights of the landlords depended on their payment of the fixed revenue on a fixed date at the treasury of the Government.

All their rights ended if they failed to pay. Fourthly, if fixed once and for all total amount of revenue is to be paid by each landlord for his Zamindari to the government. Finally, the landlord was required to give to the tenant the patta describing there in the area of the land and the rent to be collected for that land.

Thus the tenants got rights on their holdings and knew of the revenue to be paid. The permanent settlement became a subject of great controversy in the future. It contained both merits and demerits. Among the merits, the followings are noteworthy. Firstly, in those beginning days of British rule, the British administrative machinery could hot-touch the removed peasantry to collect revenue.

Modem means of communication did not exist. It was decided, therefore, to shift the responsibility to the shoulders of the Indian nobility. The landlords looked into the problems of the peasants. As the British Government could not have done much to solve the land problems, it was better than the class of landlords took up that work.

Secondly, the landlords were themselves the sons of the soil. They understood the real difficulties of the Indian villager and the problems of his cultivation. Therefore, in those days they served the people better. They knew that the land belonged to them for all time. It was their hereditary property. Therefore, they felt attached to their Zamindari and worked for its improvement.

Thirdly, the permanent settlement by being a permanent system created a sense of security in everyone concerned. There was a feeling of certainty in matters of land and revenue. The government knew its exact income from the land. It knew the fine of that income. It was also confident of the regularity of that income.

And, all such benefits were enjoyed without the burden of collecting it the time of that income. It was also confident of the regularity of that income. And all such benefits were enjoyed without the burden of collecting it from individual peasants. The landlord knew the area of his Zamindari. He knew the amount to be collected from that area.

He knew the amount to be paid to the Government from his collection. He knew the amount of his own income as the Zamindar. Therefore, he became habituated to a system on a permanent basis. It helped him to acquire efficiency in his work. The peasant knew the plot of his land. He regarded the patta as proof of his possession.

He knew the amount of the revenue to be paid to the landlord. And, he knew where, when, and how to pay. Thus, the government, the landlord, and the peasant were called aware of their respective positions m revenue matters. Fourthly, all kinds of details regarding the lands, the paper of the countless ryots, the question of their rights, etc were managed by the landlords, and their nails or managers, etc.

The Servants of the Zamindar were usually competent persons. They took their duties seriously and worked to the best of their ability. Fifthly, many of the landlords believed in philanthropic works for the benefit of their tenants. In those days, the Government did not establish charitable dispensaries or schools.

The government also did not dig wells or ponds for people’s welfare. Such works were done by the landlords out of religious considerations as well as for gaining popularity. Some of them believed that the prosperity of their sons and grandsons depended on their charitable works. Thus, in those remote days, the permanent settlement served some useful purpose.

More than a century after Cornwallis one of the famous economists of India. R.C. Dutta praised the permanent settlement in the following words. If the prosperity and happiness of a nation be the criterion of wisdom and success, Lord Cornwallis’s permanent settlement of 1793 is the widest and most successful measure which the British nation has ever adopted in India.”

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions

Question 2.
Give an account of the Sanyasi Rebellion against British colonialism and its outbreak.
Answer:
Introduction :
The Sannyasi and Fakir Rebellion is an important episode in the early colonial rule in Bengal. The rebellion started in 1750 onwards but took a violent turn in 1773 when Warren Hastings assumed the Governor-Generalship of Bengal. The movement covered a wide range of Bengal and Bihar and continued for a long time.

It has already drawn the attention of historians viz. Jamini Mohan Ghosh to the present time. There is also a distorted reflection of rebellion in Bankim Chandra’s Anandamath for which Bankim Chandra has been accused. The present article implores how the Sannyasis and Fakirs launched the- campaign in an anti-colonial attitude against the Birth Reg.

And their trusted Zamindars. It was only possible due to their wide range of activities and organized network. The religious pilgrimage was no doubt a factor in combining the Sannyasis and Fakirs to launch a spontaneous movement for a long time. The dense forest and rivers also helped them to move to different parts of Bengal and Bihar and also to build up an organizational network with the other parts of India.

