Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 4 Method of Teaching Geography Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching Geography Questions and Answers
Long Type Questions With Answers
Discuss the aims and objectives of teaching Geography.
Every subject of study has certain important aims and objectives. The aims and objectives greatly influence the learning experience. The method of teaching and the evaluation tools and techniques are used in the teaching-learning process. Man wants to know more and more about the vast domain and of all school subjects. Geography is the only subject that can give him a picture and an explanation of the world and its various features.
Geography can be defined as the physical, social science which describes maps and seeks to explain the relations between man and his physical environment. On the other hand, it deals with the physical environment as well as the cultural environment. Geography as a school subject has some specific aims. Geography also helps in the attainment of the objectives of education in general. The objectives of geography teaching are discussed below,
Development of child intellect:
Geography has a place in one’s intellectual development. The mental process of observation etc. is developed and directed in the proper direction through the study of Geography. Geography is the science of observation and understanding of the physical as well as the social environment in which one lives. He requires geographical knowledge by observing various maps, models, globes, photographs, drawings, and all other teaching aids. So geography develops the powers of observation of the child.
Geography aims at putting in the child’s mind an impression of the entire world. It is not possible to see everything in every place but the child can imagine many aspects of the world by studying maps, globes, charts, slides, films, etc. So geography tries to develop the power of imagination of the child. The child has to remember the names of many places, countries, and geographical features. So geography aims at developing, the memory power of the students.
Enrichment of knowledge:
A study of geography includes various physical phenomena, various geographical concepts such as valleys, deltas, deserts, islands, lakes, longitude, and latitude, etc. Thus, students know and understand the meaning of such terms and concepts which are large in number. This enriches their vocabulary and knowledge. Besides this, the students know the use of various geographical instrument as a rain gauge, barometers, thermometers, etc.
Inculcation and development of geographical attitudes:
The modem concept of education does not delimit itself in the acquisition of factual information rather it aims at the inculcation and development of proper attitude. Geography aims at the inculcation and development of proper geographical attitudes in the child through various teaching-learning experiences and activities. The child arrives, at the truth only after analyzing and verifying the cause-and-effect relationship of any natural phenomenon.
Development of the power of appreciation :
A geography student appreciates the beauty of nature which might cultivate a sense of responsibility care and pass time with the child. The natural scenery develops the power of imagination in the child and the child very often expresses his imagination in the form of power and pictures.
Development of intelligent citizenship:
Geography helps the child to become a responsible citizen.
Development of international understanding :
While studying about the different people of the world, the child knows the contribution of each nation towards world culture. He can realize the interdependences of making and able to understand the differences in the physical characteristics of the people of the world are due to the differences in their physical environments. He feels that international cooperation and understanding are essential for a peaceful world.
Development of the knowledge of geographical words and symbols:
Geography has its own language, specific symbols are used in globes and maps to represent specific objects. The students can understand many difficult geographical concepts by studying those worlds and symbols. So geography also aims at developing the skill of drawing and using maps and charts.
Integration of knowledge:
Integration of knowledge is possible by correlating geography with other subjects like history, literature, social science, etc.
Enrichment of travel experience:
Travel is more meaningful to developing the knowledge of the geography of the place of travel.
Discuss the direct observation method of teaching geography with its advantages and disadvantages?
Direct observation helps the child to acquire first-hand knowledge. In this method, the children gather information on various geographical materials such as rivers, mountains, valleys, agricultural land, industries, etc by visiting such places on excursions. the method suggests that education is not confined to the four walls of the classroom. The students are acquainted with their environment and acquire knowledge about the place and materials having geographical importance. There a field trip on an excursion is often called an outdoor lesson.
The direct observation method has the following advantages :
It gives direct experiences to the students. They enjoy true geography by observing the places and materials of geographical importance. They acquire true knowledge. The knowledge acquired through direct observation is complementary to that gained from textbooks.
Education becomes lively and interesting to students when they observe when they read. The students become interested and imaginative. This provides motivation to the students to read geography. Qualities like patriotism, cooperation, national integration, leadership, etc. are developed through direct observation.
Very often students become indisciplined when they are taken outside to observe. Sometimes the parents and guardians do not permit their children to go out on study tours. The observation is obstructed. Something heavy expenditure is essential for arranging field trips and tours. Observation of the materials and places that are far away is very difficult and even sometimes not practicable.
Discuss the discussion method in teaching geography?
