Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 1 Fundamental of Education Long Answer Questions Part-1.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Foundations of Education 1 Fundamental of Education Long Answer Questions Part-1
Long Questions with Answers
Explain the meaning of education with its definitions.
Education is life and life is education. Education is an integral part of human life and it is the basic condition for the development of the whole man. It is a human activity which helps in the prosperity of human beings. Education brings a difference between man and animal, literate and illiterate. Without education, man would be like an animal.
Education is a process, an activity which continues throughout life. From a sociological point of view, education is a lifelong process which starts at the birth of the individual and ends with his death. Education has different meanings interpreted differently by different persons, and professions of life. For example, a parent may consider education as a positive force to enable the child to prepare for life or to earn a name and fame in society.
A teacher considers education for the Newman, a new society and a new nation. To a student education is nothing but the acquisition of knowledge skills and attitudes and passing in the examination to achieve degrees or diplomas. To an Artist, education as a way to love and enjoy the beauty and an Artisan considers education as a means to master a skill.
To a statesman, education is a means to train ideal citizens. So in society, parents, teachers, administrators, engineers, doctors, policemen and other professionals consider education differently. So education has no definite unitary meaning. The learning of socially approved behaviour is the most widely accepted definition of education.
Derivative Meaning of Education:
Education is explained as the art of leading out in which “E” means: out of” and “Duco” means. “I lead”. So education is to draw out: It helps in the intellectual, moral, physical and innate powers and development of man and the child. Education is derived from three Latin terms “Educare”, “Educere” and “Educatum”, The term “Educere” means “to bring up”, “To raise” and “To levate”.
To term “Educare” means “to lead out”, “to draw out”, “to nourish”, and “to flourish” and the third term “Educatum” means “to educate” or train”. So education helps in the social, intellectual, physical, moral, emotional and spiritual development of man. It is the process of innate powers, and development. Both Eastern and Western thinkers have given their opinions differently on the term education with its functions.
Education to Eastern philosophers:
|(1)||Rig Veda||To Rig Veda “Education is something in this earth that makes one self-reliant and selfless”.|
|(2)||Bhagavad Gita||“Nothing is purifying in this world than education”.|
|(3)||Upanishad||“Education is for liberation”.|
|(4)||Kautilya||“Education means training for the country, society and love for the nation”.|
|(5)||Tagore||Education helps in the solution of all our problems.|
|(6)||Aurovindo||Education is a process whereby one can love for the divine, for the country, for himself and for others.|
|(7)||Gandhiji||“By Education”, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child, with body, mind and spirit”.|
|(8)||Swami Vivekananda||“Education means the manifestation of the divine perfection”.|
|(9)||Gopabandhu||“The knowledge gained in the training centre is education”.|
Education to Western Thinkers:
|(1)||Plato||“Education is a capacity to feel pleasure and pain in the right moment|
|(2)||Aristotle||“Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body”.|
|(3)||Pcstalozzi||“Education is natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers.”|
|(4)||Froebel||“It is the process by which” the child makes internal-external”|
|(5)||Socrates||“Education is a process which brings out universal validity which is latent in minds of everyone”.|
|(6)||John Dewey||“Education is the process of continuous reconstruction of experiences”.|
|(7)||John Ross||“Education aims at a personality development and spiritual consciousness of man”.|
|(8)||Herbert Spencer||“Education is complete living”.|
Narrow Meaning of Education:
In a narrow sense, education is linked with schooling and ends when the child leaves the educational centre. It emphasizes classroom teaching, linked within the four walls of the classroom and bookish knowledge. No external influence is there and no experience is there. There is no importance on external experience or knowledge, It is limited to four walls of the classroom only. It is a systematic pre-planned process.
Wider Meaning of Education:
In a broader sense, education helps with growing and development of the child. A child’s life is filled with external experiences. The child gets a chance to mix with the outside world. Along with curricular activities, co-curricular social activities, attitudes, and social qualities develop. The character is modified, and the behaviour is changing. Constant interaction with the environment results in the modification of human behaviour. In a wider sense, education is life and life is education.
Discuss Education as a process a social process.
Education is a process which continues throughout life from birth to death. Brown considers that education is a consciously controlled process whereby changes in behaviour are produced in the person and through the process within the group. Here, a consciously controlled process is meant for external control.
This means that through the educational process the changes in the behaviour of the person are brought about not only by the internal forces but by the external forces which are latent in the environment like getting when a child learns any activity on his dress, eating food with his own hands etc. The environment and the child’s close relations are the key figures in the learning process.