Geography and physical features of BiharThe Sannyasi and Fakir uprising affected a very wide area of Bengal, for nearly half a century neighboring Bihar could not escape from the insurgency of the Fakirs and Sannyasis. The historians, both past and present tried to show how the rebellion affected the East India company’s administration in Bengal.

Their activities in Bihar have been simply ignored. The present paper intents to throw light on some specific aspects of their rebellion in Bihar, viz, the geography and history of the rebellion, the organization through which they were able to operate their activities, reasons for their sudden emergence as insurgents, and also to find out the link between the rebellion that took place in Bengal with various parts of Bihar.

The present paper also seeks to explain whether the Sannyasis and Fakirs in Bihar were separate movements or just an offshoot of their insurgency in Bengal. Another question that needs to be answered in this context is why the Fakirs and Sanyasis choose this. Bihar was one of their hunting grounds.

Geographically Bihar was closely connected with the northern districts of Bengal, particularly with Malda, Dinajpur, and Rangpur. Even there was a direct link between Bihar and Morung in southern Nepal. Even the vast region of Northern India. Particularly, Banakes, Allahabad, and Mirzapur also had close links with Bihar.

This geographical contiguity could be strategically used by people coming from the North West towards Bihar and Bengal by river routes. The Fakirs and Sannyasis used to operate their activities in Malda. Dinajpur, Rangpur, and Cooch Behar or in other parts of esteem Bengal by using the rivers like Ganga choose (Kushi) and Gunduck (Gandak). The river Brahmaputra, Teesta, and Mahananda helped them to communicate with Assam and Bhutan.

As Glazier has remarked. “In 1787 the Tista river which had flowed southwest into Dinajpur district, finding its way to the Ganges met with some obstructions it its course and turned its mass of water into a small branch running south-east into the Brahmaputra forcing its was among the fields and over the country in every direction and filling the Ghagat, Manas and another river to overflowing.

Bihar was situated in such a geographical location that it was not difficult for the Fakirs and Sannyasis to establish a close link with Morung and the territories adjoining Nepal. This explains why the Fakirs and Sannyasis were chased in northern or eastern Bengal by the company’s forces, they took shelter in Bihar and from there they escaped either to Nonhem India or to Nepal.

From their centers in Northern India like Allahabad, Benares, and Mirzapur, their routes to their principal spoliation in Bengal ran through Bihar, and herein lies the importance of Bihar in the history of Fakir and Sannyasi uprisings. Besides they had to fortify their subsidiary centers in various parts of Bihar and maintained active contacts with Nepal for purpose of trade and religious pilgrimage.

The year 1765 is a landmark in the history of British administration in India, for in that year the East India Company obtained the dewani and became directly connected with the revenue administration of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. As L.S.S.O Mally has observed the internal administration was left largely in the hands of the great landholders or Zamindars who collected the revenue of the tracts under them and made it over the Nawabs officers.

In 1769 East India company officials under the designation of Supervisors began to collect the revenue in the districts. Jamini Mohan Ghosh pointed out that operations of the marauding bands begin to be recorded in reports and letters since the period. Vincent Smith also observed their incursions into Bengal ceased in the second year of the administration of Hastings.

History does not mention any further depredation by them in other provinces. The bands evidently melted away when the Bengal hunting ground was closed by the vigilance of the Governor. In fact, Bengal, or parts of it, Bihar continued to be a hunting ground for some years to come, though Fakirs were more prominent than Sannyasis.

Rebellious Upsurge :
In order to understand the nature of the Fakir and Sannyasi rebellions that took place in various parts of Bihar and Bengal it is necessary to have a rough idea of their jurisdictions. Pamela extended on the southeast to the river Mahananda including the western portion of the modem district of Malda.

The eastern portion of Malda was included in Dinajpur which had the Mahananda on the southwest Dinajpur included most of the modem district of Bagura, the sirajgang of sub-division of Patna, and the Tangail sub-division of Mymensingh with the exception of pargana. Pokhara on the northwest. If this included the extensive Parganas of Attia, Kagmari, and Barabas. Sillberis etc.

