Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 2 Fundamentals of Educational Psychology Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Foundations of Education Unit 2 Fundamentals of Educational Psychology Questions and Answers
Very Short-Answer Type Questions
Give the meaning of growth.
Growth refers to the physical sense. Growth refers to an increase in height, weight, and size. It is measurable as quantitative.
What is development?
Development is in a mental sense. It is both physical and mental aspects.
Give three natures of educational psychology.
The nature of educational psychology is as follows:
- Educational psychology deals with two facts related to educational situations.
- It helps the process of learning like memorising, perceiving, recalling, reasoning and intelligence.
- It discovers new methods and approaches in the field of education.
Give three objectives of educational psychology.
The three objectives are :
- It helps create a positive attitude towards learning.
- It helps to provide correct methods of teaching to the pupils:
- It helps to study the learner and his environment.
Discuss three features of educational psychology
Educational psychology is the application of psychology in the field of education. It is the study of human behaviour. It deals with the problems of education.
Give three distinctions of growth and development.
Growth refers to change in aspects of the body but development implies the organisation as a whole. Growth does not continue throughout life but development is a continuous process, from womb to tomb. Growth is structural and development is functional.
Give three scopes of educational psychology.
To give knowledge of the nature of the child. To present principles and techniques of learning and teaching. To give knowledge of the growth and development of the children.
Explain any three principles of development.
- The development follows a pattern, a regular step-by-step process.
- Development in intelligence correlated to physical development.
- All changes in the body are due to growth and development.
Give three factors that determine growth and development.
Maturation and learning affect growth and development. Heredity and environment always affect growth and development. Environmental factors like school, family, culture, S.E.S, and nutrition always affect growth and development.
Give three behaviours during the childhood stage.
- Friendship: Adolescents choose and make friends.
- Leadership: Leadership is an important aspect of this stage of behaviour.
- A boy-girl relationship is developed.
Short-Answer Type Questions
Explain how education and psychology are related.
Education is the modification of behaviour whereas psychology is the science of behaviour. Education helps in the physical, moral, and spiritual development of man and psychology helps in such growth. Education is a lifelong process. By psychology, there is developmental knowledge and experience in different stages of growth. Framing the aims of educational psychology helps. In the case of a child’s internal and external responses and mental analysis, psychology helps
How educational psychology is an applied science?
Educational psychology is an applied science in the sense that various psychological principles are being widely applied to the field of education. The principle of individual differences of learning by doing the self-discipline of personality, adjustment, guidance and counselling finds favour in all educational situations. The various laws of learning have made the teaching-learning process in the classroom economical and effective.
Discuss the aims of educational psychology.
The aims of educational psychology are as follows:
- To give insight to the teacher about the nature of the child.
- Enlightening the teacher with the growth and development of the child
- Imparting knowledge about principles out of methods of learning.
- Studying the control of emotions and their educational implications.
Forming differences between growth and development?
Though the terms growth and development are synonymous still there is a great distinction between the two. Growth refers to change in a particular aspect or aspect of the body whereas development implies the organisation as a whole. Growth does not continue throughout life. It stops at maturation but development is a continuous process which goes from womb to tomb.
Growth is structural and development is functional. Growth is quantitative which is measurable but development is qualitative which can not be measured but is assessed. The changes brought about by growth can be measured directly whereas changes brought about by development are difficult to be measured directly. Both growth and development are affected by heredity and environment.
Give, the nature of educational psychology.
The nature of educational psychology is as follows:
Educational psychology deals with the facts related to educational situations. Educational psychology studies the behaviour of the child in teaching learning matters. Educational psychology becomes general rules, laws and techniques in order to achieve educational objectives. Educational psychology discovers the method and approaches in the field of education. Educational psychology develops a scientific outlook.
Give the scope of educational psychology.
The following is the scope of educational psychology:
To give knowledge of the nature of the child. To give an understanding of the nature, aims and purposes of education. To present principles and techniques of learning and teaching. To give training in methods of measuring abilities and achievement in school subjects.
to give knowledge of the growth and development of the children.
How is educational psychology helpful to a teacher?
Educational psychology is helpful to a teacher and a learner in many ways. To study the most effective ways to teach, specific materials to different children. To place the learner in the best possible learning situation, independent study, large or small group instructions with one or several teachers for a given course. To estimate the optional level wage at which the subject matter should be presented. To determine what courage material is appropriate to the needs, characteristics and goals of each teamer.
