Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 5 Colonial Cities Long Answer Questions
Long Questions With Answers
Describe the pre-colonial cities and mention the changes that took place in the cities in the 18th century.
During the British administration, Indian towns and cities developed. During that period much colonial architecture grew in different cities. Fortes, ports, town halls, and hill stations grew enormously due to British patronage. The architecture of that period was an amalgamation of Indo-European style. Here is a discussion on these aspects:
Town And Cities In Pre-Colonial Times:
Towns and cities grew in contrast to rural areas. The villagers constitute the rural area where agriculture, rearing of animals, products of artisans, and cottage industries give sustenance to the people who live there. In a similar way, town or city life grows by taking into consideration its trade, commerce, administration, education, industry culture, and so on.
However, both cities and rural areas are dependent on each other. The products of peasants and artisans move to towns and cities with their products and sell them. The rural area helps for the comfortable and luxurious life of the people living in towns. During natural calamities like floods, cyclones, and droughts, the people of rural areas move to towns and cities.
In these ways, both rural town areas are complementary to each other. The Pre-Colonial towns and cities grew up in the 16th-17th century. All these cities and towns developed during the Mughal period. During that time Delhi, Agra, Lahore, and other cities grew which were life centers of the Mughal administration.
The Jagirdars, Mansabdars, Qazi, Kotwal, and other aristocratic people who lived in these cities and towns were associated with the Mughal administration. Besides the people who live in these cities and towns who were associated with the Mughal administration. Besides the people like weavers, artists, cobblers, traders, soldiers, and others also lived in those towns and cities.
The rural products found their way to the cities and towns. By selling those products in the towns and cities, the farmers and artisans earned their livelihood. The gardens, mosques, and market monuments formed the source of entertainment of the people. The towns and cities were surrounded by big walls. At night, the entry routes to the towns were closed and guards were engaged for century duties.
That is why the intruders could not enter the towns and cities. The towns and cities were centers of culture and civilization. During that period, Madurai, Kanchipuram, and other cities were very famous in South India. Many big temples grew up in those cities. These temples were the centers of education and culture. Many tourists from rural areas, towns, and outside the towns came to visit those temples.
Since these towns were located near the sea, trade and commerce could be easily carried out in that area. The rulers of that time patronized the ten sole cultures and trades during that period. The people of the medieval period were cautious regarding their position in society. They could know their position in comparison to others. Thus, in pre-colonial cities and towns, culture and civilization grew and social life was very simple.
Changes In The Eighteenth Century :
In the 18th century, many changes took place in the cities, and with the downfall of the Mughal empire, the importance of the cities like Agra. Del; and Lahore was reduced. Due to the rise of local rulers, the cities like Lucknow, and Hyderabad. Seringapatam, Poona (present day Pune) Nagpur, Baroda (Present day Vadodara), and Tanjore (Present day Thanjavur), etc.
grew and their importance increased. Many artists, artisans, workers and traders came to these towns and cities to earn their livelihood. The soldiers also lived inside the cities because of the frequent wars which took place among the kingdoms. Many people also joined in the army of the local rulers. All these cities paved way for the earning of livelihood for many people.
The population of the towns and cities grew and people lived happily there and exchanged their feelings with each other. The coming of Europeans to India is regarded as a great event during the Mughal period. In due course of time, they settled in a different part of the country. The Portuguese settled in Panaji (Goa), the Dutch at Masulipatnam, the British in Madras, and the French in Pondichery.
In due course of time, they built factories in these places and galvanized trade and commerce. After gaining victory in the Battle of Plassey and Battle of Buxer, the British expanded the empire in India by defending the local rulers and keeping them under their clutches. Generally, it is spoken, ‘the British entered India with a Bible and a pistol inside.
Its meaning is very simple which convinces that the British wanted to spread Christianity in Inda and to spread their empire in this land. As a branded group of traders, the Europeans wanted to protect their commercial interest in India. For realizing that goal they even fought among themselves, the Carnatic wars between the French and the English is a pointer in this direction.
They always wanted constant progress in trade and commerce, “which is why they prepared maps to locate different towns. In those maps, the rivers, mountains, agricultural lands, markets, and forts near the town also found the place. They prepared these maps in order to keep themselves safe during the attack of their enemies.
Among all the European powers in India, the British were very clever. By determining the strategic location of different routes in towns and cities, markets, and trading centers and their importance, they collected taxes from the people accordingly. By doing so, they also secured and strengthened their administration.
Throw light on the changes in the cities and towns in the 19th century.
In the 19th Century, during British rule, the cities and towns bore the imprint of changes. In 1853 railway was introduced in India. After that various parts of India were connected through railway lines. That is why many railway colonies and workshops grew up. So, life became vibrant in the towns like Jamalpur, Waltair, and Bareilly.
That helped the rise of other new towns. Cotton, iron ore, and other materials collected from one place were transported to other places. For example, cotton mills grew up in Bombay. Just factories in Calcutta, leather factories at Kanpur, steel factories at Jamshedpur, and iron factories at Villa, etc. Labour colonies were established in towns.
The supervisee was employed, in different factories to supervise the works of the farmers. Different towns were connected with telegraphs. At the time of need due to communication through telephone and telegraphs, soldiers could be sent from one place to another for quelling the rebellion. The role of the telegraph, telephone, and roadways during the Great Revolt of 1857 is well aware.
The Municipality system was introduced by the British for the better management of towns and cities. For the maintenance of towns, road tax, water tax, etc. were collected from the people. The Municipalities took up certain works like building and maintenance of roads, supply, and drainage of water, cleaning of town, the establishment of hospitals, etc.
The census started from the time of Lord Ripon in 1881. It was decided to have a census in every ten years and that system is even prevalent today. The census brought a great change in towns. The census report, municipality reports, and maps give ideas regarding various colonial towns of India. Similarly, the archives also have preserved information regarding various police stations of towns and their fruitions.
Further from those records information is gathered regarding the system to control crimes judicial system. Punishment to culprits etc. in different colonial towns. During the British rule special care was taken for the improvement of the cities like Calcutta(Kolkata), Bombay(Mumbai) and Madras(Chennai) other small cities and towns also developed were selling various products.
They were also exporting some quality products. Due to the industrial revolution, foreign products were sold in the towns of those markets. This brought a heavy loss to the Indian merchants and traders. This also led to the ruination of the Indian cotton industries. Thus in the nineteenth century, marriage change took place in the cities and towns and towns of India.
The Collector and District magistrate regulated the administration of these cities and towns. Mamy officers were appointed in those Collectorates and Municipalities to look after the administration of the cities and towns. They tried their level best for the all-round development of the cities and towns.
The present-day municipality system bears the memory of that period different corporation of cities of the present time is governed by the pattern of the municipality system of that period. Of course, many changes have occured in that system during the present time.
Social Life In-New Cities:
The colonial cities grew up due to industry, trade, and commerce. Those cities were inhabited by educated intellectuals and government servants. British administrators, traders, workers artisans, and common people. That is why the social life of the cities and towns was different from the villages. For transport facilities, horse-drawn carriages, rickshaws, trams, and buses were available in the cities and towns.
The people took delight to use these transport facilities for going to their offices and traveling inside the cities. The parks, cinema halls theaters, and town halls were built in the cities and towns which provided entertainment to the people. A new society emerged in the society. People of every walk of social life settled in towns and cities coming from various places.
The teachers, clerks, doctors, advocates, engineers, administrators and police had high demand in society. Against these classes stood for common people like laborers, artisans, sweepers, peons, and vegetable-sellers who constituted the majority people of the towns and cities. The rich British officers remained at the top of the ladder of society.
Among these people the condition of workers and artisans was deplorable. It became very difficult for them to stay and live in society due to low income. That is why they left their family villages and came to town for earning. Women enjoyed a special position in city life. A new atmosphere was created for them in society. The educated women published their writings in different magazines.
They attended different meetings held at town halls and other places. They also attended various functions held in town. They also entertained by going to parks clubs and cinema halls. This freedom enjoyed by the city women perturbed the orthodox people of the society They opined that such liberty granted to women would spoil them.
That is why they expressed that women should be confined within the four walls of society. However, their view had hardly any impact on women. Many women also acted as workers in different factories, other ladies became teachers and actresses in cinema and theatre which improved their social position. In urban life, the people remaining at the bottom of the social ladder, suffered a lot.
Food, cloth, and shelter became very costly for them. However, different jaffas, dances and songs, tamas (folk theatre), and saunas(satires) were the main sources of their entertainment. Somehow or other, they adjusted to city life and became a part of the mainstream of social life. Amidst sorrows and hardshell they also get some entertainment.