Rajshahi which was co¬extensive with the huge Rajshahi zamindari Of the Maharaja of nature extending over thirteen thousand square miles, included the present districts of Rajshahi, parts of Rangpur, and Pabna. It even extended beyond the Ganges to some Parganas in the present districts of lessor near Nadia.

The rest of the present district of Mymensingh including some portion of the northwest (pargana karaibari of Gooalpara district in Assam) was included in Dacca under its chief. The above gives a rough outline of the revenue jurisdiction of the early British period.- It was a very inconvenient arrangement from the point of view of the Resident officials who had to devise measures of protection of defense when suddenly confronted with the presence of bodies of Fakirs and Sannyasis within their jurisdictions.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions

Question 3.
Estimate the causes and effects of the Paik rebellion.
Answer:
Introduction:
The Paiks were the traditional landed militia of Odisha. They served as warriors and were charged with policing functions during peacetime. The paiks were organized into three ranks distinguished by their occupation and the weapons they wielded. These were the Paharis, the bearers of shields and the khanda (sword), the Banuas who led distant expeditions and used matchlocks, and the Dhenkiyasarches who also performed different duties in Odisha armies.

The conquest of Odisha by the East India Company in 1803 and the dethronement of the Raja of Khurda began the fall of the power and prestige of the Parks. The attitude of the company to the parks was expressed by waiter Ewer on the commission that looked into the causes of the Rebellion, thus.

Now there is no need for the assistance of Paiks at Khurda. It is dangerous to keep them in the British armed forces. Thus they should be treated and dealt with as common Ryots and Land revenue and other taxes should be collected from them. They must be deprived of their former jagir lands rent-free lands given to the Paiks for their military service to the state) within a short period of time, the name of paid has already been forgotten.

But still now where the Paiks are living they have retained their previous aggressive nature. In order to break their poisonous teeth the British police must be highly alert to keep the paiks under their control for a pretty long period, unless the community is ruined completely the British rule can not run smoothly.

Causes of the rebellion :
The Paik rebellion had several social, economic, and political reasons. The paiks were alienated by the British regime who took over the hereditary rent-free lands granted to them after the conquest of Khurda. They were also subjected to extortion and oppression at the hands of the company government and its servants.

Had conciliatory measures been adopted towards the Paiks from the beginning? It is possible that they would have become a source of strength to the company rule in Odisha. The extortionist land revenue policy of the company affected the peasants and the zamindars alike. A source of much consternation for the common people was the rise in the price of salt due to taxes imposed on it by the new government.

The company also abolished the system of cowrie currency that had existed in Odisha prior to its conquest and required that taxes be paid in silver. This caused much popular hardship and discontent. In 1804 the Raja of Khurda planned a rebellion against the British in alliance with the Paiks, but the plot was soon discovered and the Raja’s territory was confiscated.

Leaders and participates :
The Paiks were led by Bakshi Bangabandhu Bidyadhar Mohapatra, Bhramarabar Ray the former Bakshi or commander of the force of the Raja Khurda. Jagabandhu’s familial estate of Killa Rorang was taken over by the British in 1814 reducing him to penury. When the rebellion broke out in March 1817 the Paiks came together under his leadership.

Raja Mukunda Deva the last king of Khurda was another reader of the Indian rebels. The rebellion enjoyed widespread support in Oriya society with feudal chiefš, zamindars ad the common people of Odisha participating in it. The zamindars of karipur Mrichpur, Goira Balarampur. Budnakera and Rupasa supported the Paiks.

White the revolt started from Banapur and Khurda, it quickly spread to other parts of Odisha such as Pun, Pipili, and Cuttack and to several remote villages including Kanika, kujanga, and pattamundai. The Rajas of Kanika, Kujang, Nayagarh, and Ghumusur aided Jagabandhu and Dalbehera Mirhaiclar Alli of Jadupur was an important Muslim rebel.