The educational process is a social process from a specific point of view. The innate powers of the child get motivated due to the social environment and the child begins to learn a change in his behaviour. This, in fact, is education. There are many aspects of social interaction that make for more effective participation in the total process of social interaction whether in terms of social, economic, health or any other socially desirable value in education.
In this way, education is a process which occurs by itself, due to social interaction and social motivation. The process is helpful in the progress of society and encourages social institutions. From an educational sociology point of view in the study of social relations. In the past, the process of education was bipolar. There was a direct interaction between the teacher and the teacher and textual knowledge is gained.
But with the interaction of teacher, taught and environment social interaction is possible and greater experienced learning takes place. In tri-polar process of education is experience gained by social process from the environment: So education is a social process. This is also a social interaction process. In all social changes and social cohesion, social mobility is the result of social interaction. There are a large number of social factors which bring social change such as technological factors. So education is a social process and the child educates himself within the social environment.
Discuss the social aims of education.
How far it is applicable to the social development of man? Explain.
The aims of education are social and individual. Individual aims of education are aimed at individual development. The educational aims tend to lay stress on the growth of social values, and social attitudes of men, and individuals.
Society Education :
Education is an integral part of society which takes place in the interaction of individuals with groups and entire cultures. It brings a change in the behaviour of man. Education through its social process or instructions tries to modify society and the behaviour of the individual and society. Education and society are interrelated. The chief aim of education is to socialize men.
Education as a Social Process:
Man is a social being who dwells in society, and grows in society. The growing and thinking for a vast complex of interaction and relations. Right education helps the child to adjust himself to the social environment. Through education the child is able to develop reasoning in social relations and cultivates social awareness, social virtues and social sensitiveness, The social reconstruction takes place in the adjustment, Through education society can formulate its own purpose and organise its means and resources.
School as a Society in Miniature:
The school can be considered a society in miniature. Varied experiences are to be provided for the child so that in his own way he is prepared to live. Activities leading to his child’s emotional, aesthetic, intellectual and physical development must find an equal emphasis with the school.
Continuous Reconstruction of Experiences:
To John Dewey, education is the continuous reconstruction of experiences, It is the development of all those capacities in the individuals which will enable them to control their environment and pupils has possibilities. It helps in the transmission of experiences. The experience of an individual involves a situational context, that is not spatial and temporal but continual. So continuous reconstructions of experience give a more socialized value. Every generation inherits experiences from the last generation’s participation in changing situations. So activities also undergo changes accordingly.
Merits of Social Aims:
Society or state is essentially needed for the individual without a state peace, security tranquillity, and justice can not be maintained Thus, individuals should be prepared to maintain society’s state even at cost of their life. When an individual child comes from his/ her mother’s word he/she comes with certain raw instincts.
But it is through the magic of the social environment that he develops into a normal social human being. That’s why the social aim of education should be emphasized. Raymont says, “An isolated individual is a figment of imagination. Hence, individuals make society stable and well-organised. Culture and civilization are intimately related to each other.
They are bom and developed in society. It is the responsibility of every citizen to serve society to develop both. The extreme social aim of education neglects the individual’s freedom and it develops narrow nationalism, The extreme social aims of education neglect the individual’s freedom and the individual are neglected.
Explain the individual aims of education. Too many individual aims of education are not desirable Why? Explain.
In a narrow sense the individual aim is known as self-expression and in a broader sense education should develop in the individuality of a child, by individual aims of education we mean, not the individual development only but both the individual and society. Individual aims of education directly benefit the individual. The importance is given to an individual’s capacity to earn his livelihood, fulfilling his own and his family’s needs.
The second objective is the development of the individual. The individual can fulfil the complexities of life. Individual aims of education have their own merits and limitations. Firstly, the individual instincts and inherent tendencies. Every child differs from every other in respect of Colour, a form of interest, mental abilities, intelligence, thinking etc. The aim of education is to develop each child in conformity with his special abilities.
The success of life depends upon the development of this kind. It is believed that education must seek to develop individual abilities and education becomes child-centred. Progressivists supported the individual aims of education. According to T.P. Nunn, the progress of the world is rooted in the development and progress of the individual personality. The individuals have contributed to their special abilities.
Nothing good enters into the human world except in and through the free activities of individual men and women and so the aim of education is to develop individual men and women. To Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel and T.P. Nunn, individuality is the ideal of life. Democrats supported the importance of individual aims of education. Democracy gives stresses the freedom of the individual.
Democracy aims at providing the greatest freedom and equality to all individuals and the state should make special arrangements for the education of the backward, orphans and physically handicapped. Individual aims of education are not free from criticism. Individual aims provide sufficient freedom to individuals as a result society is neglected.