There is a method in which the ideas of many pupils concerning a topic are gathered through discussion, both group and class discussion can be made use of by an encouraging and sympathetic teacher. Many geography topics related to the experience and conversations of the pupils can conveniently use this method. The geography teacher can conveniently use this method. He can use the method in combination with another method.
The most important advantage of this method is as follows. It helps the teacher to know more about the background of the pupils. It is helpful for promoting better participation of pupils. It helps the teacher to make the class more lively, active, and interesting. It encourages group thinking. It develops leadership qualities and responsibilities. Pupils are allowed and encouraged to put forward their viewpoints frankly.
The effectiveness of the discussion method- depends on the following factors:
- Age level and abilities of the students
- Subject matter
- Experience and skill of the teacher.
Role of the teacher :
The teacher has to play an important role in this method. His specific function is to introduce the subject. Allowing time for the group warm-up and keeping the discussion from deviation. Maintaining the spirit of the member high by encouraging informality case of discussion and humor. Observing the students in the discussion technique. Creating the proper climate for the interchange of the idea.
Discuss the method of assignment of teaching Geography?
In the scope of education taking care of the individual child, the method employed is an assignment. In this method, the children are given full freedom. The children are divided into different smaller groups and given independence to continue their work. The assignment is done in the process of the experiment. Dalton worked out the assignment as experimentally in this school.
In this method, the annual course is divided into each month. It is also divided into weekly wise. In the assigned method, the teaching of geography is very much helpful. The assignment is given by the teacher by dividing the main subjects. The teachers solve the poem by writing. It helps not only, in the expansion of knowledge but also helpful.
The assignment is classified into the:
- Preparatory assignment
- Study assignment
- Recapitulatory assignments
- Corrected assignment
The school assignment method is equivalent to the home assignment Still there is a difference between the school assignment and the home assignment. In this assignment method, the teacher is the director, guide, and assist the children. How far the students become successful in assignments, the teacher prepares a map to see the assignment every week.
Advantages of the assignment method:
For the assignment method, there should be a good library and workshop at the school. Assignment totally depends on clear thinking and so the workshop and library will be helpful to them. There is a need for pre-knowledge to find success in the assignment method. The assignment method is attractive, and interesting and the children are very much interested to work in this method, The assignment report should be recorded.
To fulfill the aim of education, this method works. In this method, if the students execute the assignment in groups together by which the cooperation attitude develops. In this method, the children develop understanding and insight. They took an interest in re-leaming of the project or assignment. In the assignment work, the teacher should take proper care of it.
In this method, there is love and affection, and cooperation among the children. The children develop with the power of utterance language knowledge. All kinds of help are to be supplied to the pupil in the assignment. The children develop with the power of utterance and language knowledge. They become disciplined. There is no waste of time in preparing notes in the assignment method.
Disadvantages of the assignment method :
The assignment method, there are many merits. Still, the method has certain disadvantages. The method faces so many obstacles. The defects are given below. The method needs more labor. So the teacher and students have to do more labor in the method. It was time-consuming and expensive. In this method teaching in lower classes is impossible. More attention is given to this method and so the children can not achieve success in higher classes. The teaching is not done in specific steps and so the child could find no importance in this method.
Use of Audio-visual aids:
To make the assignment effective and successful so many aids and audio-visual aids and their use are helpful. In the assignment method in teaching, geography, maps, atlas, globe, world maps, and wall maps are used. The models used in the assignment method for effective teaching the aids are the most helpful.
What do you mean by a project? Explain the project method of teaching geography with its merits and demerits?
The project method is an activity and pupil-centered method. This method helps the students to explore anything of interest to them and thus gain direct experience of the creative activity and the scientific investigation. The term project is defined differently, as given below:
A project is a wholehearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment.
A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting.
A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted into the school.
Steps in project method:
Providing a situation:
The teacher has to provide an appropriate situation for the project. The teacher through his teaching and discussion should lead the students to various projects. During his discussions, the teacher should also notice the areas of interest of the pupils.
Every project should have a definite purpose. Unless the child knows the purpose he will not be very much interested in the activity. The students are to be encouraged to determine the purpose of the project with the help of the teacher. The teacher should not impose his ideas upon the children.
After determining the purpose the students are to be allowed to plan their project. Sufficient freedom is to be given to the pupils for planning the project. The teacher should only work as a guide at this stage.