Define in short educational psychology?
Educational psychology is a combination of two different words- education and psychology. Education is aimed at the modification of behaviour whereas psychology is the science of behaviour. Psychology is an applied science related to the principles and techniques of psychology to solve all the problems in education to achieve educational objectives.
Educational psychology is concerned with the child, the learning situation, the learning process and, the teacher. The teacher with the help of educational psychology becomes conscious of the content of the educational method of teaching, the nature of the child and the frame curriculum. He studies the characteristics of the child as well.
Write at least five contributions to educational psychology.
Educational psychology influences the aims of education and studies the developmental characteristics of the child. A survey of learning situations and different types of education centres is opened taking into account to individual differences. Psychology helps the teacher with new methods and techniques of teaching.
The pupils face a large number of problems at different stages of growth and development. The knowledge of psychology aids him so solve those problems. It helps in curriculum construction. It helps in evaluating learning outcomes. The psychological study helps in making provision for learning, the process for exceptional children.
What special behaviours are seen during the childhood stage?
In the late childhood stage, some special features are seen in children.
Adolescents choose and make friends with others of some age group.
As they become socially mature they develop a wide behavioural form of hard living, kindness, sympathy, emotional stability, cooperation and sacrifice.
Leadership is an important aspect of this stage of behaviour.
The boy-girl relationship is developed. There are recreational interests.
Give five distinctions of growth and development.
- Growth is structural arid development is functional
- Growth is quantitative in nature whereas development is both qualitative and quantitative.
- Growth refers to change in particular aspects of the body arid development implies the organisation of the whole body.
- Growth continues till maturation but development continues till death.
- Growth is additive in nature whereas development is both additive and subtractive.
What are the factors that determine that growth and development?
The growth and. development is affected by the factors like maturation and learning and heredity and environment. The factors influence the development of physical, moral, social intellectual and emotional abilities. Heredity is quite inclusive and affects the sex hormones, twin birth, sex and chromosomal anomalies. The environment includes a large variety of actors such as family, school culture, socioeconomic status, nutrition etc.
Give the role of the environment in growth and development.
The environment has a powerful effect on the growth and development 6f an organism. The same person may behave differently in a different environment. Moreover, different persons behave differently in the same environment. The environment which influences growth and development can be classified under two heads. Physical environment and social environment in the form of condition takes care of self-expression, play and exercise etc.
Give five objectives of educational psychology.
Some specific objectives of educational, psychology art are as follows:
It helps in creating a positive attitude towards learning. It helps to provide correct methods of teaching to the pupils. It helps to study the principles and techniques of learning. It helps to study the learner and his environment. It helps to study individual differences.
Give the nature of educational psychology.
The nature of educational psychology arc as follows:
Educational psychology deals with the facts related to educational situations. Educational psychology studies the behaviour of the child in teaching-learning situations. It helps the process of learning like memorizing, perceiving recalling, reasoning and intelligence. It studies the instincts and drives, habits and attitudes, emotions and sentiments and personality. It discovers new methods and approaches in the feels of education.
Long Type Questions With Answers
What is psychology? What is educational psychology? How it is derived? Give its meanings.
Psychology i$ a mind’ and mental process. It is also that part of philosophy which studies the mind and mental process as a positive science. In the beginning, it was the part of philosophy known as mental philosophy. The word Psychology is derived from two greek words ‘psyche and Logos’ in which ‘Psyche’ means ‘soul’ and ‘logos’ means ‘to study’ or ‘science of’.
Therefore, Psychology means the science of the soul. Such a definition was put. forward by the Greek philosopher Plato and Aristotle. But such a definition of psychology was discarded, Soul is a metaphysical idea. It can neither be perceived nor imagined. The nature and function of the soul cannot be studied. Scientific methods like observation and experimentation in psychology.
On this ground, the definition that psychology is the science of the soul’ has been rejected. Psychologists like Descartes defined psychology as the ‘science of the mind’. It is also supported by Aristotle, But the word ‘mind’ is as vague and ambiguous as soul. The mind is not a, part of human anatomy. It is nothing but an assembly of ideas.
It stands for the private, personal and internal experience of a man like pleasures and pain, wishes and images, dreams arid desires. No two psychologists agree on the such definition of mind. Moreover, that definition of psychology had been rejected and discarded by other psychologists.