This was a unique experience of city life during colonial rule. In fact, the towns and cities which grew up during the British period were certainly different from those of the Mughal period. The presence of intellectuals and educated persons, Government servants, and workers, improved conditions the women, and entertainment facilities in the cities made city life vibrant. Even today, the shadow of that life is also reflected in present-day city life.
Describe the colonial architecture of Calcutta.
With the defeat of Sirajudallah in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, began the rule of East India Company in India. Calcutta city is constituted of three villages – Sutanti, Calcutta, and Govindpur. The weavers and traders have been driven away from those villages. Fort William was built at Calcutta. In 1798 Lord Wellesley built buildings for Government offices and his own residence at Calcutta.
After that, colonial architecture grew in Calcutta. Fort William Among the Colonial architecture in Calcutta, Fort William occupies a unique position. There are actually two Fort William – The old and the new. The original was built in 1696 by the British East India Company. Sirajaudallah occupied it in 1757 and was renamed as Alinagar.
In 1766, this old fort was repaired and used as a customs house. The New Fort William was built on the eastern bank of river Hoogly. Robert Clive started the building of this fort in 1758 and it was completed in 1781. The vast field stretched in front of this fort is known as ‘Gadar Math’. The enemies approaching the fort could be fired directly from the fort. This fort was named after King William III of England.
Nowadays, this fort is under the control of the Indian Army. There is the provision of stationing 10,000 soldiers at a time inside this fort. Victoria Memorial Built in marble the Victoria Memorial in another great architecture of the British period. The beginning of this architecture took place in 1906 and it was completed in 1921. This was built in memory of Queen Victoria of England.
The work of the memorial began when Lord Curzon was the Viceroy of India. The architect of this building was William Emerson. This architecture was a mixture of Mughal, British, Venetian, Egyptian, Deccani, and Islamic elements. It was constructed in white makrana marble. Many memories of the British period are found preserved inside it.
St. Paul’sCathedralAmong other architectural splendors of the colonial period. St. Paul’s Cathedral of Kolkata began in 1839 and was completed in 1847. Bishop Wilson had helped generously with the building of this architecture. This Indo-Gothic design was made by a military engineer major William Naim Forbes. This is not only a religious monument but also an architecture of excellence.
The huge main hall of the cathedral contains beautifully carved wooden pews and chairs. There is also a big library at St. Paul’s Cathedral. Marble Palace The Marble Palace was built in Maktaram Babu street. Raja Rajendra Mallick was a contemporary of Dwarakanath Tagore. This Palatial mansion was built by a French architect. It was later named ‘Marble Palace’ by Lord Minto.
The outside lawn of the marble palace contains a pond with a beautifully engraved stone fountain. The garden attached to this palace is very beautiful to look at. Town HallThe Town Hall at Calcutta was built in 1813. The architect and engineer of this Palace were Major General John Garstin. This was built in Roman Doric Style. The pillars attached to this hall are attractive.
In 1867, the town hall came under the management Of the municipality authority. Before the. building of the present High Court, this hall was used for the same purpose. In a later period, this building was used by the Legislative Council of Bengal. Now, this building has been declared the Heritage Building and is under the Archaeological Survey of India.
Belvedere Estate The Belvedere Estate is located in the Alipore area of Kolkata. After the battle of Plassey, Mirjaffar built this palace at Alipore. Later on, he offered it to Warren Hastings. It is heard that around 1780, the family of Hastings sold this Belvedere house to Major Tolly. Inside this estate, there are 24 very big quarters and 77 big quarters.
The ‘National Library’ started functioning inside this estate in 1948. This is one of the great buildings of the colonial period in Kolkata. High CourtLocated on the Esplanade Rowin Calcutta, the High Court is one of the marvelous buildings of the colonial period. It was built with red bricks. The open windows surrounded this building. The vastness of the building allure the attention of all. The High Court bears the memory of the justices of the British period.
It is also built in the Gothic style. Other Architecture During the British period, many colonial architectures grew up in Calcutta. Among them are the ‘Great Eastern Hotel’, ‘Howrah Bridge’, ‘Howrah Station’, General Post Office, ‘Esplanade Mansion’, ‘White way Ladel Departmental store’(Metropolitan Building), etc. All these architecture and buildings bear the memory of the British period.
Discuss the colonial architecture of Bombay.
Bombay(Mumbai) was a combination of seven islands. The British East India Company was exporting opium from its coast to China. The Persians, Marwaris, Konkani, Muslims, Gujratis, Jews, Americans, and English constituted the population of Bombay. In the Latin Language, Bombay is called ‘ Arbas Prima in Indis’ or ‘the most famous city of India’ In due course of time, many colonial buildings and architecture grew in Mumbai.
Town HallThe Town Hall of Bombay was built during British rule. This was colloquially called ‘Tondal’. It was built in 1833. The architect of this building was a military engineer named colonel Thomas Cowper. This building was a mixture of Greek and Roman styles of architecture. The Town Hall houses the ‘ Asiatic society of Bombay’ which is a public library in the city.
It also houses a museum. Apart from the ancient manuscripts in Persian, Prakrit, Urdu, and Sanskrit, there one finds a collection of 1,000 ancient coins including the gold ‘mohur’ of Akbar. This building is the main attraction for tourists who visit Bombay. Rajabai TowerThe Rajabai Tower is South Mumbai is located in the confines of the fort campus of the University of Mumbai.
It was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott an English architect. The tower fuses Venetian and Gothic styles. It is built out of locally available buff-colored Kurla stone and stained glass. The clock placed at the top of the tower is built in the model of Big Ben, the clock tower of the House of Parliament in London. The height of the tower is 118 feet.
Its building work started on 1 March 1869 and was completed in November 1878. For a long period, the sound of this bell indicated the time to the people of Bombay. Now, the watch inside the tower is defunct. Gateway of India The Gateway of Inda is one of the major monuments in the city, located in the Apolo Bunder area in Mumbai.
It was built to commemorate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to Bombay in 1911. Its foundation stone was laid on 31 March 1911 by Sir George Sydenham Clarke. It was designed by George Witter. Its construction was completed in 1924. The building got the name ‘the Gateway of India’ because in the colonial era, the Europeans entered India from this location and it was the first thing they saw while entering the country.
It is built with a mixture of Hindu and Islamic architecture in Gujarati style. Victoria Terminus Or Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus- The Victoria Terminus (VT) is a classic example of the colonial architecture of Bombay. Its present name is Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST). Build in 1888. This railway station bears the memory of the Victorian age.
The plan for this railway station was designed by an English Engineer names F.W. Stevens. This station is very nearer to the seashore of Mumbai. Generally, railway stations were constructed near the seashore to facilitate trade and commerce during the British period. Due to this export and import became convenient.
The VT railway station helped a lot in the progress of trade and commerce in Bombay. At the entrance of the station are found one lion and a tiger, representing England and India, respectively. The main structure is made of sandstone and limestone and the interiors of the station are linked with high-quality Italian marble, Suresh Kalmadi, the then Railway Minister of India had changed its name from Victoria Terminus to Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus.
Bombay(Mumbai) UniversityThe Bombay University was constructed in 1857. It functions inside 230 acres of land. The main campus of this university is located in Santacruz. Apart from the this-main campus of the University, it has other branches like ‘Kalina Campus’, ‘Art Campus’, and ‘Ratnagiri Campus’.
The ‘Rajabai (clock) Tower’ is located in the Ratnagiri campus of this university. This university is regarded as one of the leading Universities of the country. This University is built in the light of British architecture. Mount Mary Church Mount Mary Church is a Roman Catholic Church, dedicated to the ‘Virgin Mary’ situated in Mumbai.
It was first built in 1640 and then rebuilt in 1761. What makes this church even more beautiful is that it is situated on the top of the hill known as ‘Sunderban Bandra’, which overlooks the mighty Arabian Sea. It is believed that the church has unbelievable healing powers. That is why the devotees come to this church every day.
Some also say that those who sincerely pray at the Mount Mary church offer get their wishes fulfilled. The ‘Bandra Fair’ or the ‘Feast of Mount Mary’ is a week-long celebration held at every September at the Mount Mary Church. Tourists from all over the world who visit Mumbai always make sure to visit this popular Church while in the city.
Eros Cinema The building of the Eros Cinema started in 1935 and it was completed in 1938. It has a seating capacity of 1,204 people per show. The hall was built in red, sandstone brought from Agra. The foyer of this hall is made of white and black marble with touches of gold. Marble staircases lead up to the upper floor. To watch the cinema in this hall was a luxury of that period. Bombay High CourtSituated in the Apollo Street.
The Bombay High Court started functioning in 1862. There are two life-size statues in the western side of the High Court. One among them is the stone ‘Statue of the Goddess of Justice’ holding the sword of Justice in one hand and the scales, In the other ‘The second is the ‘Statue of Goddess of Mercy’ with hand folded. The depiction of two litigious cats and a monkey judge on the first floor of the court is very interesting in fact, the Bombay High Court bears the memory of colonial architecture.