Unrestricted freedom leads to indiscipline, conflict, and tension which promotes social disintegration. Individual aims of education neglect the moral values of children. It emphasizes the individual differences of the children. It is difficult to develop love, sympathy, sacrifice, service, cooperation, brotherhood and moral values among children. Due to much emphasis on individual aims society is neglected.
Discuss the vocational aims of education and its merits.
The basic need of a man is food, clothing and shelter. If education does not enable us to provide these basic needs, the education of Oil industrialisation and mechanisation and emphasis is given to vocational education. Different commissions put stress on vocational education at secondary and higher secondary stages of education. Emphasis is given to vocational education which is known as the bread-and-butter aim of education.
It aimed at fulfilment of his basic needs. Hence, educationists emphasized, the vocational aim of education so that he would be able to solve economic problems without any difficulty. It is the economic self-sufficiency of a person. which makes him a worthy and contributing person. So education should prepare the child for future vocations. Now the vocational aim of education has become very essential.
Merits of Vocational Aims:-
The merits of vocational aims of education are as follows:
A person who is trained in vocation develops confidence, and self-assurance, He knows that he will not be a drag on society, and he feels that he is not a parasite or dependent on others. Vocational education not only benefits the individual but also leads society towards greater prosperity, and industrial advancement. Vocational education is very necessary for school-going children.
Such children lose, interest when made to perform academic tasks which are beyond their understanding, but they indicate a keen interest in making things and in acquiring manual and physical skills. Vocational schools and poly technique schools for such students have proved immense value in the educational systems all over the world. Vocational aim results in the creation of more doctors, engineers and technicians of high calibre who lead their country towards prosperity.
Discuss the democratic aims of education.
The political system in a country is reflected in the educational system. It means democracy can never be successful without education. Whenever democracy becomes unsuccessful has been because of education. In a democracy, the government is composed of the elected representation of the people and if the people are uneducated they can never elect the right leaders we cannot hope for a good democracy to prevail.
Democratic government demands educated people. Education can generate and instil the qualities that democracy demands. The aim state is to achieve the highest moral level and this can be reached through education alone. Democracy aims at the round development of personality. The success of a democratic society also depends upon mature men and women.
A mature personality has gone through physical, mental, social, ethical and spiritual development. Hence education should aim at the development of all aspects of personality through various kinds of training. Education in a democracy must create a democratic personality. It discovers individual potentialities and enables them to realize and utilize the facilities provided to the individuals.
It must equip the individual with the power of judgement and scientific thinking. The Secondary Education Commission has remarked that democracy aims at developing some vocational skills in education. No nation can progress in the absence of economic development. The first and foremost duty of the state is to provide a system and means of education which imparts some vocational skills to education so that they can earn their livelihood as well as they can contribute to the nation’s economic prosperity.
The success of democracy depends largely upon the people’s awareness of their rights and duties and the extent to which people fulfil their responsibilities. Education aims at developing this ability in people. Democracy aims at inculcating the individual spirit of tolerance. The individual’s personality and emotional balance are needed. The important aim of education is to develop leadership.
The success of democracy depends on the capabilities of the leadership. In a decentralised government, there is a need for skilled leadership at different levels of administration. Democratic government run by the elected representatives of the people needs expert leadership for the development and progress in every sphere political, economic, social, scientific and cultural. Education should aim at evoking such leadership because without doing this, education cannot make any contribution to democracy.
Bring a synthesis between individual vs. Social aims of education.
For better development of individuality and improvement of society, there is a need for a synthesis between the two ‘aims The individual aim if stressed greatly, will produce against, while the extreme emphasis on social aim will create suppressed personalities. Therefore the extreme form of either of them should be avoided.
If we examine both aims dispassionately, we shall find that neither the individual nor the society can exist without each other. Both individual and society are the two parts of a coin. Society is formed with the aggregate of individuals and individuals cannot exist without society. The individual is the product of society, while society finds its advancement in the development of the individual member.
It must be admitted that, the individual cannot develop in a vacuum. He is a social animal. In all walks of life, he is influenced by all who surround him. He can not escape the cultural influences of society. These influences shape the personality makeup of man. His potentialities are stimulated by environmental forces. Therefore, individuality cannot and should not be emphasized by neglecting general human ideals.
In the words of Sir- John Adams.”Individuality requires a social medium to grow, without Social contract we are not human.” Thus, both schools, of thought have made valuable contributions to the art and science of education. The school should try to develop the individuality of children through social contacts and social control, with maximum possible freedom for individuals.
