Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Long Answer Questions
Long Questions With Answers
Estimate the life of Al-Biruni and his contribution in the sphere of Mathematics and Astronomy?
Al-Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in Physics, Mathematics, Astronomy and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. He studies almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenceons work.
Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to cover certain findings. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age. In which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion.
In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greek who her took inspiration from when he fumed to studies of philosophy.
He was conversant in Khwarezmia, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit and also knew Greek. He brew and Syriac. He Spent a large part of his life in ghazani in modem day Afganisthan, Capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, which was based in what is now central eastern Afghanistan.
In 1017 he traveled to the south Asia and authored Tarikh-al-Hind (History of India) after exploring the Hindusm practiced in India.
He was given the title “founder of Indology”. He was in impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations and was given the title at us-tadh (“The master”) for his remarkable description of early 11th century India.
Life: He was born in the outer district of Kath, the capital ofthe Afrighid dynasty ofKhwarezm (now a part of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) (or Chorasmia) The word Bintni means“from the outer- oustricf’ in Persian, and so this became his nisba “albiruni- “The
Al-Biruni’s relatives also took interest in the studies of science as well. So he grow up in an environment encouraging to his interests. He even had ties to royalty as there are links in his family to the families of prestigious elties.
To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields he studies.
Many consider Al-Biruni one of the greatest scientists in history, and specially of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research.
Al-biruni spent the first twenty five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studies Islamic jurisprudence, theology, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, vedics, philosophy and also dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well.
The Iranian khwarezmian language, which was the language of Biruni survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, and so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient khwazem, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vaccum.
He was sympathetic to the Affighids, who were overthrown by the river dynasty of manunids in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara, then under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the Son of Nuh. There are corresponded with Avicenna and there are extent exchanges of views between the two scholars.
In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan, shams-at -moali Aboshasan Ghaboos Ibn Washmgir. There he wrote his first important work, at Athar al- Baggija can al-Qorun al-khaliya cuterally.
“The remaining traces of past centuries” and translated as “chronology of ancient nations” or vestiges of the past”) on historical and scientific chronology, probably around 1000 A.D., though he later madesome amendments to the book.
He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Affighids at the hands of the mamunids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled khwarezm. There court at Gorganj (also in khwarezm) was gaining fame for its gathering of brailliant scientists.
In 1017, (Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey most Scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghaznis the capital of the Ghazinavid dynasty. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India living there for a few years.
He was forty four years old when he went on the Journeys with Mahamud of Ghazin. Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India. He may even have learned some Sankrit.
During this time he wrote the Kitabtarikh al-Hind, finishing it around 1030. Along with his writing, Al-Biruni also made sure to extend his study to science while on the expenditions.
He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun and created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose. A1 Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India.
Mathematics and astronomy: Ninety five of 146 books known to have been written by Biruni were devoted to astronomy, mathematics and related subjects like mathematical geography His religion contributed to his research of astronomy as in Islam, Muslim customs require knowing the directions of certain sacred locations, which can actually be found through this type of scientific study.
Biruni’s major work on astrology is primarily an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication. His endorsement of astrology is limited in so far as he condemns honorary astrology as ‘sorcery’.
In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the earth, Biruni acknowledge that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates.
He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Kitab ta rich al-Hind in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth’s rotation in a work on astronomy that is no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai a (key to Astronomy):
The rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible.
This questions is most difficult to solve. The most prominent of both modem and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the questions of the moving of the earth and tried to refuge it.
We, too have composed a book on the subject called Muftan-ilm-alhi’a (key to Astronomy), in which we think we have surpassed our predecessors, if not in the words, at all events in the matter. In his description of Sijzi’s astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth.
He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibnsina, in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristottle’s celestial physics he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist, he is amazed “ by the weakness of Aristotle’s argument against elliptical orbits on the basic that they would create vacuum, he attacks the immutability of the celestial sphers, and so on.
In his major extant astronomical work, the Mas’ud Canon, Biruni utilizes his observational data to disprove ptolemy’s immobile solar apogee. Not only did he perform research on theories, but he also wrote an in-depth analysis and explanation of an astrolab and how it should work.