Other architecture Bombay also contains other colonial architecture. The City hall, Elphinstone circle, Municipal Corporation Building, Ballard estate. St. Thomas Cathedral, Elphinstone college, Food Market, Oval Field, and St. Anne High School are some of the important architecture of Bombay which bears testimony of the colonial period.
Give a clean picture regarding the movement of Linguistic identity and demand of a separate province.
The formation of Odisha as a separate province is a landmark in the modem history of this land. The fragmented Oriya-speaking tracts remained in Bihar, Madra residency. Central Province and Bengal were at last united and the separate province of Odisha was formed on April 1936. This formation became possible due to the untiring effort of Fakir Mohan Senapati, Madhusudan Das, Raja Baikunth Nath Dey, Gangadhar Meher, Nilamani Bidyaratna, Lingaraj Panigrahi, Krushna Chandra Gajapati, Narayan Deo and many other celebrities.
Movement For Linguistic Identity:
Odisha was occupied by the Afghans with the death of Mukunda Dev in 1568. After that began the rule of the Mughals Naib Nazims. Marathas and British in succession. In due course of time. Odia language which had created immortal literature began to decline. For administrative convenience, the British amalgamated many parts of Odisha with Central Province, West Bengal, Bihar, and Andhra Pradesh (under Madras Presidency), due to this, the Odia language lost its identity. To preserve the identity of the Odia language began the language movement.
Caused of the language movement:
Keeping the odia language alive, the language movement began several reasons were responsible for this.
British administration and plight of the odias:
The plight of the odias began with the British occupation of Odisha in 1803. Within one hundred years of their rule from 1803 to 1903, the Odia language gradually declined. The one-point goal of the British was to collect revenue. That is why they appointed the Benglees for that purpose. The prevalence of Persi in the courts diminished the influence of the Odia language.
Again in 1848-49, the Bengalee language was recognized as the language for official use by the British. The Bengals who occupied a high position in Government services in Odisha tried to put an end to the Odia language.
Scarcity of Printing Press and Odia Books :
The Bengal renaissance began in 1829 with the foundation of Brahmo Samaj by Raja Rammohan Roy. The Renaissance in Odisha began after the Nanka famine of 1866. That is why the number of intellectuals in Odisha was less than in Bengal. Further, there was very less printing press in Odisha. That is why textbooks could not be printed to cater to the needs of the school students. It created a great hindrance to teaching odia to the students in schools.
Role of Bengalee Intellectuals :
The Bengalee intellectuals tried their best to put an end to the odia language. In 1869, Uma Charan Haidar a Deputy Inspector of Schools stated that since there was a dearth of Odia books and Bengalee books were plentily available during that time, the schools should go for Benglee books.
Further, Kanti Chandra Bhattacharya a Sanskrit Pandit of Balasore Zilla school opined that Odia is not an independent language. He further argued that Odia was a sub-language of the Bengalee language, his argument was supported by Rajendra Mitra a notable historian of Bengal. Thus, the Benglees conspired a lot to finish the Odia language.
The atmosphere of Argument and Counter Argument:
The view of the Bengalee scholars regarding the Odia language was challenged by others. John Beams, a great Sanskrit scholar, and linguist, and Goldsbury, the Governor of Odisha could not accept the view of Kanti Chandra and Rajendra Mitra. The ‘Cuttack Society’, ‘Debating Club’, and ‘Utila Hitaisin’ supported the view of Bengalee scholars.
On the other hand, notable Odia scholars like Fakir Mohan Senapati, Nilamani Bidyaratna, Gouri Shankar Roy, and others opined that Odia was a separate and independent language and education in Odisha should be imparted through Odia medium. Their views were expressed through the ‘Sambad Bahika’ which was edited by Fakir Mohan Senapati and ‘Utkal Dipika’ edited by Gouri Shankar Roy. This atmosphere of argument and counterargument made the language movement more vibrant.
Influence of Na’anka Famine :
The Na’anka Famine of 1866 galvanized the language movement in Odisha. This famine took away one-third population of coastal Odisha. After this famine, Thomas Eric Revenshaw took steps for the spread of education in Odisha. He established schools in the nook and corner of Odisha where education was imparted in Odia medium.
In 1868 Ravenshaw College was established which played a leading role in the spread of education in Odisha. The intellectuals, who were the products of Ravenshaw College took the language movement ahead which helped a lot for the formation of Odisha province on the basis of language.
Establishment of Printing Press :
The establishment of the printing press at Cuttack in 1866 by Bichitrananda Das, played a vital role in the language movement in Odisha. From that place was published ‘Utkal Dipika’ under the editorship of Gouri Shankar Roy. Through the effort of Fakir Mohan Senapati and Baikunthnath Dey, two printing presses were established at Balasore.
Due to that two newspapers named ‘Sambad Bahika’ and ‘Utkal Darpana’ were published in Balasore. Though these magazines efforts were made to preserve the Odia language and expedite the language movement. In fact, the language movement is a landmark in the history of modem Odisha.
By the efforts of odia intellectuals. This Odia language agitation gained momentum in this land. Due to that, languages like Telegu, Bengali, and Hindi could not exert their influence in Odisha. During the later period, this language movement helped a lot in the creation of Odisha, as a separate province.
Give a clean picture regarding the event leading to the formation of Odisha Province.
The formation of a separate Odisha Province is a landmark in the modem history of this land. The fragmented Odia-speaking tracts which remained in Bihar, Madaras, Bengal Presidencies, and central province were at last united and the separate province of Odisha was formed on 1 April 1936. This was a great victory for the Odias.
The then position of Odisha :
With the British occupation of Odisha in 1803, the far-flung medieval Odisha empire came to an end. In due course of time Sambalpur remained under the governance of Madhya Pradesh, Ganjam became a part of Madras Presidency, Midnapore was tired with Bengal Presidency and Odisa-speaking areas of singbhumi remained as part of Bihar-Chhotnagpur Division. When Kantilal Bhattacharya spoke bluntly that ‘Oriya is not a separate language’ (Oriya swatantra bhasanai), Fakirmohan opposed it vehemently.
Radhanath Roy and Gouri Shankar Ray also raised their voices against it. In 1882 Utkal Sabha was established. During the visit of Lt. Governor of Bengal Sir S.C. Bele, a representation On behalf of the Utkal Sabha was given to him. In that representation, demand was made regarding the separation of the Odiya-speaking tracts from Bengal Madras and Madhya Pradesh.
An amalgamation of Sambalpur:
In 1862 Sambalpur and the adjacent feudatory states were included in Madhya Pradesh (Central Province) for administrative convenience. As per notification No.227 of the Chief Commissioner of Nagpur Hindi was introduced as an official language in Sambalpur on 1 January 1896. Dharanidhar Mishra in Sambalpur mobilized the people against this and submitted a memorandum to viceroy Lord Elgin which yielded no fruit.
In 1901 under the leadership of Madan Mohan Mishra other leaders like Balabhadra Supakar, Biren Das Mohanta, Sripati Mishra and Brajamohan Patnaik met Viceroy Lord Curzon at Shimla and demanded the restoration of the Oriya language in Sambalpur. They also appraised the Chief Commissioner of the central province Sir Andrew Frozen at Nagpur about it.
Nilamani Bidyaratna vehemently opposed Frazer’s decision to implement Hindi in Sambalpur. He was supported by Gangadhar Meher. In 1902 Madhusudan Das and Gourishankar Roy attended the sesson of the Indian National Congress at Nagpur and gave a proposal for the amalgamation of Ganjam with Odisha.
It was not accepted and Madhu Babu left congress. Fazer visited Sambalpur in September 1901 and recommended the Viceory to restore Oriya as the official language in Sambalpur. As per Cuzon’s desire, on 3 December 1903, H.H. Risley issued a circular named Risley circular by which Oriya was restored as the official language in Sambalpur and adjacent feudatory states.
On 19 July 1905 Sambalpur was detected from the central province and became a part of the Odisha Division along with Kalahandi, Sonepur, Rairakhol, Bamenda, and Patna, Bonei, and Gangpur were detached from Chhotnagpur and amalgamated in the Odisha division.
Creation of Bihar – Odisha Province :
Viceroy Lord Hardinge found it difficult to administer Bengal. He ceded the Odisha division to Bihar and created a new Bihar-Odisha Province in 1912 Sambalpur, Angul, Balasore, Cuttack, and Puri were brought from Bengal province and amalgamated with Bihar-Province of course, the Ganjam and Vijayanagaram Agency remained under Madras. This did not save the problem of the Odias but made it critical.