The course of the rebellion:
Discontent over the policies of the company simmered in Odisha when, in March 1817, a 400-strong party of Kansas crossed over into Khurda from the State of Ghumsur, openly declaring their rebellion against the company’s rule. The Paiks under Jagabandhu joined them1 looting and setting to fire the police station and post office at Banapur.

The rebels then marched to khurda itself, which the company abandoned, sacking the city buildings and the treasury there Another body of rebels captured paragana Lembai, where they killed native officials of the company. The company government, led by E Impey. the magistrate at Cuttack dispatched a force to quell the rebellion under Lieutenant Prideaure to Khurda and Lieutenant Fairs to Pipli in the beginning of April.

These met with sustained attacks from the paiks, forcing them to retreat to Cuttack suffering heavy losses, and Fans himself was killed by the Paiks. Another force was sent to Pun under Captain wellington. However, faced little opposition and on 9 April a force of 550 men was sent to Khurda. There days later they took Khurda and DCC bred mortal law in the Khurda territory.

Even as the British managed to wrest control of Khurda. Purl itself fell to the insurgents led by Bakshi Jagabandhu and the British were forced to retreat to Cuttack by 18 April. Cuttack remained out from the now rebel-held portions of southern Odisha and theater the British remained unaware of the fate of the force they had dispatched to Ja. The force’s successes in Khurda allowed the commanding officer. Captain Le Fever, to sue the insurgents into Pun.

This British party defeated a thousand strong but ill equip of Paiks as they marched to Purl, and they retook Purl and captured the Raja so he could escape from the town. The uprising spread rapidly across Odisha and there were several encounters between the British and Paik forces including at Cuttaclc Where the latter was quickly put down. By May 1817, the British managed to re-establish their authority over the entire province but it was long. While before the tranquility finally returned to it.

The Effects :
In may 1817 the British posted judges to Khruda to sentence the captured rebels. The rebels were awarded sentences of death, transportation, and long-term imprisonment. Between 1818 and 1826 the company’s forces undertook camping operations in the Jungies of Khurda to capture and put to death rebels who had managed to escape.

In these operations, numerous Paiks were killed. Their leader, Jagabandhu, surrendered to the British in 1825 and lived as their prisoner in Cuttack until 1829 when he died. On capturing Puri, Jagabandhu had offered to reinstate Raju Mukunda Deva who the British had dethroned in 1804 and exiled to Puri – as the Raja of Khurda.

Although he turned down the offer and asked for British assistance, he was arrested when the British he took the road and was imprisoned at Cuttack. The Raja died a British prisoner in November 1817. The East India Company also appointed a commission to inquire into the causes of the rebellion. The British set about reorienting their administration under the newly appointed commissioner of Cuttack. Robert kert to ensure such a rebellion would not repeat itself.

These attempts remained halfhearted at best the British viewing Odisha largely as a convenient land link between their presidencies of Madras and Bengal Odisha continued to be wracked by localized insurgencies including at Tapanga in 1827 and the Banapur Rebellion of 1835. The revenue policies of the company in Odisha, which was a major course of the hardship of the people, remained unchanged.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions

Question 4.
The background and accumulated Santhal rebellion against British colonists.
Answer:
The uprising of the Santhals began as a tribal reaction to and deposit the British revenue system. Usury practices and the zamindari system in India in the tribal belt of what was then known as the Bengal presidency. It was a revolt against the oppression of colonial rule propagated through a distorted revenue system enforced by the local Zamindars, the police, and the courts of the legal system set up by the British.

Before the British advent in India. Santhals resided in the hilly districts of Manbhum, Barabhum Chhotanagpur. Palamau and Birbhum. They lived an agrarian lifestyle, by clearing forest patches cultivating, and hunting for subsistence. But as the agents of the new colonial rule claimed their rights on the lands, the Santhals retreated to the hills of Rajmahal.