The psychologists like Descartes and Mc. Dougall could not agree with the mind’s definition of psychology. Sir William James put forward another definition of ‘psychology. “Psychology is the science of consciousness”. But the mental life is not only conscious but also there are unconscious and sub-conscious mental levels.
These conscious and subconscious mental levels also affect and influence the behaviour of men and animals in various ways without our knowledge and consciousness. Our conscious mental, functions cannot be fully explained without the help of unconscious and sub-conscious mental processes. Consciousness constitutes only a part of our mental life and it does riot include animal, behaviour.
Therefore, psychology is the science of consciousness is an incomplete definition which it is discarded and rejected by modem psychologists. Again, psychology has also been defined as the ‘science of experience’. This is out and out a subjective definition as it does not take Into consideration outward or external behaviour into account.
Experience is what a man feels internally during any activity. Psychology deals with both inward and outward activities, experiences and behaviours, So the definition is also incomplete. J.B. Watson, the American psychologist, and the founder of the school of behaviourism put forward the latest definition of psychology, “Psychology is the science of behaviour”.
Behaviour means actions and activities. J .B. Watson and other behaviourists wanted to make psychology an objective science and so they rejected experience as the subject matter of psychology. Psychology is a positive science of behaviour with two scientific methods – objective observation and experiment.
Meaning of Educational Psychology:-
Psychology is applied in the field of education with principles and techniques to the development of educational practices and solutions to educational problems like wastage and stagnation, and dropouts. So educational psychology is the science of engineering concerned with the application of psychological principles, the practical problems in the field of education.
Other Definitions of Educational Psychology:
To support the definition of psychology put forward by J.B.Watson, some other modem psychologists advanced some other supporting definitions, as follows:-
- Me Dougall- “Psychology is the positive science of human conduct and behaviour”.
- Woodworth- “Psychology is the science of the activities of the individual in relation to the environment”.
- Skinner – Educational psychology – deals with the behaviour of human beings in educational situations.
- Tro – Educational psychology is the study of the psychological aspect of educational situations.
- Pillsbury – “Psychology is the science of human behaviour”.
- Nunn – “Psychology is the positive science of experience and behaviour”.
What are the aims and objectives of educational psychology? Give its nature.
The aims and objectives of educational psychology are as follows- Educational psychologists assist a teacher to give an insight into the nature of the child. To enlighten the teacher with the growth and development of the child, the developmental process. It helps the teacher in finding ways and means of social adjustment for the child.
A study of the psychological method of investigation is used in the field of educational psychology. It helps to control the emotions of the child and their emotional development. It imparts knowledge about the principles and methods of learning. It helps to understand the social problems of the children.
It helps to plan the education of children to their age, ability and aptitude. Imparting knowledge to the teacher about the latest problem in education, the latest development in the field of education, the field of child psychology and various methods of teaching.
Helping the teaching in solving the problems that may arise in the classroom.
Nature of Educational Psychology:
Educational psychology is a positive science but not a normative science like logic and ethics. It always deals with the facts that are happening. It studies the laws of children’s nature as they are or as they operate. It has nothing to do with “ought to be”. It has scientific investigation and application.
It is an applied science:
Educational psychology is an applied science. It constitutes the application of psychological principles and techniques in the development of educational practices and programmes and in the study of educational problems. It acts as an applied science.
As a social science:
Educational psychology acts as a social science because educational findings are applicable to all individuals. As a social science, it studies the behaviour of human beings in all activities. It also studies both the social individual and the interaction.
A practical science:
Educational psychology is practical in nature because the educator makes use of the knowledge of, the educational psychology of each and every walk of teaching and learning situations.
A growing and developing science:
Educational psychology is a growing and developing science new facts and principles also come about from human nature and behaviour a number of researches in the field of education. So educational psychology as a science is ever-growing and developing.
An academic discipline:
Educational psychology is an academic discipline. It is a science which is focussing on human behaviour and its result can be generalised into the principles theories.
Discuss the scope of Educational Psychology.
The word ‘Scope’ means the range extent and limitations of the study of what is to be included in the study of a particular subject of the subject matter. The scope of educational psychology is very vast, and wide because it studies human behaviour under various conditions from birth to death.
The scope of educational psychology centres around” the learner- developmental characteristics, individual differences, intelligence, personality and mental health of the teacher and students. It deals with the learning process, motivation in learning, and factors affecting learning and the evaluation of learning performances, in conducting research on educational problems.