In the next step, the actual education of the project takes place. During the execution, the whole team is to be divided into small groups and parts and the groups should be assigned duties according to their interest and ability. The students have to read, write and discuss many things and undertake many activities concerning the project. Thus, the child enriches himself with a wide range of experiences,
At the end of work, the pupils should evaluate their own work. They should judge the effectiveness of their activity,
According to the project, an activity should be prepared at the end of each project by the students.
Role of the teacher:
The teacher’s role is most significant in this method. The teacher should advance suggestions wherever necessary. He should have democratic attitude and a democratic atmosphere is very much The teacher’s teaching should follow systematic and psychological order so that the principles of the project are quite accessible to the pupil’s mind.
When efficiently used, this method helps in supplementary classroom activities It helps in fostering scientific thinking. It helps in inculcating a scientific attitude. It encourages group activities and develops their spirit and sense of cooperation among pupils. Individuals project provides scope for children to work independently. It helps nurture special talents in students. It helps in the development of self-confidence students in understanding scientific experiments and studies. The method helps the school to increase its resources for teaching science.
The method requires an expert teacher to be a resource and to be a guide. The pupils get superficial knowledge of many things but no proper groundwork. The method needs a well-equipped laboratory and visits. So the method is expensive. The development of the subject matter is not systematic, disorganized, or irregular. So the project sometimes failed to be successful.
What is a problem-solving method for teaching geography? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages?
Problem-solving approach pre-supposes the existence of a problem in the teaching-learning situation. A problem is an obstruction difficulty that has to be overcome to reach a goal. A problem is a situation in which he felt difficulty is realized The problem method aims at presenting the knowledge to be learned in the form of a problem. It begins with a problematic situation and consists of continuous meaningful and well-integrated activity. The problems are self to students in a natural way.
Main features of the problem-solving approach:
It is a research-like method that involves scientific thinking as a process of learning. The essential features are the following Formulation and appreciation of problems at the emergence of a problem. Collection of data or information to solve problems. Formulation of hypotheses Analysis of the data Conclusion Applying the data to a new situation.
The problem arises out of the felt need of the students. The problem must be stated clearly so that the class can understand it. The problem should possess the characteristics.
- The problem should be selected to the maturity level of the children
- The problem should be selected clearly.
- The problem should be properly delimited.
- The problem should be easy to solve.
- The problem should be valuable for the learners.
Collection of data:
After formulation and appreciation of the problem, the teacher should stimulate the students to collect data in a systematic manner from various sources. Students should be stimulated to collect data from textbooks, reference books, magazines, pamphlets, etc.
Formulation of hypothesis:
At this stage, the students should look the following regarding the solution to the problem. Selecting important factors related to the problem. Identifying the different relationships which may exist between the factors. Analyzing, selecting, and interpreting data.
Testing of hypothesis:
Checking the hypothesis with recognized authority. Devising experimental procedures suitable for testing the hypothesis. Organizing data Rechecking data for error interpretations Applying the hypothesis to the problem.
Analysis of the evidence and inferences:
Children should be taught to be scientific and reasonably ill in interpreting the data. It is essential to break the large area into different segments and then consider ways and means for analysis. Analysis of data should be accurate and up to the point.
The conclusion should be drawn by the pupils themselves and the teacher to see how far it is significant relating to the solution to the problem. Applying the idea to a new situation The students should be able to recognize the common, and identical elements in the principle of the problem and apply them in the new situation.
From the standpoint of learning principle of problem-solving is very valuable since they are the result of the cumulated and generalized experience that makes up the bases of knowledge and understanding. It is much easier to remember the facts through this method. It develops reflective thinking therefore it stimulates thinking, reasoning, and critical judgment in the students. It develops the qualities of self-dependent in the students.
It is a stimulating method that acts as a great motivator and directs the student’s attention and activity. It serves individual differences. It develops desirable study habits in the students. It is a method of experience-based learning. There is the possibility of close contact between the teacher and taught. Every student needs individual guidance from the teacher. The students get valuable social experiences patience, cooperation, and self-confidence, etc.
It is a time-consuming method. The progress of the students is, bound to be low. All topics can not be taught by this method. It is difficult to recognize the contents according to the requirements of the method. Textbooks written in the traditional style do not help in the use of this method. This method does not suit the students of lower classes. They do not possess enough background for scientific approach problems. It requires adequate resources.
Write a note on the use of the lecture method in the teaching of geography in schools. Give its merits and demerits?