After a brief period the British operatives with their native underlings, i.e. the local landlords lay claim to this new land as well. Zamindars and the money lenders allured them by goods lent to them on loans. Through corrupt practices of the money lenders, the loan grew to prohibitive proportions, for repaying which entire family had to work as bonded laborers. This dispossession turned the Santhals into rebels and finally, they took an oath to launch an attack on the ruling authority i.e. the British.

Rebellion:
On 30 June 1855 two santal rebel leaders. Sido and Kanhu Murmu mobilized ten thousand Santhals and declared a rebellion against British colonists. Sindhu Murmu had accumulated about ten thousand Santhal to run a parallel government against British rule. The basic purpose was to collect taxes by making his own laws. Soon after the declaration, the Santhals took to arms.

In many villages, the Zamindars, money lenders, and their operatives were put to death. The open rebellion caught the British Government in success and this further fueled the spirit of the revolt. When the law and order situation was getting out of hand the British Government finally took a major step and sent a large number of troops assisted by the local zamindars and the Nawab of Murshidabad to quell the Rebellion. British Government had announced an award of Rs. 10,000 to arrest Sindhu and his brother Rnhu Murmu.

A number of skirmishes occurred after this which resulted in a large number of casualties for the Santhals. The primitive weapons of the Santhals were not a match against the musket and cannon firepower of the British. Troop detachments from the 7th Native Infantry regiment 40th Native Infantry and others were called into action. Major skirmishes occurred from July 1855 to January 1856 in places like Kahalgaon. Suri Reghunathpur and Munkatora.

The Revolt was brutally crushed the two celebrated leaders Sidhu and Kanhu were killed. Elephants supplied by the Nawab of Murshibadbad were used to demolish Santhal huts and likewise, atrocities were committed by the British army and it allies in suppressing the Rebellion of the 60,000 odd tribesmen who had been mobilized in rebellion, over 15,000 were killed and tens of villages were destroyed.

They did get the support of Gwalas (milkmen) and lahars (blacksmiths). Although the Rebellion was crushed with, a heavy hand some British army officers like Major Jervis observed. It was not warring they did not understand yielding. As long as their national drum beat, the whole party would stand and allow themselves to be shot down.

Their arrows killed our men and so we had to fire on them as long as they stood. When their drum ceased they would move off a quarter of a mile then their drums beat again, and they calmly stood till we came up and poured a few volleys into them. There was not a sepoy in the war who did not feel ashamed of himself.

Charles Dickens in Household words wrote.
There seems also to be a sentiment of honor among them (Santhals) for it is said that they use poisoned arrows in hunting, but never against their foes. If this be the case and we hear nothing of the poisoned arrows in the recent conflicts they are infinitely more respectable than our civilized enemy the Russians who would most likely consider such for bearing as foolish and declare that is not war.

Although its impact was largely shadowed by that of the other rebellion, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the legend of the Santhal Rebellion lives on as a turning point in Santhai pride and identity. This was reaffirmed, over a century and a half later with the creation of the first tribal province in independent India Jharkhand.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions

Question 5.
Discuss the social and religious cause of the Great Revolt of 1857.
Answer:
Social cause The British conquest of India was followed by western influences ‘ on Indian Society. Many changes began to appear thereby. Western culture spread in many ways. In some respects, the impact of the west was useful no doubt. But the conservative society could not appreciate many of the new ideas which came. The time of lord William Bentick saw several social reforms.

To the orthodox people, those reforms were unwanted. The abolition of the sati system led some people to complain that the Government had. to right to interfere with the Hindu social systems. The talk of widow marriage at the time of Dalhousie shocked the orthodox people greatly. In the meantime, western education began to spread.

The English-educated young people came under modern influences and began to Criticise the superstition in their own society. They wanted changes and reforms. Their manners & behavior greatly displeased, the orthodox people. Thus there was going on a silent mental hostility between the conservation & the progressive sin; the Indian society.

The orthodox people thought that by the rapid spread of English Education, the fabric of the traditional Indian society should break. Ultimately there should rise up an artificial western society on Indian soil. That fear made them unhappy. They regarded the British Govt, as the enemy of the Indian people. Social discontent began to grow.