Some of the scopes of educational psychology are as follows:
It studies human behaviour in all educational situations in the various stages of growth and development, and the characteristics of each stage are included in the study of educational psychology.
Growth and development:
Educational psychology is a psychological process study, the growth and development of a child. How a child passes through the various stages of growth like infancy, childhood and puberty and what the characteristics of each stage can be included in the study of educational psychology.
Educational psychology as-a a psychological process it studies the laws of learning. Learning is a major phenomenon in education. It studies how learning can take place most effectively and economically.
Heredity and Environment:
To what extent do heredity and environment contribute towards the growth of individuals and how knowledge can be made used for bringing about the optimum development of the child, It studies the heredity and environment of the child for better learning achievement.
The scope of educational psychology also includes the study of the nature of intelligence as well as its measurement. The teacher educator handles educational psychology to measure. The intelligence of the child.
Every individual child differs from others in physical and mental aspects. The learning experience differs in the same manner. Educational psychology deals with the nature of learning, laws in learning, principles and theories of learning, remembering and forgetting, perceiving, concept formation, thinking and realising process, problem-solving, transfer of learning, and training ways and means of effective earning etc.
The learning situation:
Educational psychology deals with the environmental, factors and learning situations which come between the learner and the teacher. Topics like classroom climate and group dynamics, techniques and aids which facilitate learning situations, techniques and practices, guidance and counselling etc. which help in the smooth functioning of the teaching-learning process come under the scope of educational psychology.
How the knowledge of psychology is helpful to a teacher in the teaching-learning process? Explain. Discuss the application of educational psychology helpful in the teaching-learning process. Explain.
Educational psychology is helpful to a teacher to guide the process of education and the knowledge of psychology helps the teacher to realise the objective of effective teaching and educating the pupils properly. The knowledge of psychology helps the teacher in the below following ways.
Understanding the child:
It has been recognised that the teacher can truly teach the child only when he possesses the knowledge of child psychology. The teacher must know how children think, what are their interests of various stages of development and how their energies can be utilised for educational purposes. All modifications in the technique of teaching are really the growing application of the knowledge of psychology in the process of teaching and learning.
To understand the developmental characteristics:
The human child passes through different stages of development as infancy, childhood and adolescence. Each stage has its unique characteristics. A teacher possessing knowledge of these characteristics can profitably apply them to properly educate his pupils.
To understand, individual differences:
No two individuals are alike even though maybe twins. We find individual differences in body structures, achievement, intelligence, personality, interests, and attitudes of children, A teacher must be responsible for determining such individual .differences. The teacher can adopt different methods of instruction, curricular and means of evolution for individual interests.
To develop knowledge of the learning process:
All education depends upon the learning of new responses and the capacity of a human child to learn new responses. Psychology analyses different aspects of the process of learning. It tells us that learning is impossible if the learner does not cooperate in the learning process. The problem of teaching then takes the form of a psychological problem. Incentives like illustrative aids in the classroom and general maxim of the teaching area all are based on sound psychological theory.
To understand the relative importance of heredity and environments :
The heredity and environment of the child determine his growth and development, his personality and his learning process, intelligence, interest and attitude. The body structure is determined by heredity whereas other factors like intelligence, personality interest and attitude are determined by the environment. So, teachers should create environments for the healthy development of their pupils.
For constructing a balanced curriculum educational psychology is helpful to a teacher. The needs of the child, his developmental characteristics, interests, attitudes etc. are some of the essential factors that should be taken into consideration while framing the curriculum.
Planning methods of education:
Psychology is also helpful to a teacher planning methods of education in such a manner – that there is no problem with motivation. Modem methods of teaching like project methods help to achieve educational goals. Separate methods of instruction should be adopted for gifted or bright children, average children and slow learners. The knowledge of educational psychology equips the teacher with all these effective methods of teaching.
The knowledge of educational psychology helps teachers to develop and try out tools and devices for measuring various variables which affect the child’s behaviour. He can control, direct and predict the behaviour of students on the basis of action research in the classroom.
What do you mean by growth and development? Bring the difference between G and D.
Growth and Development: Growth means it is in a physical Sense. When and after the birth of a human baby, we make a number of changes in-bodily parts gradually, which is seen in the increase in height, weight, and body size. Such changes in the structure of the body of the child are known as growth. Structural change is the result of rapid cell divisions in the body.