Madu Babu and the Utkal Union Conference :
During 1903-1920, the Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani) passed many resolutions for a unified odia speaking area. Madhusudan Das considered it as a ‘political earthquake’ and led a delegate to meet Montagu in 1917 with a prayer for a united province for Odia-speaking people, of course, the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms or India Act, of 1919 frustrated the odias because there was no mention about Odisha Province in it.
The Sinha Resolution :
Sachidananda Sinha, a staunch supporter of the Oriya movement, moved a resolution in 1920 recommending the Government of India ‘to formulate a scheme for the amalgamation of Oriya speaking tracts’. This was famous as the ‘Sinha Resolution. By this, the Central Province gave consent to transfer Khariar Zamindari and Bihar gave a favorable reply.
When Madras Government was pressurized to handover Ganjam, Sasibhusan Rath, the editor of ‘Asha’ mobilized the people of Ganjam and by the pressure of the Government of India, Madras Government appointed Philip -Duff Committee in 1924 to look into the matter.
This Philip-Duff Committee:
In 1924 a committee consisting of C.L. Philip, the then political Agent of Odisha state, and A.C. Duff, the then collector of Visakhapatnam visited to survey the public opinion regarding the amalgamation. The Committee opined that Mandrass, Tekkali, Tarala, Jalantar, Budarsingh, and Partkhemundi in Ganjam should be included in Odisha. This declaration pushed the desire for a United Odisha forward.
The Simmon Commission and Atlee Sub-Committee :
Although the Simon Commission was boycotted by the Indian National Congress a delegation led by Rajendra Narayan Bhanja Dev welcomed it at Patna Railway Station. By the recommendation of John Simmon, a committee named the Atlee Sub-Committee consisting of C.R. Atlee Rajendra Narayan Bhanjadev.
Dr. A. Subhrawady and Laxmidhar Mohanty were formed, and it accepted the justification of a separate province consisting of Odisha Division, Angul, Khariar, Ganjam, and the agency tracts. The Simon Commissioner recommended the formation of a Boundary Commission when its report was published on 27th May 1930.
O’Donnell Boundary Commission :
In the First Round Table Conference, Maharaja K.C. Gajapati Narayan Deo of Parlakhemundi made an impressive speech about the formation of Odisha as a separate province. After due consideration, a Boundary Commission was formed in 1931. It was headed by I.P.O. Donnell, the Chairman, and other two members namely H.M. Mehta of Bombay and T.R. Phukoon of Assam. The associate members of the committee consisted of K.C. Gajapati representing the Oriyas, Sachidananda Sinha, representing the Biharis and C.V.S. Narasimha Raju representing the Telugus.
Following the 1931 census and receiving evidence from 400 witnesses, the commission recommended the creation of a separate Oriya province which would include Odisha Division, Angul, Padmapur, Khariar Estate, the greater part of Ganjam district, and Vizagpatnam Agency. The new province would have an area of 33,000 square miles and a population of 8,277,000.
Joint Parliamentary Committee :
The Joint Parliamentary Committee under the Chairmanship of Lord Linlithgow examined the report of the Boundary Commission and gave consent for the formation of Odisha Province retaining all its recommendations, further including a Paralakhemundi town, Mali and Jalantar.
Hubback Committee :
The Odisha Administrative Committee or Hubback Committee was formed which examined the issue and substituted its final report on 20, December 1933. It made Cuttack, the capital of Odisha, and Puri its summer resort. It recommended a High Court and University for Odisha. The post of Director of Education. Inspector General of Police, Revenue Commissioner, etc., were also recommended by this Committee.
Birth of Odisha Province :
The Government of India Act was promulgated in 193 5 and its clause 289 recognized Odisha as a separate province. On 3rd March 1936, the Odisha Act was ratified by the British Parliament and received the signature of the Emperor. On 1st April 1936, Odisha created a separate province.
It consisted of six districts, viz, Cuttack Puri, Balasore, Ganjam, Sambalpur, and Koraput with 32, 695 square miles and 8.043,681 population. Sir John Austin Hubback became the First Governor of Odisha. Of course, Madhu Babu did not live to see it. He breathed his last in 1934. Thus, the struggle of Odias ended with victory the long cherished dream of Oriya leaders was materialized.
However many Oriya-speaking areas like Phulighar, Midnapore, and Sompeta were not amalgamated with it which was really painful of course, the creation of Odisha as a separate province reminds me of the victory of Oriyas over British hegemony.
Evaluate the works of Madhusudan Das as the maker of modern Odisha.
Famous in the nook and corner of Odisha as ‘Madhu Barister’ and ‘Grand Old Man’ Madhusudan Das was an intellectual per excellence a leader, a reformer, and above all, the architect of the creation of Odisha as a separate province. Through the Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani), he mobilized millions of Odias to come forward for the creation of Odisha province on a language basis.
He had tried his level best to keep up the prestige of the Odias and their self-esteem at the top. Even today, he is remembered with love by the people of Odisha. Madhusudan Das was bom on 28 April, 1848 at Satyabhamapur in the Cuttack District. After finishing their primary education in his village, he passed matriculation from the Ravenshaw Collegiate School.
Leaving their job as a teacher and subsequently as a clerk from Balasore, he left for Kolkata for higher education. He passed F. A. (L. A.) from the Bethune College of Kolkata in 1868. While reading there, he came in contact with Ambika Charan Hazra and both of them became close friends.
He passed M.A. from Calcutta University in 1873 and B.L. (L.L.B.) in 1878. By the influence of Ambica, he was convened to Christianity. He married a Christian lady named Saudamini but she breathed her last after six years of marriage. After the death of Ambica Charan, Madhu Babu adopted his daughters Sailabala Sudhansubala Hazra as his own daughters and returned to Cuttack and established himself as a great lawyer.
Gradually his house at Cuttack was frequently visited by educated people, intellectual leaders, and the like. There the draft for the creation of a new vibrant Odisha was prepared. Dedicating himself to the all-around development of Odisha, Madhu Babu breathed his last on 4th February 1934.
Madhu Babu and Odisha Association :
Some people of Cuttack formed Orissa Association in 1878. It was a milestone for the new awakening of Modem Odisha. By the influence of Gouri Shankar Roy, Madhu Babu became a member on 21st May 1883, this association discussed the Libert Bill and all the members unanimously supported it. Madhu Babu and Gouri Shankar Roy attended the Modem Session of the Indian National Congress in 1888. Through this association, the liberal ideal of the Congress found expression in Odisha and this trend continued till 1903.
The Utkal Union Conference :
The formation of the Utkal Union Conference (Utkal Sammilani) was a bold step taken by Madhu Babu which play a vital role in the amalgamation of Odisha- speaking tracts. The first session of this conference was organized on 30th December 1903. At the invitation of Madhu Babu, 30 Kings, Zamindars and many representatives attended this conference. Sri Rama Chandra Bhanja Deo, the king of Mayurbhanja presided over the session. The important proposals accepted by this conference were:
- Praise to the effort of the viceroy, Lord Curzon for the amalgamation of Odia-speaking tracts.
- Expression of gratitude to the British Government for the prevalence of Odia language in Sambalpur instead of Hindi.
- Formation of many committees for social reforms and improvement of the Odia language.
- Some steps are taken for the development of industries in Odisha Division, etc.
By the effort of Madhu Babu, this Utkal Union Conference could very well submit a proposal to the British Government to amalgamate Sambalpur, Ganjam, Chhotnagpur, Visakhapatnam, and Midnapore with Odisha. He had given a clarion call to every Odia to be a part of the Utkal Sammilani. In his words: This conference is the ocean of Nation and contains crores of lif-drops you mingle your life-drop jumping into the water of this ocean.
Madhu Babu and his effort to form Odisha Province :
In 1903, the Indian National Congress did not support the claim for the formation of Odisha as a separate province based on language. That is why Madhu Babu shivered in his relationship with congress. In the mean, Lord Curzon tried to unite the Odia- speaking tracts through the ‘Risley Circular’. When Lord Curzon was on leave, the Viceroy- in charge, Lord Ampthill could not allow Ganjam and Visakhapatnam to be part of Odisha.
Of course, he had allowed Patnagarh, Kalahandi, Sonepur, Bamenda, and Rairakhol to be amalgamated with Odisha which was part of the central province. Besides, Ganjam and Bonai were also amalgamated with Odisha. Madhu Babu vehemently opposed this move of the British Government through the Utkal Union Conference.
He submitted a proposal before the ‘Royal Commission to unite the Odia-speaking areas. In 1911, Madhu Babu went to London to create public opinion in its favor. In 1911, Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India gave a proposal, for the creation of a new Bihar-Odisha province, which was formed in 1912. This was vehemently opposed by Madhu Babu through the Utkal Sammilani.