The religious cause:
Almost from the beginning of British rule Christian missionaries tried to preach Christianity among the people. Gradually their activities began to increase. The Govt permitted the missionaries to come from England without any restriction. Their number thus grew considerably. They established schools at many places.

To conservative Indians, missionary activities appeared very dangerous. In times of famine & other calamities, the missionaries helped the helpless with food or shelter. Such works also shocked Indian conservation. Those Hindus who embraced Christianity were not allowed to inherit their paternal property.

A fear, as well as a, run spread among the orthodox Indians that the Govt, would convert India into a Christian country in the course of time. Those were the days when people believed in all types of rumors. The enemies of the English spread rumors that in order to destroy the religion of the Hindus the British mixed the power of animal bones with salt.

It was also circulated that the flesh of pigs and cows was thrown into wells. The religious sentiments of Muslims and Hindus were greatly hurt by such stories. They became fearful regarding their religions. The orthodox and pious Brahmins could not like the rule of the British on religious grounds. In the right time, they came forward to create discontent in the minds of their countrymen. Thus, there developed a religious grievance against British rule. It became one of the causes of the Revolt.

Question 6.
Discuss the consequences of the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:
The Great Revolt of 1857 did not succeed in achieving its aim. But it had to reach consequences. Some of the important consequences were as follows :
End of the company’s rule :
The first important consequence of the war was the end of the rule of the East India Company. In 1858, the British parliament passed enact for the better government of India, by which the government of India was transferred to the British Queen and her parliament. Thus, the rule of the company came to an end. The Governor General was made the viceroy. Lord Canning became the first viceroy under this Act.

Queen Victoria’s proclamation :
Queen Victoria was ruling England at the time of the war. The decision to end the company’s rule in India and the transfer of the government of India by queen victoria’s proclamation. This proclamation was made by Lord Canning in a grand Durbar at Allahabad on the 15th the new Government towards Indian princes in order to make them loyal to the British. According to the proclamation, people were guaranteed fuel religious freedom & they were assured that the Govt, would not interfere in their religious beliefs & practices.

Religious freedom :
The new Govt, quadrant fed full religious freedom to the people of India. The Indians were assured that they would be appointed to high posts, irrespective of their caste or creed.

Reorganization of the Army:
the army was reorganized. The proportion of Europeans of Indians in the army was raised. To curb nationalism, Indian soldiers of different communities castes, and religions were all mixed up.

End of Peshwaship and the Mughal rule :
The war also ended the Peshwarship and the Mughal rule. Similarly, the title of Mughal Emperor was also abolished with the death of Bahadur Shah II with his revolt, the great Mughal dynasty founded by Babar in 1526, ended.

Economic Exploitation :
After the revolt, the economic exploitation of India by the British became more prominent. The British abused their political power for their economic interests. India now became a dumping ground for British manufacturers. For an investment of capital, if offered unlimited scope for commercial and industrial enterprises like railways, steamers, tea and coffee plantation, etc.

Policy ‘Divide & Rule’:
The British followed the policy of Divide & Rule. During the war, the Hindus & the Muslims fought together. The British first victimized the Muslims and favored the Hindus. After the revolt, they reversed the policy of treatment. This policy of ‘Divide & Rule’ led to the partition of India.

Rise of Nationalism :
It aroused national feelings & paved the way for the rise of the National movement which ultimately won freedom for India in 1947.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions

Question 7.
Discuss the Important of the Non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji.
Answer:
Under the leadership of Gandhiji, the Indian National Congress decided in 1920 to start a Non-violence Struggle in India. The Rowlatt Act, of 1919, the Jallianawala-Bagh Tragedy, and the khilafat movement were some backgrounds, leading to the Noncooperation movement of 1921. Gandhiji adopted various methods like satyagraha, swadeshi, mass movement, etc. The Non-Cooperation movement had the. following program.