At different stages of growth, a number of physical changes take place in the child. Development implies changes in bodily functions. As the body grows there is gradual progress in the movements. The child starts to swing his hands and legs. He is able to sit wait and run to and throw many things. The child starts to walk, to think, to express emotions like laughter, anger mid fear.
Thus, all the changes in the functions of different parts of the body and mind are the features of this development. So development is a progressive series of functional changes in a child and such changes lead the child towards maturity. So development is in a mental sense, the mental powers, mental ability. There is the power of concept formation, thinking, reasoning and power judgement.
Difference between growth and development:-
Growth and development seem to be synonym terms but in a strict sense there is a gulf of difference between the two, as follows:
Growth implies quantitative changes in bodily structures. Such changes can be expressed in some quantitative terms like metres (height), and kilograms (weight). On the other hand, development is qualitative in nature. All aspects of development like the development of motor activities: language, thinking, and emotions cannot be expressed in numerical measures.
So growth is structural and quantitative in nature but development is functional and both qualitative and quantitative in nature. Growth refers to changes in particular aspects of the body but development implies the organisation of the body as a whole. Growth continues for a specific period called physical maturation. But development continues throughout life.
For example, after the age of 25, there is no growth but development continues till death. Growth is always additive in nature which means adds something to the structure of the body, So it proceeds in the forward direction only. But development is both additive and subtractive in nature and may add new features and eliminate some old features to improve the quality of body functions.
Explain the general principles of growth and development.
Various studies and research have highlighted certain significant principles underlying the process of growth and development.
The development follows a pattern:
If we take any dimension of growth and development we will find a particular pattern of growth. In physical development, in the cephalo-caudal sequence, the development proceeds from the head to the upper parts of the body and grows earlier than the lower parts. At birth, the head is much large compared to the adult head. Similarly, the development of movements is earlier in the upper parts of the body. The child can raise his head first with better control before he can move his chest or hand or leg.
Development proceeds from general to specific:
The child first shows general responses and then he shows specific responses to specific stimuli. For example, the new bom baby moves his whole body. If one time instead of moving one part of it. He moves his whole hand to specify one object instead of using a finger. In the emotional field, he responds through only general responses like crying to denote joy, hunger, pain or fear.
Development is a continuous process:
Development maintains continuity at a slow and regular pace. It does not take place abruptly or by leaps and bounds. All dimensions of development continue to grow gradually until they reach their maximum. For example, a child cannot speak all of a sudden and he develops speech habits through continuous efforts.
Growth is not uniform:
Different aspects of growth develop at different rates. All parts of the body can never grow at the same rate. At birth, the head is larger, about one-fourth of the body in length, But the rate of growth slows down and hands and legs grow at a faster rate. The brain reaches its maximum size at about six. Likewise, memory develops faster than creative imagination.
Most traits are correlated:
Most of the traits of growth and development are correlated which means superior in other respect, he is also found superior in other respect. A child whose intelligence is above average is also so in health size, sociability and special aptitudes. But this is not always true. We find very lean and thin boys with high intelligence but not sociable.
Individual differences in growth and development:
There are Individual differences in growth and development. No two individuals grow and develop in the same way or at the same rate. Some grow taller, some dwarf, and some become adolescents very soon. Some others develop secondary sex characteristics very soon and some get early maturation. So there is the individual difference in physical and mental characteristics.
Development is predictable:
It is impossible to predict in advance what type of development a child will follow because the rate of development of a particular child remains fairly constant. The environmental factors determine the product of maturation. But mental development cannot be predicted with some degree of accuracy.
Development is a product of heredity and environment:
Both hereditary and environment determine the growth and development of a child. Heredity is responsible for physical growth and intellectual development, whereas the environment is responsible for the intellectual, social and temperamental development of the child. Likewise, parental care, nutrition, the climate in the home and school and society are also essential for a child’s sound development. So hereditary and environment both contribute effectively maximum growth of the child.
What is physical growth? Explain the physical characteristics of growth and development.
In growth and development remarkable physical and physiological changes take place in boys and girls, Specially in adolescence period, there is rapid physical and physiological changes are seen.
Changes in height and weight:
In the infancy stage, there is rapid physical growth. The development of the body and nervous system is very fast. Almost all adolescent boys and girls show remarkable growth in height and weight. There is a rapid growth in girls from 10 to 14 years and in boys from 12 to 16 years. The mature height is attained from 13 to 20 years. Boys are in average taller than girls up to 11 years. From 12 to 15 years girls grow faster than boys. Boys are heavier than girls in all ages.