Madhu Babu and Politics:
Madhu Babu has left in reliable imprint in the field of politics. He was elected as a representative to ‘Orissa-Chhotnagpur Municipality in 1896. He was again elected for the same post in 1900 and dedicated himself to the progress of Odisha. In 1902, as a member of the ‘Bengal Legislative Council’, Madhu Babu put pressure on the Government to provide more grants for the improvement of Ravenshaw College.
He was again elected to the same post in 1909. He had given a proposal for opening a law college and women’s training school in Odisha. The ‘Orissa Tenancy Bill’ introduced by him was passed in the council but, it was rejected by the viceroy since Odisha was going to be a separate province soon.
To the ‘Legislative Council of Bihar and Orissa Madhu Babu was elected as a member of Bihar and Orissa Province was formed in 1912. Through his effort, the ‘Orissa Tenancy Bill’ was recommended and accepted by the House in 1913. This was linked by the peasants of Odisha. In 1921, Madhu Babu became a Minister of that Council.
He discharged his duty without any remuneration and cited an example of selfless service to his people. By his effort on 25 November 1921, a proposal was laid down before the house for the creation of Odisha as a separate province. Of course, he resigned from the post of Minister in 1913.
Steps for the spread of Education:
Madhu Babu took much pain for the spread of education in Odisha. As Vice-chairman of Cuttack Zilla Parishad and member of the Legislative Council, Madhu Babu had taken steps for opening many schools in Odisha. He had advised giving physical training to the juveniles in the jail. He also encouraged women’s education.
In 1907 when the1 only girl’s school was going to be closed, his adopted daughter Sailabala its Head Mistress, and it survived, later on, it became the famous Sailabala Women’s College and encouraged women’s education in Odisha and still in encouraging the same. Madhu Babu advocated in favor of the voting right of women which materialized in the future.
Efforts for the economic independence of the Odias:
Madhu Babu had tried for the economic independence of the Odias. He took steps for the development of cottage industries in Odisha. The traditional filigree work of Cuttack was encouraged by him. Till today this has retained its position. Madhu Babu had opened ‘Orissa Art Wares’ at Cuttack. For the progress of the leather industry, he established a factory named ‘Utkal Tenancy’ at Cuttack.
When a slight defect was noticed in the production of shoes,’ he was destroying those shoes. For that factory, he became popular. He also taught the weavers, the new art of weaving. He was also instrumental in establishing a palm-sugar factory. In fact, Madhu Babu played an important role in the economic progress of Odisha.
Protection of Puri Jagannath Temple:
Although Madhu Babu had accepted Christianity by choice, he had argued in the Court as an advocate to preserve the dignity of Gajapati. In 1902, the British Government appointed one Deputy Magistrate for the management of Puri Jagannath Temple, Madhu Babu opposed it in the Calcutta High Court and projected that as per the tradition, the Gajapati in the sole custodian of the deities of Puri Jagannath Temple.
The Honourable High Court listened to Madhu Babu and passed an Order that the Gajapati should be the custodian of the deities and would carry temple management as per his desire. This episode made Madhu Babu famous in the nook and corner of Odisha as ‘Madhu Barister’. Madhu Babu breathed his last on 4 February 1934.
Odisha became a separate province after two years of his death in 1936. This had become a reality due to the untiring effort of Madhu Babu. His inspiring poem for the son of Odisha instills new vim and vitality into the nerves even today.
Describe the role of Gopabandhu Das in the Indian National Congress and its impact in Odisha.
Gopabandhu played a significant role in popularising the activities of the Indian National Congress in Odisha. Returning from Calcutta after attending a special session of the Indian National Congress in 1920, he was surcharged with the ideology of the Congress He was determined to spread Gandhian activities in Odisha. He also attended the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress with others.
Resolutions like boycotting foreign goods, visit of the prince of Wales, adoption of national education, etc. were passed in this session. The representatives from Odisha were deeply moved by this and returning to Odisha, they wanted to implement these things under the leadership of Gopabandhu. Gopabandhu also went to jail due to his effort to popularize the congress activities in Odisha.
Role in the Non-Cooperation Movement:
Gopabandhu took steps to galvanize the Non-cooperation movement in Odisha. The Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee was formed in 1921. Gopabandhu was its first President Dr. Ekram Rosool was its vice president, Bhagirathi Mohapatra, was its secretary, and Brajabandhu Das was its joint secretary.
Pandit Krupasindhu Mishra, Acharya Harihar Harekrushna Mahatab, Jagabandhu Singh, and many others joined the Indian Nation. Congress by the influence of Gopabandhu. The congress workers were inspired by Gopabandhu to popularise congress activities throughout Odisha.
Gopabandhu and visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Odisha :
The arrival of Mahatma Gandhi in Odisha on 23 March 1921 gave a great impetus to the Non-Co-operation movement in Odisha. Within six days he addressed several meetings at Cuttack, Bhadrak, Puri, Satyabadi, and Berhampur, Gopabandhu translated the Hindi speech of Gandhiji into simple Odia and the people became happy. This inspired a lot to the people of Odisha to participate in the Non-Co-operation movement.
By 30 June 1921, the Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee was able to collect 21,000 rupees for the Tilak Swaraj Fund’ In the meanwhile, 39,000 workers joined the congress on the inspiration of Gopabandhu. Being inspired by Nationalism, Harekn; bp ’T ’ Nabakrushna Choudhury, NityanandaKanungo, and other young leaders joined the iwi National Congress.
Establishment of Ashrams:
Gopabandhu was instrumental in popularizing the congress ideology in different parts of Odisha. In his instance, several ashrams were established by leaders in different parts of Odisha. Among them, very famous were the ‘Swaraj Ashram’ at Cuttack, ‘Alkashram’ at Jagatsinghpur, and ‘Swaraj Mandir’ at Cuttack.
The congress and social workers learned in these Ashrams about the use of the spinning wheel, the preparation of thread, and other programs related to the congress. To his advice to boycott foreign goods, the congress workers started picketing at Balasore, Cuttack, Puri, Bhadrak, Berhampur, and Sambalpur. Gopabandhu played a leading role to popularize Gandhi’s principle of non-violence in different parts of Odisha.
Steps for improvement of Odia language and literature:
Gapabandhu took steps for the improvement of Odia language and literature. He started publishing a magazine titled ‘Satyabadi’ from Sakshigopal in 1915. In 1919 he published ‘Samaj’ from the same place which was a weekly newspaper. Later on, it became daily. Through this newspaper, he was able to put forth the grievances and demands of the people before the British Government.
He himself was also the author of many books like ‘Bandira Atmakatha’ (self-expression of a prisoner) ‘Dharmapad’ ‘Go Mahatma (Appraisal on a cow)’ Abakasa China (thought of leisure) etc. Which enriched Odia literature. He established odia-medium schools at Singhbhum, Phulighar, Mandala, Tarala, and Tekkali and tried his level best to spread Odia living. Gopabandhu was the ‘Gem of Utkal’ in the proper sense of the term. By following the principle of non-violence of Gandhiji, he gave a strategic blow to the British Government.
Evaluate the role of Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo in the making of Modern Odisha.
Gajapati Krushna Chandra Narayan Deo is regarded at one of the makers of modern Odisha. His contribution to making Odisha a prepared province was immense. Loved by the people of this land, he had the credit to be the Prime Minister of Odisha twice. In spite of heavy odds, he was able to convince the British authorities regarding the need of the amalgamation of Odia. Speaking tracts and creation of a new province which was materialized.
Krushna Chandra and Simon Commission :
The Simon Commission which landed on Indian soil was boycotted with the slogan ‘Simon! go back. However, by the effort of K.C. Gajapati and other members of the Utkal Sammilani, that committee was received with the slogan ‘Welcome Simon’ at the Patna Railway station. The Committee became very happy and intimately talked with the members of the Utkal Sammilani paying heed to their problems.
On 27th May 1930, the report of the Simon Commission was published which recommended the formation of a sub-committee for examining the cause of the creation of Odisha as a separate province. It elated K.C. Gajapati.
Atlee Sub-committee and K.C. Gajapati:
By the recommendation of the Simon Commission, the ‘Atlee Sub-committee was created to determine the boundary of the new Odisha Province. Many letters, representations, and personal opinions were reached before the committee by the inspiration of K.C. Gajapati. After examining all this evidence, the committee recommended the creation of a separate province for the Odias.
Although, the Madras Government kept its opinion before the committee against it that was rejected. This was the first victory of K.C. Gajapati concerning the formation of the Odisha Province.
K.C. Gajapati and the First Round Table Conference :
Although the First Round Table Conference was boycotted by the Indian National Congress, K.C. Gajapati went to London in 1930 to present the demand of Odisha province before the British Government. By that time the agenda of the meeting had already been prepared. By the persuasion of K.C. Gajapati, a discussion on it was included with the province of Sind.