The lecture method “involves teaching by means of the spoken word”. Generally, it means a formal talk by the teacher. This method may profitably be used at all stages with all classes but its success will depend upon individual teachers. This very method may be known as the Telling of the story or the conventional method with primary and lower middle classes.
It may be known as the lecture method, with higher secondary and college classes. Primary school children have no patience to listen to long talks or lectures. They are interesting stories or questions and answers. Being full of activity small children can not remain passive listeners. Their interest should, therefore, be aroused by means of questions and answers or interesting stories.
But questions in this state should be related to their environment, Children should also be encouraged to put as many questions to the teacher as possible. At higher and college stages, however, the lecture method may be safely used. But even at these stages, the lecture must not be dry. It should be a well-prepared and well-presented lecture, such as a lecture will stimulate the interest and mental activity, of the students.
They will also be prompted to ask questions at the end of the lecture which is sure proof of the success of the lecture. Generally lecturing is based on the traditional authority and is. time-honored device for imparting knowledge. But as a method for secondary school pupils, it has fallen into very ill repute. The good teacher of today is careful not to talk too much a lie does not dominate the learning process.
He assumes a major share of the responsibility for planning and guiding a number of activities, experiences, and situations which result in functional teaming for the group of pupils in his class. He carefully selects a proper technique to meet the needs, interests, and capacities of his pupils at a particular time and in particular situations. In this case, a lecture is taken as a technique of description, explanation, and clarification. After all, it must then also be useful with the same students only a year or two before they enter college provided it is used correctly.
The lecture method has the following merits. It develops the power of concentration in the students and also their power of expression, thinking, and reasoning. It is economical and saves time. It keeps both the teacher as well as the students active. Through this method, it is possible to establish direct contact knowledge between the teacher and the taught. Through this method, it is possible to elucidate difficult and complicated thoughts and ideas. This method is very useful in introducing a lesson. It also throws light on the practical aspects of education.
This method kills the liveliness of the class. It is the teacher who reigns supreme and the students remain passive partners. This method is not useful for students of the lower classes. In this method, it is the teacher who remains active while the students become passive listeners. In fact, it is the students who should be active listeners.
The knowledge that is acquired through this method is neither complex nor perfect nor stable. This method is not psychologically scientific. In this method, it is not possible to make the child the center of education. It is the subject that is the center of education while really speaking it should not be so.
In a country like India, its success may be retarded due to the good textbooks and able teachers. It is not possible on the part of the teacher to make the teaching lively This method has very little scope for evaluation and examination of the students by the teacher while he teaching them.
What are different audio-visual aids in the teaching of geography? Give examples?
The audio-visual aids make the learning of geography interesting and attractive and in the absence of those, aids, the lesson is dry and ineffective. Various types of such aids are used in teaching geography, which can be classified as follows.
Radio, Tape-record, Gramphone, etc. under this category of aids.
Globe, maps, charts, graph specimens, models, photography, slides, filmstrip, etc. belong to the category of visual aids.
The following aids are usually used in teaching geography:
A globe is a model of the earth. It gives the idea to the pupils that the earth is round. Topics like the rotation and revolution of the earth’s longitude and latitude situations of different places can be better taught to the pupils through a globe.
Maps are the most essential tools in the hands of the geography teacher. Geography teaching is incomplete and is effective in the absence of maps. Maps are helpful following ways. The pupils can learn about the situation of a state country or continent, its rivers, lakes, mountains, soil, rainfall, cities, parts, communication facilities, agriculture, industry exports, and imports.
The distance and direction of a place from another place can be known from the maps. Various kinds of maps can tease. The most common kinds of picture maps are political maps, political maps, outlines, map weather maps, vegetation maps, weather maps, sociological maps, industry maps, commercial maps, geological maps, etc.
Films can be used for sharing some purposes, such as the manufacture of cotton, modes of irrigation, the life of people in a country, etc.
Film strips and slides:
Slides and film strips can be used to show some situations or processes such as typically dressed, tribal people and a typical animal, etc.
Great importance is attached to the use of pictures in teaching geography. A picture appeals to the imagination of the pupils. Picture of different Objects and places can be used.
Charts usually give a comparative picture of anything. For example, a chart can be prepared by comparing the population of various nations.
Models are usually made of clay plaster of Paris, paper, etc. It resembles the real object, of the child. Radio, tape recorders, television, etc. are also occasionally used by the geography teacher for teaching geography.