Changes in body proportion:
Human individuals differ not only in height and weight but also in body proportion as they grow. The different parts of the body mature more in one age while others attain maturity at earlier or later ages.
Changes in internal organs:
During the growth of child important changes occur in the internal organs such as the brain, muscles, skeleton and glands. The brain gradually matures with the nervous system. The skeleton becomes .longer day by day and the joints of the bone become also stronger. During the physical. growth there are glandular changes and the sex glands. The thyroid, Hymus, and pituitary also develop ill at maximum rates. The changes, in glands, affect the behaviour of adolescents, boys and girls and they also develop masculine and feminine qualities.
Change in voice:
There is a change in the voice of the boys and girls. During the stage of adolescence, the voice becomes course day by day and the voice of the adolescent girls becomes sweeter day by day.
Changes in physical activity strength:
In the childhood stage, the child remains engaged in play. He becomes physically strong. Adolescent boys and girls become physically active and they develop the ability, skill, strength and speed in doing any work or activity. Jn physical activity girls become more mature than boys. Boys are more muscular in strength. Then the girls always like adventure activities.
Growth of secondary sex qualities:
During adolescence, secondary sex characteristics are seen in both boys and girls. Hairs appear in different parts of the body and boys develop beards on their faces and menstruation starts in girls.
Development of sex:
During the stage of adolescence, both boys and girls are sexually mature. The genital organs in boys and the sex organs in girls increase. Both boys and girls develop an interest in the opposite sex and develop an interest in mutual intercourse or heterosexuality. For sex satisfaction, they practise masturbation, and both adolescent boys and girls achieve production capacity.
What is social development? What are the social characteristics seen in adolescents? Explain.
Man is a social animal. As the child grows and psychologically matured he develops gradually some of the social behaviours. Social development means the attainment of the maturity of social relationships and helps the individual for adjustment to his environment.
As the child grows to adolescence he learns the social ways of the society like customs, traditions, miners and languages, and ways of living which change his tastes, interests, and attitudes. He may develop interaction from person to person, person to group and group to group.
The social characteristics seen among adolescent boys and girls are given below:
Adolescents tend to choose friends of their own age and temperament They develop friendships based on common interests, needs and goals.
Adolescent boys and girls become socially conscious and they develop social responsibilities duties, rights and responsibilities, and obligations. In attending social programmes, they develop group loyalties. Social service attitudes are developed with them.
Adolescent boys and girls attain social maturity and they very soon develop the ability to adapt to changing situations. They become social and develop social potential ties like kindness, sympathy, tolerance, cooperation, dependability etc. They also learn sacrifice and wise judgement.
Leadership is an important aspect of social development in adolescence. The adolescent boys and girls participate in group activities and develop leadership qualities. They develop the qualities like patience, endurance, quality of domination, sincerity, hard-working, and responsibility. In schools and colleges, adolescents show their leadership in academic performances, games and sports, participating in college union elections, and organising debates, competitions, excursions and social service programmes.
Development of social, cultural, recreational, and vocational interests:
The adolescents develop an interest in attending different fairs, social functions, festivals etc. visiting religious places, running discussions on social problems and developing social awareness and interests.
The adolescents develop an interest in reading, cultural activities, attending movies, group games, and radio listening, and they also organise different hobbies like gardening, writing, photography, collection of stamps etc. which develop a recreational interest in them.
Development of social attitudes:
Social interaction determines the degree of adjustment of adolescents. Such social interaction is possible by observing different customs, organising cultural and religious ceremonies and marriage functions etc.
What is emotional growth? What are the emotional characteristics seen in adolescence? Explain.
Emotion is a feeling, a state of mind, a state of being moved or stored up. So emotion involves feelings, impulses and physiological reactions. The feelings of emotions are anger, disgust, pleasure and fear. Emotions are accompanied by physiological changes including heart and stomach problems, heartbeat, breathing and blood pressure which affect hunger, rest, sleep etc.
Such emotions are reflected with over behaviour like throwing, smiling, staring at etc. The adolescence period is marked by heightened emotions like nailbiting, tension, conflicts, quarrels with parents and teachers, and siblings with classmates. Other emotions like absent-mindedness, shyness and negativism are seen.