He drew many different depictios of various instruments that are considered to be the precursors of more modem objects such as clocks and the coming years.
More recently Biruni’s eclipse date wras used by dunthome in 1749 to help determine the acceleration of the moon and his observational data has entered the larger astronomical historical records and is still used today in geophysics and astronomy.
Estimate Ibn Battuta as a pilgrimage and his coming to India?
All that is known about Ibn Battuta’s life comes from the autobiographical information included in the account of his travels, which records that he was of Barber descent, born into a family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier, Morocco on 25 February 1304, during the reign of the Marinid dynasty.
He claimed descent from a Berber tribe known as the Lawata. As a young man he would have studied at a Sunni Maliki madhab (Islamic jurisprudence school) the dominant form of education in North Africa at that time.
Maliki Muslims requested Ibn Battuta serve as their religious judge as he was from an area where it was practiced.
In June 1325, at the age of twenty-one. Ibn Battuta set off from his home town on a hail or pilgrimage, to Mecca, a journey that would ordinarily take sixteen months. He would not see Morocco again for twenty-four years.
I set out alone, having neither fellow traveller in whose companionship. 1 might find cheer, nor caravan whose part I might join, but swayed by an over mastering impulse within me and a desire long cherished in my bosom to visit these illustrious sanctuaries.
So I braced my resolution to quite my dear ones female and male, and forsook my home as birds for sake their nests. My parents being yet in the bonds of life, it weighted sorely upon me to part of them and both they and I were afflicted with sorrow at this separation.
He travelled to Mecca overland, following the North African coast across the sultanates of Abdul Wadid and hauled. The route took him through them, bejalla and then Tunis, where he stayed for two months.
For safety Ibn Battuta usually joined a caravan to reduce the risk of being robbed. He took a bride in the town of fax, the first in a series of marriages that would feature in his travels.
In the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km. (2,200 mi) Ibn Battuta arrived at the port of Alexandria, at the time part of the Bahrimamluk empire.
He met two ascetic pious men in Alexandria. One was sheikh Burhanuddin who is supposed to have foretold the destiny of Ibn Battuta as a world traveller saying, “it seems to me that you are fond of foreign travel.
You will visit my brother Fariduddin in India. Rukonuddin in Sind and Burhanuddin in China. Convey my greetings to their”.
Another pious man sheikh Murshidi interpreted the meaning of a dream of Ibn Battuta that the was meant to be a world traveller. He spent several weeks visiting sites in the area.
And then headed inland to Cairo, the capital of the Mamluk Sultanate and an important city. After spending about a month in Cairo, he embarked on the first of many detours within the relative safety of Mamluk territory of the three usual routes to Mecca.
Ibn Battuta chose the least-travelled, which involved a journey up the Nile valley, then east to the Red sea port of Avadhab, upon approaching the town, however, a local rebellion forced him to turn back. Ibn Battuta returned to Cairo and took a second side trip, this time to Mamluk-controlled Damascus.
During his first trip he had encountered a holy man who prophesied that he would only reach Mecca by traveling through Syria.
The diversion held an added advantage because of the holy places that lay along the way including Hebron, Jerusalem, and Bethleham the Mamluk authorities spared no efforts in keeping the routes safe for pilgrims, without this help many travellers would be robbed and murdered.
After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan in Damascus, he joined a caravan travelling the l,300Km (810 mi) south to Medina, site of the tomb of the. Islamic prophet Muhammad.
After four days in the town he journeyed on to Mecca, where completing his pilgrimage he took the honorific status of El-Hajji Rather than returning home, Ibn Battuta instead decided to continue on. choosing as his next destination the Likhanate, a Mongol Khanate, to the northeast.
After his third pilgrimage to Mecca, Ibn Battuta decided to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughlug. In the autumn of 1330 (or 1332), the set off for the selling controlled territory of Anatolia with the intention of taking on overland route to India.
He crossed the Red sea and the Eastern Desert to reach the Nile valley and then headed north to Cairo, From there be crossed the Sinai Peninsula to Palestine and then travelled north again through some of the towns that he had visited in 1325.