Individuality is not a private possession but is the means through which real good can enter the world. The good of all is the good of each! So the real aim of education may be defined as the highest development of the individual as a member of society. Therefore, we may conclude by saying that the individual and the society may both be regarded as equally important neither of the two being absolutely independent of the other.
Instead of being regarded as isolated entities the individual and the society should be considered as functionally related to each other, the individual acting on the society and the society, re-acting on the individual. The personality of the individual has to be developed, but this cannot be done in. isolation. The individual personality is essentially a product of the interaction between the individual and society.
The claims of the individual as well as the society are equally important. The individual has the right to live on his own, according to one’s needs and desires fie, and must have the freedom to develop himself according to his potentialities and capacity. But his freedom must have its limits. Freedom cannot be allowed to degenerate in science because the right of freedom of everybody has to be protected.
It is here that society and the state should see that the freedom of every individual is safeguarded. But the state should not go beyond this. The state or the society should not curb the freedom of the individual to such an extent that his very growth and development is thwarted. On the other hand, the state should do everything possible to promote the happiness and welfare of each and every member of society.
Individuals should think it is their sacred duty to Work for the welfare and progress of the whole of society. Both the individual and society should work for a common objective. Both have their own sphere of action and work and they should not try to cross the boundaries of their own jurisdiction. In this way, their rate will be complementary to each other and the individual, as well as the society, will grow and develop simultaneously.
Discuss the scope of education.
Scope refers to the extent, broad range, comprehensive and variety of learning experiences. So scope means, the extent of the study, range of view, outlook, application, effectiveness and operation. From this education should concern with the whole man. Education is life itself. Its scope is very wide as the whole world, as long as the history of mankind. The following subject matters included the scope of education.
Philosophy of Education:
The philosophy of education is one of the oldest disciplines. Plato devoted his attention to the- nature and content of education. Philosophy and education are related to flowers and fragrances. Philosophy determines all the aspects of education-nature of education, curriculum, method of teaching, nature of textbooks, nature of discipline, evaluations, role of the teacher, school/organisation etc. and education makes them practical. So philosophy and education are interrelated.
To Prof Ottaway, Education can be studied from many different points of view. What is called the sociology of education? Education is an activity which goes on the society. Hence, its aims and methods depend on the nature of the society in which it functions. The sociology of education is the study of the relationship between education and society. It is a social study. Since the method is scientific, it is accepted as a branch of social science. This branch of education deals with the aims of education, methods of teaching, administration and supervision, and cultural and religious forces of the society in which they take place.
The child is the central point of education. Education is organised according to the potentialities, developmental level, interests and aptitudes. Educational psychology helps in understanding the child, his nature, interests, abilities, attitudes, power of memory, thinking, imagination, learning habits and personality, learning process and conditions which influence the learning situation.
History of education:
The history of education also comes under the scope of education. By the help of this we understand the gradual development of education, during different periods of history. It also helps us to find a suitable system of education, for the changing needs of our society. It recalls of the past and consciousness for the present and future.
Comparative education helps us to modify, reform, reorient and improve an educational system. It is the study of a cross-cultural comparison of the structure, operation methods and aims of achievement of various educational systems and practices of the different countries of the world.
Problems and issues of education:
Educational problems and issues are found in the methods of solving these problems. Some of the important problems like vocationalisation of education, problems of population education, non-formal education, y adult education development of a national system of education, religious and moral education, national integration, medium of instruction, improvement of examination system etc. Education cannot achieve progress unless k. studies the problems and finds out their solutions.
Educational Administration and Organisation:
In educational administration and organisation, we study topics like the role of central and state govt, in education, how to build and equip schools, how to organise co-curricular activities how to maintain discipline, how to classify evaluation and promote educational and vocational guidance, how to keep records, how to organise the library, how to frame time table are under the scope of education.
The technique of teaching:
The technique of teaching is also included in the scope of education. The most useful methods are employed in teaching-learning. In order to make education effective we are to study and use various techniques of teaching and learning.
Discuss the Nature of Education.
The Nature of Education is as follows:
Education is growth:
Growth is the characteristic of life which- begins from birth and continues till the end of life. It is the result of the constant interaction of the organism with the environment. Experiences result from the natural interaction between the organism and its environment and learning take place in the organism. The entire process of growth and development resulting from learning is called education.
Education is the direction:
Education directs the capacities, attitudes, interests and urges, needs, instincts, tendencies etc. of the individual into the most desirable and socially accepted channels.
Education is an Art of Training:
Education is a conscious purpose to train children to fulfil the responsibilities of adult life. True education is the training of the individual to discriminate between good and evil. It is the training of the intellect, body and mind, training of cooperation, love and sympathy.