  • Use of Swadeshi goods.
  • Nationalisation of education.
  • Popularisation of charkha and khadi.
  • Enrolment of volunteers.
  • Boycott of foreign goods.
  • Boycott of an educational institution.
  • Boycott of the election.
  • Boycott of British goods.
  • Boycott of Govt, functions.
  • Surrender of honors and titles conferred by the British.

Gandhiji went around the country and mobilized public opinion in favor of the movement with the clarion call of Mahatma Gandhi, many educated Indians, returned their degrees, titles & honors. People boycotted Govt, functions, and thousands of people lift the Govt jobs. The lawyers gave up their practice.

The student left their school and colleges. There were many leading figures who participated in the movement. Among them Motilal Nehru, Zakir Hussain, and Lala Lajpat Ray were prominent. Khadi became the symbol of freedom. A wave of enthusiasm swept the country. People routed the strike hartal everywhere.

While the movement was going on violence broke out at chaurichaure a village in Gorakhpur, in the district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 1922 where a violent mob stormed and brunt a police station and killed twenty-two policemen. As Gandhiji was the opposite of Non-violence therefore he suddenly announced the suspension of the movement.

However, the movement had for reaching effects. It brought Gandhiji into close touch with the masses. It brought about Hindu-Muslim unity. The movement provided a national base to congress. The Indians realized that if they work united, the road to freedom was not far away.

Question 8.
Assess the role of Odisha in the civil disobedience movement.
Answer:
Odisha played a vital role in the civil disobedience movement started by Mahatma Gandhi. Included was main the center of salt satyagraha in Odisha. After Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law on the seashore of Dandi, a place named Inchudi on the sea coast of Balasore district was selected for the breaking of the salt law under the leadership of Acharya Harihar dash.

The first batch of the Satyagrahis began their march to Inchudi on 6th April 1930 under the banner of Gopabandhu Choudhury. Women like Ramadevi, and Malati Devi became the Satyagrahi. Hundreds of men & women from different comers of Odisha began their March towards the coast to prepare salt from seawater. That salt was sent to other places to symbolize the disobedience of the governing law.

The Oriya women took an active part in this movement. The movement suddenly spread to other places on Odisha’s seacoast where men & women in large numbers prepared salt from seawater. They defined the police force & marched ahead for law-breaking. Kujang in Cuttack district. Ashtanga in Puri district and Huma in Ganjam district become some of the notable places where on the seashore people broke the salt law of the government.

What surprised the congress leader of India was the participation of a large number of women in the salt satyagraha movement in Odisha. No doubt the Govt, suppressed the movement, and many Oriya leaders were taken to Jail. Even after the Gandhi. Irwin pact the movement could last long. In the Salt satyagraha movement, Odisha gained credit on two accounts:

  • According to a British report, the Inchudi event was second only to Mahatma Gandhi’s Dandi march in the whole of India
  • A large number of Oriya women from all sections of society took part in the breaking up of the law, which surprised the Government and pleased the congress. Indeed Gandhi’s civil Disobedience movement got a warm reception in Odisha & it clearly shows the heroism of the Oriyas.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions

Question 9.
Analyze the significance of the Quit India Movement.
Answer:
The Quit India movement (1942) was the last non-violence struggle of Garidhiji in India. It is also known as the ‘Do or Die’ movement & August Kranti. It was an unimportant landmark in India’s struggle for freedom. Its importance may be summed up in the following way. First, the movement warned the British that they were not wanted in India. Secondly, It aroused among people a spirit of total sacrifice.

Thirdly, there was nothing to stop Indians from attaining their freedom because the Indian revolution reached its climax. Fourthly, The wholehearted response of the people to the movement has tended to the British decision to quit India. Fifthly, In the history of British rule in India, no such revolt had occurred earlier.

Sixthly, people from all sections men, women, children, handicapped, and older generations alike, all had joined in this movement. Seventhly, There was no rest part of India where the movement was not galvanized. Eighty, people joined certainly feel love for their motherland last but not least The quit India movement led the Indian freedom battle very close to freedom. After the end 6f this movement, it was amply clear. The Indians tested freedom on 15 August 1947.