When the turn came K.C. Gajapati with politeness presented demand in the following way: ‘Sir, on behalf of 16 million Oriyas, the subjects of his majesty, I rise to represent their long-standing grievances on the occasion. I should lay before you all today that the formation of a separate province for the Oriyas is a life-and-death problem to them.
It is for you to make or mar the destiny of an ancient race, vast in numbers, cultured and advanced, but placed under painful circumstances now. Due to his influential speech, the Odisha matter was placed in ii, vi, and vii of the sub-committee. During his stay in London, K.C. Gajapati was able to influence Sir Samuel Hoare, the secretary of state, and other important parliamentarians. This made the part of the creation of Odisha as a separate province very easy.
K.C. Gajapati’s creation of Odisha Province:
After the First Round Table Conference, O’ Donnel Committed was needed to examine the case of Odisha Province. The Committee was welcomed by K C. Gajapati with much cordiality at the Berhampur Railway Station. After visiting various Odia- speaking tracts and interacting with the people, the committee submitted us report to Samuel Hoare.
In 1933 a ‘white paper’ was published by the British Parliament where there was no mention of Paralakhemundi. This put K.C. Gajapati under stress who went to London and convinced the dignitaries about his plight. After that was formed a ‘Joint Parliamentary Committee’ was to finalize the matter concerning Odisha.
In 1933, the ‘Hubback Committee’ was formed to give shape to the province of Odisha. In its report again Paralakhemundi was absent from the new province. Being frustrated K.C. Gajapati with a delegation went to Shimla in 1934 and convinced the Viceroy regarding the inclusion of Paralakhemundi in Odisha.
On Article 289 of the Government of India Act, 1935, Odisha has given the status of a separate province with the inclusion of Paralakhemundi on it. On 1st April 1936, a separate Odisha Province was created on that evening. Maharaja K.C. Gajapati hosted a grand party at Barabati fort of Cuttack.
Prime Minister Krushna Chandra and the progress of Odisha:
The first Governor of Odisha was Sir John Austin Hubback. By his invitation, K.C. Gajapati became the Prime Minister of Odisha on 1st April 1937. Again he adorned the same position from 1941 to 1944. During that, he devoted his heart and soul to the progress of Odisha. The Odisha High Court, Sri Ram Chandra Bhanja Medical College at Cuttack, Utkal University, and Rice Research Institute at Bidyadharpur of Cuttack were established.
That is why Utkal University and Berhampur University conferred on him the honorary Doctorate Degree. The Berhampur Medical College and Gajapati district have been named after him to preserve his memory. Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati was celebrating Modem Odisha. He fought the last battle of the Odias on the bank of the river. Thames in London and became successful of Modem Odisha, he is ever remembered in the annals of history.
Discuss the role of Rama Devi in the freedom struggle in Odisha.
Among the celebrated freedom fighters of Odisha, Rama Devi occupies a special position. She belonged to a rich family but the clarion call of Mahatma Gandhi promoted her to participate in the freedom struggle. She became a source of inspiration for millions of Odias. After India achieved independence, Rama Devi devoted herself fully to working for the poor destitute.
Participation in the freedom struggle :
Rama Devi had heard the coming of Gandhi to Odisha on 23rd March 1921. On the same night, Mahatma Gandhi addressed a meeting organized by the ladies at Binod Bihari at Cuttack. Rama Devi attended this meeting and presented Mahatma Gandhi with her hand spoon thread and contributed all her ornaments to the Tilak Swaraj Fund. She took a vow not to wear ornaments and to wear a khaddar saree throughout her life. She was determined to forgo all the luxuries of her life and to devote her body, mind, and soul to the freedom struggle.
Aikashram and Rama Devi:
Alakashram played a vital role in the freedom struggle in India. The National school started there. As an insider, Rama Devi cooked tiffins and meals for the inmates of the Ashram. In 1923-24, cholera spread in Jagatsinghpur. Rama Devi with other workers moved from the village and advised the people to take preventive injections and take boiled water for the eradication of Malaria in that area, she advised using quinine. She also advised people not to use intoxication. She also taught spinning and preparation of clothes to the people who came for training at, Alakashram.
Rama Devi and Civil Disobedience Movement:
The salt satyagraha was vigorous in Odisha on 13th April 1930. Acharya Harihar started the Civil Disobedience Movement at Inchudi of Balasore district. Rama Devi with Malati Devi and Kiranbala Sen reached, there and called the women of Inchudi, Srijang, Bonita, Kuligaon, Raslpur, and nearby villages and engaged them in the preparation of salt.
Later on, she went to Kujanga and queen Bhagyabati Pattamahadei to break the salt law at Kalipatna in Paradeep. Due to her active participation, the Civil Disobedience Movement in Paradeep, Ersama, Chat, Daria, and other places became quite successive.
Rama Devi and Bari Ashram :
After Alakashram was raised to the ground, ‘Rama Devi with her husband went to Bari and slayed at the Bari Ashram, Popularly known as ‘Sevaghar’. In that Ashram, Rama Devi devoted herself to the Khadi work to uplift Harijan, spread Hindi, uplift women, prohibit bee-keeping, basic education, adult education, clean of the village, and the like. She established there a maternity home, and her service in that area carved a special position for her people called her ‘Maa (mother) with love and devotion.
Gandhiji’s Padayatra Berboi conference and Rama Devi:
In March 1934 started Hariyan Padayatra in Odisha. Ram Devi participated in that and she was advised by Gandhiji to start a congress organization vigorously in Bhadrak and Rama Devi did it. Similarly, Rama Devi worked a lot in the Berboi Conference near Delang in the Puri district, which was held on 26th March 1937. It was attended by Gandhiji, Kasturba, Maulana Azad, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel, and others who appreciated the selfless service of Rama Devi.
Rama Devi and the Quit India Movement:
On 9 August 1942 began the Quit India Movement. Rama Devi actively participated in the movement. She was arrested with Gopabandhu Choudhury, Malati Devi, Manmohan Choudhtiry, Amapuma Moharana, and Sharat Chandra Maharana, Rama Devi was imprisoned in the Cuttack Jail, even inside the jail she preached about nationalism. In 1944 she was released from jail. Returning to Bari Ashram, she was again engaged in Gandhian constructive works.
Representative of various Organizations :
Rama Devi was a leader of excellence. She was a member of the ‘Seva Mandate of Wardha. She was elected as the treasurer of the All India Charakha Association! She was also a member of the Provincial Khadi Board and the all-India Women’s Association! She was also a member of ‘The all-India Kasturba Gandhi Memorial Trust.
She formed an association at Tumba ligula of Koraput named ‘Navajeevan Mandal’ in 1946 to serve the forest people. In 1947, she worked as the Vice-President of the Utkal Khadi Mandal and ‘Utkal Gandhi Smarak Nidhi’. Besides, she associated with many organizations and worked for the welfare of society.
Rama Devi, Congress session and Bhoodan Movement:
Rama Devi was an active participant in the various sessions of the Indian National Congress, she participated in the Gaya session of the Indian National Congress in 1922 and the Calcutta sessions in 1928. In 1924, she became a member of the Utkal Pradesh Congress Committee. She participated in the Bhoodan Padayatra with her husband and went to different places like Panjang, Angul, Tainsi, Brahmagiri, Ganjam, Gunapur, Ramanguda, Bisama Kataka, Bolangir, Padmapur, etc.
In 1955, she moved with Vinoba Bhave from Balasore to Koraput and became ill in 1958, the year her husband expired. Thereafter, she went to Bari and devoted herself to the welfare of the people. She also presided over the All India Sarvodya Sammilani at Padampur of Maharashtra. Rama Devi was really a mother in every sense of the term. She had sacrificed all her wealth at the altar of the country. Due to her less work, she carved a special position in the heart of millions of people. Her graceful figure is preserved in the heart of every Odia.
Discuss the role of Salara Devi in the freedom struggle in Odisha.
The contribution of Salara Devito to the freedom struggle is unforgettable. She had joined the freedom movement on the inspiration of her husband. Being inspired by the thought of Mahatma Gandhi, Sarala Devi became instrumental in popularizing the Indian National Congress in Odisha. She was imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience Movement. She devoted herself to the uplift of the Harijans. Through her literacy creations, she enriched Odia literature.
Sarala Devi Congress Sessions and the Non-Co-operation Movement:
In 1921 Salara Devi participated with her husband in the Nagpur session of the Indian National Congress. She had brought the message of the Non-Cooperation Movement as the first lady to Odisha. After Gandhiji’s address to the women at Binod Bihari, she was inspired a lot. The call of Gandhiji fasting took place in the country during the Non¬Cooperation Movement from 6 April to 13 April 1921.
Sarala Devi observed fasting for the week. She collected money for the Tilak Swaraj fund by moving from village to village. She distributed spinning wheels to the village and taught them to spin.