Education is influence:
Education is the influence of the environment upon the individual in order to bring about healthy change in his habits of the behaviour of thought and attitude. Through such influences, he develops those capacities which enable him to control influence and to adjust to his environment realise the possibilities and fulfil them in a socially desirable manner.
Education is the modification of behaviour:
Education changes instinctive behaviour into human behaviour. It gives a new shape to the child. Education helps this child to know the world. It enables him what he is and what he is not.
Education is a continuous reconstruction of experience:
Education has been defined as growth which is a process of transformation from the order to the new order of life. It reorganises experiences to make the child relevant to the need of life and in the process, the individual and the society grow. New ideas, new values, new attitudes and new interests develop from new experiences and the dynamism of life.
Discuss the process of education.
The process of education is as follows:
Education is a lifelong process:
Education is a lifelong process and there is no end to education. It starts right from the cradle and ends in the graveyard. Education is not confined to a definite place or environment. The task of imparting education can not be limited to some definite persons like teachers or instructors. At every moment of one’s life, there are situations that provide a learning experience. Thus education is life and life is education.
Adams in his book “Evolution of Educational. Theory” has advocated education as a bipolar process and that bipolar education has two poles. In his words – “There must always be a teacher or educator pole and a pupil or educand pole and pupil or educand pole”. We should not think of education with one pole. Thus, in the process of education, Moliere is the interaction between the teacher and the child.
The teacher tries to mould and modify the behaviour of the child so that he later” develops his personality to the full. In this way, with the active cooperation of the teacher and the child the processor’s education goes on smoothly and effectively.
Education-A tri-polar process:
Sir, A.E. Adamson proposed this tri-polar process, the theory of education. This is the modem concept of education, It is maintained that all education is taking place in the society or social environment. The total environment of the child becomes the basic source of education. John Dewey, says that education is not a bi-polar process but it is a tripolar process.
John Dewey recognises the importance of the psychological side, which includes the study of the child’s needs, interests, capacities, and talents. He has also laid great stress on the sociological side. He believes that society plays a vital role in this process of education. When the child participates in the social situation and there is an interaction between him and the social environment. So the third pole is the social environment or social fillies. Thus, the Tripolar process involves three things:
- the teacher
- the taught
- the social environment.
Education-A dynamic process:
Education is not confined to certain fixed rules and regulations. It is a dynamic process. It includes all the aspects of this fast-changing world, It is this dynamic aspect of education, which enables the individual to face future problems of life.
Education-A deliberate process:
The process of education is not only conscious but also deliberate. The educator is fully aware of the fact that his aim is to develop the personality of the child along definite lines through the modification of his behaviour.
Education-A psychological and sociological process:
According to the psychological aspect of the process, the educator. must understand the nature, interests, capacities and limitations of the child. A sociological aspect implies that the educator must also interpret the endowments of the child in a social setting.
Discuss the aims of Secondary Education.
Since the inception of the modern education system in the country, the aim of education has undergone great changes. However, the aims of secondary education can be discussed in the following manner.
Development of democratic citizenship:
India is a democratic country which needs efficient citizens for smooth functioning. Education should shoulder the responsibility of providing training to children in democratic citizenship. Democratic citizenship involves many intellectual, social and moral qualities. It should develop the capacity for clear thinking and receptivity to new ideas.
It should bring about the development of all the innate capacities of the child. It should cultivate in the children an openness of mind and heart so that they become capable of entertaining of the diversities in various fields. It should include a true spirit of world citizenship in the children.
Improvement of vocational efficiency:
Our present national situation demands that the productive or mechanical and vocational efficiency of our students should be increased. This involves an appreciation of the dignity of work as well as the realization of that self-fulfillment and national prosperity is only possible through work. There is also a need to promote technical skill and proficiency so as to provide trained and efficient personnel to work out a scheme of industrial and technological advancement. This is possible through a diversified curriculum at the secondary stage.
Development of personality:
The students should be trained to appreciate their cultural heritage and to contribute in later life, to the development of the heritage. The pupil’s whole personality, emotional life, social impulses, constructive talents, his artistic talents etc. are to be looked after by education. It is therefore recommended that the curriculum should include subjects like art, craft, music, dancing and the development of hobbies which will be in the development of the whole personality of the students.
Education for leadership :
For a democracy to function successfully requires that all its people should be trained to discharge their duties and responsibilities efficiently. This involves training in discipline as well as leadership. Primary education will inculcate the capacity for discipline work in the pupils whereas university education will train leadership at the highest level in different walks of life. The special function of Secondary education is to train personnel Who Will be able to assume the responsibility or leadership in the social, political, industrial and cultural fields, in their small own group or community of locality.