Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Solutions Unit 2 Perceptual Process Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Psychology Unit 2 Perceptual Process Short Answer Questions
Short-Answer Type Questions
It is also called effortful attention. When attention requires special effort on the part of the attention to attend to it, it is called voluntary attention.
Sensory stimulation arouses certain neural activities which have their trace in the nervous system. These are popularly known as neural traces.
Figure and ground.
Gestalt psychologists have shown that the factor of figure-ground relationships operates even in the simplest form of perceptual organization. Primitive perception is only figure and ground perception.
Muller Lyer – Illusion.
It is also known as a geometrical illusion. Muller and Lyer, two psychologists, observed this kind of error in perception for the first time is called Muller Lyer illusion.
The illusion of Movement.
The observer perceives a moving picture when actually the object is not moving it is called the illusion of movement. Examples of the illusion of movement are movies, T. V. screens, and electrical advertisements.
It is an example of the size constancy illusion. Recent research on moon illusion has supported an ancient explanation.
Illusions are wrong perceptions. Illusion is the wrong or mistaken interpretation of a sensory experience.
It has been already discussed how the illusion is a normal affair. Hallucination which is also a type of perceptual error is experienced by mentally disturbed abnormal persons. Hallucinations may be visual, auditory, olfactory, tactual, gustatory, etc. Hallucinations represent our inner conflicts, fears, anxieties, and mental imbalances. Visual hallucination follows auditory hallucination.
Sensory stimulations arouse certain neural activities which have their trace in the nervous system. These are popularly known as neural traces. These traces act as symbols or substitutes for the original stimulus or experience. These symbolic images help us while perceiving something. This symbolic process is activated by any experience in an image.
The size of a stimulus varies with the change in distance between the percept and the perceiver. A tree that is usually perceived at a distance of 5 feet will look very small. Martin did an experiment on size constancy. Considerable constancy was indicated by the observer in the perception of the size of the blocks. But in spite of this significant difference in the sense of impression, we perceive the tree to be of its usual size.
Phiophenomcnon is an illusion of movement. When objects are more in quick succession, they appear as one continuous unit or whole. In an experiment, the phenomenon is when two more lights are of optimum brightness, size, and distance. Human adults, children, and animals all are used by this type Of illusion of movement. It is also due to the basic characteristics of the brain activity involved in perception.
The entire nervous system is composed of only two kinds of cells. Glia cells and nerve cells are neurons. Glia cells provide a mechanical framework supporting the networks of neurons.
The parietal lobe lies near the central fissure in the back half of the brain. It has the somesthetic area, which is the most important functional area.
The brain includes the cerebellum, medulla, and pons. The medulla and pons constitute the lower part of the brain stem.
The medulla connects each side of the cerebellum with the opposite side of the cerebrum. The medulla joins the spinal cord to higher parts of the brain.
Scanning means taking pictures intently of all parts. The scanning method of the brain helps is knowing the damages and destruction made to the brain.
The nervous system of a living organism is made up of cells. A cell may be defined as a unit of living material.
A spinal cord is a continuation of the brain below the medulla. It is structured compared to the brain.
The midbrain is the topmost part of the brain stem and also its shortest part. It only directs sensory input to the midbrain.
The structure through which reflex action takes place is called the reflex arc. It involves the sensory nerve, the spinal cord, and the motor nerve.
The parietal lobe lies near the central fissure in the back half of the brain. The parietal lobe is the seat of sensation.
The junction of two neurons is called a synapse. The neurons interact only at synapses. Dendrites and axons for different reasons are gaps that are technically called synapses. If the stimulus is of high intensity the synapse restricts the flow and vice versa. Synapses, blow down or inherit.
The spinal cord is a continuation of the brain below the medulla. It has a simple structure compared to the brain. The different parts of the spinal cord are connected to the brain. The spinal cord has a rich acroterial blood supply. These nerve clusters grow up the first step towards the evolution of the spinal cord.
The hypothalamus is a small structure directly below the thalamus and is connected with it. It lies at the base of the cerebrum. It is closely connected with ANS. It controls body metabolism, hunger, thirst, and sexual activity. The function of the hypothalamus in emotional behavior is very significant.
Reticular Activating System.
The reticular activating system is situated within the hindbrain and extends into the midbrain and hypothalamus. There is grey matter interplaced with crisscrossing groups of axons and cell bodies it is called ‘reticular’. The cerebral cortex and RAX influence each other’s functions, particularly in the sleep and arousal process. RAS has a lot of importance for the normal behavior of man. RAS is less activated during sleep.
A sympathetic system called “The Thora Cicolumbar System”. The sympathetic nervous system consists of 22 sympathetic ganglia in a man, arranged along the spinal cord. The sympathetic system put itself into action to meet this emergency situation. The sympathetic system consists of the visceral blood vessels and directs them to muscles and the brain increasing it. This sympathetic outflow it takes place through the thoracic and lumber regions of the spinal cord.
The entire nervous system is compared to only two kinds of cells. Glia cells and nerve each or neurons. Glia cells provide a mechanical framework, supporting the networks of neurons. The neurons are the most active but smallest units of the whole nervous system. The axon transmits nerve impulses from the body to the effects organs of another neuron. Sensory and motor nerves are made up of neurons.
Functions of Cerebellum.
The cerebellum is responsible for maintaining body balance and making fine muscular and motor coordinates in various bodily movements. The dorsal lobe is the most important part of the cerebellum. It helps in motor coordination. Cerebral unions lead to disturbances in the pattern of movements. The cerebellum part of the hindbrain receives stimulation from many different receptions.