Sarala Devi and the Civil Disobedience Movement:
Sarala Devi played an important role in the Civil Disobedience Movement in Odisha. She went to Inchudi and helped the women there with the preparation of salt. By her influence, many people ofLakshmipur, Pallibandha and Huma joined the Salt Satyagraha in Ganjam. Being inspired by her speech, Kulalata Devi of Ghumsar contributed her ornaments to the national fund.
While preaching against the British Government, she was arrested by the police and produced before Chhatrapur court and got six months imprisonment. She was the first lady to go to jail by the order of the court. The Udyog Mandi which was established at Berhampur to train the Satyagraha is impetus by her presence.
After her release from jail, she was welcomed by people at Cuttack Railway Station and a meeting was organized under the leadership of Binapani Devi to facilitate her. In that meeting, the Union Jack was burnt. Thousands of people attended that meeting.
Sarala Devi and no tax campaign :
A part of the Civil Disobedience Movement was not to pay taxes to the British Government. The people of Srijang of Balasore and other places of Odisha, people did not pay tax to the British Government inspired by the speech of Sarala Devi. Due to picketing the people could not get taxes and suffered losses. On the other hand, she preached in favor of the spinning wheel and khaddar and popularized the Swadeshi Movement in Odisha.
Sarala Devi and the Creation of Separate Odisha Province :
In the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress. Sarala Devi persuaded Mahatma Gandhi to form the formation of Odisha province on a linguistic basis. Of course, Mahatma Gandhi did not take any steps in this regard. However, Sarala Devi boldly presented this proposal before Gandhiji. This shows her love for Odisha and Odia language.
Sarala Devi and the Quit India Movement:
Gandhiji selected Sarala Devi as the women leader to start the Quit India Movement in Odisha. While delivering her speech against the British, she was imprisoned and sent to jail. She remained inside the jail for three years. During that period, she gave birth to a son. She also chalked out a program inside the jail with other prisoners on how to quit English from India. This shows her love for the motherland.
Sarala Devi Gandhian Constructive works and Uplift of Harijan :
Sarala Devi popularized Gandhian constructive works like women’s education, uplifting of women, eradication of untouchability adoption of Swadeshi, prohibition, etc. in Odisha. She devoted herself to the uplift of Harijans. She had given a proposal to the Odisha Government to provide education to Harijans and give them jobs.
She had advised the Government to open agricultural banks and land mortgage banks for protecting the Harijans from the clutches of money lenders. Through her effort, the Odisha Government built hosted at Cuttack for the stay of the Harijans.
Works for the Peasants :
Sarala Devi was very sympathetic to the cause of the peasants. She could know about the peasants during the Kanika rebellion of 1921-22. In 1937, she delivered a talk at Delang. There he spoke against ‘Bethi’ (forced labor). This speech was directed against the Zamindari system of Delang. During that period, if a farmer failed to pay revenue to the Zamindar, he was tortured by the latter.
She advised the government in many, meetings to take steps against the Zamindars and also to look after the peasants by helping them to increase their property. In fact, Sarala Devi was an ideal woman. She played an important role in populating the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi in Odisha. Her works for Harijans, peasants women, and common people were praiseworthy. That is why she is ever remembered by the people of Odisha.
Discuss the role of Malati Devi in the freedom of Odisha.
Malati Devi is one of the much-talked freedom fighters of Odisha. Although she was a Bengalee, after marrying Naba Krushna Choudhury. She devoted her body, mind, and soul to the freedom struggle in Odisha. Her role in the Prajamandal Movement was to work for the farmers to keep her alive in the memory of Odisha.
Anakhia Ashram and Malati Devi:
On the way to Jagasinghpur at Anakhia, Nabakrushna Choudhury established an Ashram, Malati Devi remained there and collected workers by moving from village to village. With the guidance of Malati Devi, Naba Babu, and Gauranga Charan Das, the Harijans of Bhagalpur launched a movement against the high-caste Hindus. This movement effaced the difference between the Harijans and the costliest Hindus. From this movement began the political career of Malati Devi.
Malati Devi and Salt Satyagraha :
Malati Devi took active in the Salt Satyagraha at Inchudi of Balasore district. She had worked there with Rama Devi, Kiranbala Sen, and others. Through her influence, many women joined the Civil Disobedience Movement at Inchudi and prepared salt. She also encouraged the women at Srijang to participate in the movement.
She also encouraged the women at Kujanga who joined the movement with their Queen Bhaggabati Pattamahadei. Her fiery speech dragged the women from the four walls of the house who actively participated in the Salt Satyagraha.
Malati Devi and Monkey Brigade :
Malati Devi played a vital role in the boycott of foreign goods and prohibition. During picketing before shoes sold foreign goods by the women, the children of 14 or 15 years replaced them. The police cared about their palms. Malati Devi with other women dressed the children and fed them with love and care while picketing before Victoria High School on 20 September 1930.
Malati Devi was arrested by the police and at first, kept at Cuttack jail and then transferred to Bhagalpur jail with her daughter. While in jail she encouraged the prisoners to sing the song of Swaraj.
Malati Devi, Karachi session of the Congress and other works :
Malati Devi attended the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress where it was decided that the next session will be held at Puri. To make the Puri session successful, the Hindustani Seva Dal was formed and as its worker, Malati Devi was the first from Odisha to receive training. Returning to Cuttack she enrolled many women and members of this Seva Dal. In 1940 when Gandhiji decided to continue individual Satyagraha, he selected the name of Malati Devi.
Formation Congress Socialist Party :
In the meanwhile, the same Congress workers wanted to form a new party being separated from the National Congress. In Odisha at Anakhia Ashram, Nabakrushna Choudhury and Malati Devi with other workers formed the ‘Utkal Congress Socialist Party’. It was not antithetical to the National Congress, rather it was formed to do much good to the peasants.
Malati Devi and Gandhian Constructive Programme :
Malati Devi played an important role to popularise the Gandhian constructive program inside Odisha. On 30 April 1930, she delivered a fiery speech inspiring the people to boycott foreign clothes. Inspired by her, the cloth merchants of Cuttack did not sell foreign goods.
She moved a resolution in the Congress worker’s meeting at Sambalpur in 1946 regarding the steps to be undertaken for the upliftment of Harijans which was unanimously passed. In 1927, she had taken step with her husband for the improvement of agriculture. She constructed the ‘Baji Rout Hostel’ at Angul and taught its inmate’s Gandhian constructive works.
Malati Devi, Quit India Movement and Other Works :
While returning after attending the Bombay session of the National Congress where the ‘Quit India Resolution’ was passed. Malati Choudhury was arrested at the Cuttack Railway Station. She was sent to jail. She was released in 1945. In 1946, she traveled with Mahatma Gandhi in the Noakhali area of West Bengal to pacify the communal riot. Which had taken place among the Hindus and Muslims. In the same year, she was elected as a member of the Constituent Assembly.
Evaluate the role of Malati Devi in various movements.
Malati Devi wanted the round progress of peasants. In 1933 she in association with her husband formed the ‘Utkal Congress Socialist Workers Union’ and donated all her ornaments to this Union. On behalf of this union, a magazine titled ‘Sarathi’ was published and Malati Devi was regularly writing in this magazine reflecting the problems of the workers.
She herself also edited one magazine named ‘Kousaka’. At different places in Odisha, she had addressed the farmer’s gatherings. She tried her level best for the all-around development of the peasants. She also formed the ‘Utkal Congress Socialist Workers Association’ and tried her best for its development.
Malati Devi and Prajamandal (Garjat) Movement:
The Gaijin Movement at Dhenkanal, Talcher, Nilgiri, and other places was galvanized by Malati Devi. She with her husband and a great communist leader, Bhagabati Charan Panigrahi organized many secret meetings in different Garjat areas and encouraged them to become free from the clutches of their rulers. She published a pamphlet titled ‘Ranaveri’.
Sarangdhar Dal also joined with her to organize the Prajamandal Movement at Dhenkanal and Baji Rout, a boy of twelve years breathed his last in the police bullet. The then Superintendent of Police (CID) informed the Govt, that Malati Devi was running a camp of the rebellious people at Budhapank but she could not be arrested because there was no sufficient proof against her. In memory of Baji Rout, he constructed Baji Rout Hostel at Angul.
Malati Devi and Bhoodan Movement:
Malati Devi was inspired by Vinoba Babe and actively participated in the Bhoodan Movement in Odisha. She established ‘Navajeevan Mandal’ at Angul where the meeting of ‘All India Sarvodaya Seva Sangha’ was held. She preached about Bhoodan Movement at Koraput in 1952. She also participated in Vinoba’s padayatra in Odisha in 1955. She composed poems in Odia which were sung by the women during the padayatra.