Emotional characteristics during adolescence:
As the child grows from childhood to adolescence his emotions become complex. Various experiences come from the environment and to the complexity of emotional development. The adolescent hides his emotions and it is difficult to understand.
Emotional feelings widened:
At adolescence, adolescents start making friends, forming groups with other taking leadership etc. and he is also emotionally attached to the group or person.
Development of tolerance:
Adolescents develop the tendency to bear and tolerate tensions, troubles, frustrations and failures in different social situations. They give emphasis to self-control and redirect their emotions in acceptable directions.
Capacity to share emotions:
The adolescents develop the ability to share with others and to love their neighbours, mates, fellow beings, and members of groups. Adolescents also derive pleasure from the achievement of their friends.
Love for freedom:
Adolescents develop a kind of inner freedom to feel, express act and behave independently which makes them rebellious and stubborn.
Tolerance of aloneness:
Adolescents at times prefer to stay alone in their homes and get pleasure from daydreaming and fantastic imagination by sitting alone for a long time.
Common emotions-during adolescence:
Love and affection :
During the period of childhood, love comes around as the object of interest but in adolescence, love is associated with relatives, peers and the opposite sex. During adolescence, love takes a sexual colour and adolescent boys and girls engage in conversations about sex and its problems.
Joy, pleasure and delight:
In adolescence period, adolescents feel joy when he is well adjusted and they also he get pleasure and delight from their achievements. He develops a feeling of superiority. He gets delighted when he gets successful in competitions, sports, debates and other such activities.
Worries and anxieties:
Worry is an imaginary fear which is caused by frequent thinking about a situation. Adolescents get worried about school work, examinations and tests, unreasonable homework, failure in competitions, and sex problems. Some other worries include lack of adjustment with parents, illness of parents and poverty of parents family problems and presence of stepmother.
Fear is formed by the child from the environment which includes fear of animals and snakes, fear of electric appliances, huge machines, deep seas and rivers, high places, strange noise and darkness etc.
Anger is the violent emotion expressed by adolescents due to the reasons like unfair treatment by teachers and parents, satirical remarks, encroachment of human rights, tasks beyond ability etc. Sometimes anger is seen in the failure of responsibility.
What is intellectual development? Give its characteristics.
Intellectual development refers to cognitive, mental, memory, reasoning, understanding, intelligence, generalisation, interpretation, language ability, conceptual ability etc. These abilities are interrelated. Intellectual development is the mental development and overall development of all those above abilities.
Characteristics of intellectual development:
Development of time senses:
As the child grows he develops the ability to differentiate, between events that are now occurring and those which have occurred in the days gone by. He is in a position to locate events in the space where they are performed. As he advances in image his ability to react in terms of recollection from the past and anticipation of the future increases.
Increase in the power of attention:
The child has the ability to utilise past experiences but with the passage of time, he acquires an increasing ability to plan out remote goals and actions. For instance, in order to advise the remote goal through the examination a child may make or prepare time table plan to study.
Increasing ability to use symbols and signs:
With the increased ability to use signs and symbols, for example, the hungry child who would stop crying only when he was actually fed a later stage ceasing crying at the sight of a milk bottle a symbol for being fed.
Increase in the development of morality:
As a child advances in age, he learns to obey certain moral norms and starts thinking in terms of good and bad. In that way, the foundations of moral character are laid in the child.
Increase in curious questions:
As a child’s age increases the questions put by him to satisfy his curiosity are more definite as compared to those put by him prior to what is it? Who has done it? Why is it so?
Increase in creative impulses:
As the child grows in age he exhibits creative impulse in another world he engages himself in making on collecting things. He creates interest and social pleasure in solving puzzle problems. In this way, he develops the power of abstract thinking.
Increasing sensory development:
Sensory development occurs during the first month of the child. It learns to make effective use of the sense and experiences. Many topics of sensations such as hardness, pain, pleasure, and the sensation of smell and sound. As it advances in age it comes to have developed sensory equipment more accurately and sharpened the power of perception, the ability to compare various sensations. Logical thinking in place of vivid memory and the ability to generalise on the basis of experience.
Increase in language development:
The crying of a child at birth is an expression of the emotion of pain and pleasure. At the age of six months, its crying stands for its recognition of the new situation. By the time he is one year of age, he utters a few words- Aa, Ba, Maa, Daa etc. and at the age of two to three years it can repeat very short sentences spoken by elders.