Malati Devi and Other Works :
In 1975 emergency was declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Malati Devi organized a meeting at Cuttack and vehemently opposed it. She printed pamphlets against it and while distributing those pamphlets, she was booked under the ‘National Security Act’. From 1977 to 1983, Malati Devi devoted herself to the upliftment of the tribal people. She persuaded them to retrain from taking liquor, opium, and other intoxicants.
She worked selflessly for the eradication of leprosy. She refused to accept the award from Jamunalal Bajaj Foundation for social service. The life of Malati Devi was dedicated to the cause of society. Although she had come from Bengal she love Odisha and worked for its people. Her dedication will be even remembered by the people of this land.
Describe the steps taken for the preparation of the Indian Constitution.
The preparation of the Indian constitution was a lengthy process. Before Independence, the Morley-Minto Reforms. Montagu Chelmsford Reforms the Govt, of India Act. 1935, the Indian Independence Act, and 1947 were some of the milestones on the Path of the Indian constitution. The constitution of India was prepared under the able guidance of Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ramji Ambedkar. It is the largest written constitution in the World. That is why it is termed as ‘Lawyers Paradise.’
Making of the Constituent Assembly :
As per the provision of the cabinet mission, it has been decided the Constituent Assembly would be formed by the election. As per the proposal, there should be 389 members. That election took place in July 1946, Out of 296 seats the Congress got 212, Muslim League 73, independent and others got 11, Manabendra Roy had first thought doast the Constituent Assembly.
A meeting of the Constituent Assembly was convened on 9 December 1946 in Delhi. It was presided over by Sri Sachidatianda Sinha of Bihar. On 11 December 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as its permanent chairman. Almost all the leading members of the time were members of the Constituent Assembly.
Some of the prominent them included Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, K.M. Munshi, and others. However, Mahatma Gandhi who struggled, to achieve independence kept himself away from it.
Different Committees :
The Constituent Assembly began to work in a democratic way. Several committees were framed to give expert opinions for the forming of the constitution. Those were:
- Rules of Procedure Committee
- Finance and Staff Committee
- Credential Committee
- Steering Committee
- Hindi Translation Committee
- Orders of Business Committee
- House Committee
- Union Powers Committee
- Union Constitution Committee
- Committee on Financial Rights between the Union and States etc.
All these committees guided the Constitution Assembly in framing the constitution.
For preparing a draft constitution the Drafting Committee was framed. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar presided over it. Besides him, N. Gopalswami Ayanagar, A. K. Ayar, Saiyyad Mohammad Saadulla, T. T. Krishnamachari, D. P. Khaitan, and many others were its members. Dr. B. N. Ray acted as the Chief. Constituent Advisor to this committee. This committee submitted its report (draft) to the Constituent Assembly on 21 February 1948.
Session of the Constituent Assembly :
The Constituent Assembly worked from 9 December 1946 to 16 November 1949. It worked for 2 years 11 months and 17 days. There was a total of 11 sessions and its meeting lasted for 165 days. On the Draft Constitution, the discussion was held for 114 days. Out of the laid down 7,635 proposals, 2,473 were discussed and necessary corrections were made. In the draft constitution, there were 395 Articles 8 schedules. This constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949. It was accepted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 January 1950.
Vision (Objectives) of the Constitution :
The objectives or vision of the constitution were:
- In order to make India independent. Sovereign Republic, a constitution will be framed.
- Taking together the Indian provinces, the territories liking to remain with India and the British dominion, a sovereign union of states will be created,
- All the powers to rule India will originate from the Indians.
- The Indians will be given freedom in the field of social, economic, and political justice, equal opportunity and equality before the law, profession, faith, service association and religion,
- protection to minorities, downtrodden, neglected and tribals,
- The water land and air of India will be protected.
- This old state will get its proper place in the world and will endeavor for the welfare of men and will try to preserve world peace.
Those proposals were novel for Indians. The basic objectives of the constitution have been reflected in it. Nobody can dispute our territory. The objectives since their adoption, have been given much more importance by the Indians. This is the reflection of the nationalism of the Indians.
The preamble is regarded as the preface ofthe constitution. It reads ‘We The People Of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign. Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure its citizens. Justice, social, economic, and political Liberty of thought, expression faith, and worship. Equality of status and opportunity and to promote among them all.
Fraternity, assuring the individual and unity and integrity of the Nation:
In Our Constituent Assembly, this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do hereby Adopt, Enact And Give To Ourselves This constitution. The 42 Amendment Act, 1976 has added the words ‘Socialist, Secular and Unity and Integrity of the Nation have been added to the preamble.
Throw light on the salient features of the Indian Constitution.
The salient features of this constitution are :
The Longest Written Constitution :
Ivor Jenning, the constitutional expert of Great Britain had expressed the view that the Indian Constitution is the longest-written constitution in the world. It consists of 395 articles, 12 schedules, and 122 amendments. Of course, many articles are being added to it from time to time but the number of articles remains at 395. Due to its vastness, it has been termed the ‘Lawyers Paradise’.
Parliamentary form of Government:
The Indian constitution provides a particular form of government. It provides two heads- a nominal and a real. The president of India is the nominal head of India and the Prime Minister is the real head. This has given a real balance between the power of the nominal head and the real head. The parliamentary form of Government had been adopted by following the India Acts of 1919 and 1955.
The balance between rigidity and flexibility :
Indian constitution strikes a balance between rigidity and flexibility. A flexible constitution can be amended easily. In the case of a rigid constitution, it is very difficult to amend it. Certain provisions of the Indian Constitution can be amended by a simple majority in both the Houses of Parliament.
However, certain provisions of the Indian Constitution require a rigid procedure like the presence of a majority of the total majority and a majority of not less than two-thirds of members present and voting in each House of Parliament. This is a peculiar provision of the Indian Constitution.
Fundamental Rights :
Part III of the Indian Constitution contains certain Fundamental Rights for the people of India. Originally they were seven in number but ‘The right to Property’ has been abolished by the 44 Amendment Act of 1978. Pandit Nehru called the Fundamental Rights the conscience of the constitution.
Those Fundamental Rights are :
- Right to Equality (Article 14-18)
- Right to Freedom (Articles 19-22)
- Right against Exploitation (Articles 23-24)
- Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28)
- Educational and Cultural Rights (Articles 29 & 30)
- Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article – 32).
The Supreme Court preserved the fundamental rights of the citizens by the Habeas Corpus Mandamus, Qiiowarranto, Prohibition, and Certiorari.
Single Citizenship :
Indian Constitution provides for single citizenship. Here, any individual who resides in India is an Indian. The constitution never recommends Double citizenship like an American citizen of the country and a citizen of the concerned state, Here, in India, no state can give citizenship to any Indian. By birth, he is a citizen of India.
Directive Principles of State Policy :
Part IV of the Indian Constitution contains some social and economic rights for the people of India. They can not be enforced by a court of law. From the beginning, the Fundamental Rights were superior to the Directive principles, but now the reverse is true. It is because fundamental rights are the rights of the individual while Directive Principles of state policy are the Right of the Society. These state policies cannot be challenged in a court of law, unlike fundamental rights.
Fundamental Duties :
The Fundamental Duties are a unique poet of the Indian constitution. Those are:
- To abide by the constitution and respect the national flag and national anthem,
- To cherish the noble ideals which inspired our struggle for freedom,
- To uphold fi sovereignty, unity, and integrity of the country,
- To defend the country and render national service when called on to do so.
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and have compassion for living creatures,
- To develop scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard public property and abjure violence,
- To strive to achieve excellence in all spheres of individual and collective life so that the nation makes progress.
Single integrated Judiciary :
The Indian constitution provides a single integrated Judiciary. The courts, roughout India, either in the center or state follow the procedure of law for all. This is unique m India. This shows that the framers of the constitution had put emphasis n c duality of law and equal procedure of law.
Our constitution makes India a secular state. The state is neutral in the matter of religion. The citizens of India have the right to profess, practice, and propagate any religion they like no religious institution can be imparted in any educational institution.
Democratic Constitution :
Indian constitution is a democratic constitution. Article 326 confers Universal Adult Franchise on the citizens. A person who has attended the age of 18 has the right to vote. A person can elect his representatives who rule on behalf of the people. These representatives remain responsible to the people. The people can also reject him in elections if he does not care for the welfare of the people. Starting from Gram Panchayat all are governed in a democratic way through the election.
A basic salient feature of the Indian constitution is federalism. A federal state exhibits four features – a written constitution, dual polity, distribution of power, and an independent and impartial judiciary. The Indian constitution has provided all these features. Thus federalism has been preserved with all its splendors by the Indian constitution.
The preparation of the Indian constitution was a glorious chapter in the history of India. The Indian constitution is the greatest democratic constitution in the World. This constitution preserves democratic values. For centuries to come, it will inspire and guide the people of India on a democratic and secular path.