From the Syrian port of Latakia, a Genoese ship took him (and his companions) to Alanya one the southern coast of modern-day Turkey.
He then journeyed westwards along the coast to the port of Antalya, to the town he met members of one of the semi-religious fityan associations.
These were a feature of most Anatolian towns in the 13th and 14th centuries. The members were young artisAnswerand had at their head a leader with the title of Akhis. The associations specialized in welcoming travellers.
Ibn Battuta was very impressed with the hospitality that the received and would later stay in their hospices in more than 25 towns in Anatolia. From Antalya Ibn Battuta headed in land to Egindir which was the capited of the Hamid dynasty. He spent Ramadan (Tune 1331 on mary 1333) in the city.
From this point the itinerary across Anatolia in the Rihla is confused Ibn. Battuta described travelling westwards from Egiradier to milas and then skipping 420km. (260mi) eastward past Egidir to Kenya.
He then continuous travelling in a eastery direction, reaching Erzurum from where he skips 160 km (720 mi) back to Birgi which lies north of milas. HistoriAnswerbelieve that Ibn Battuta visited a number of towns in central Anatulia, but not in the order that he describes.
After returning to Quanzhou in 1346, Ibn Battuta began his journey back to morocco. In Kozhikode, he once again considered throwing himself at the mercy of mahammad bin Tughluq in Delhi, but thought better of if and decided to carry on to Mecca.
On his way to Basra he passed through the strait of Hormuz, where he learned that Abu said last ruler of the “Khanate dynasty had died in Persia.
Abu Said’s territories had subsequently collapsed due to a fierce civil war between the pensions and mongous. In 1348, Ibn Battuta arrived in Damascus with the intention of refracting the route of his first hajj.
He then learned that his father had died 15 years earlier and death became the dominant thene for the next year or so. The Black Death had struck and he was on hand as it spread through Syria,Paustine and Arabia.
After reaching Merra he decided to return to morocco Nearly a quarter of a century after leaving home. On the way he made one last detour to Sardinia, then in 1349, returned to Tangier by way of Fez, only to discover that his mother had also died a few months before.
Analyse the role of Francois Berrien as a physician as well as a traveller?
Franco is Bernier (25 September 1620-22 September 1688) was a French physician and traveller. He was born at Jpue-Etiau in Anjou.
He was briefly personal physician to Mughal prince Darashikoh (28 October 1615 – 30 August 1659) the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and after Dara Shikons demise, was attached to the court of the Mughal emperor Aurongzeb (14 October 1618-20 February 1707), for around 12 years during his slay in India.
His 1684 publication Nouvelle division delaterre par us different espece ouraces quiphabitent (A new division of the Earth) is considered the first published post classical classification of humans, into district races.
He also wrote Travels in the M dial Empire, which is mainly about the reigns, of Dora Shiloh and Aurangzeb. It is base, on his own extensive journeys and observations and on information from eminent Mughal courtiers who had witnessed the events at first hand.
Bernier abridge and translated the philosophical writings of his friend Pier Gassendi from Latin into French. Initial editions of Bemar’s Average dela philosophic de Gassendi were published in Paris in 1674 by the family langloies and m 1675 by Estienne Michalet.
A complete edition in eight volumes was published byAnisan and,Posual at Lyon in 1678. Anisson and Posual joined with Rigaud to publish a second edition in seven volumes in 1684.
Berrier objectively and faithfully rendered. Remained uncomfortable with some of Gassendi’s notions in 1682, Estiene Michaflet was again his publisher, putting forth his Doutes de Mr. Bernier sur quelquesuns des principaux chapitres de son Abrege de la philosophie de Gassendi.
A son of a fanner, Francois Bernier, was orphaned very young and was cared for by his uncle the care dechan zeaux.
At the age of 15 he moved to Paris to study at the college declarment (the furure lyces lucis legrand) where he was invited to stay at the home of his younger friend chapelle the nature son of luilliar who was a councilor at the parlement in metz.
There Bernier most probably met Cyrano de Bergerac and Moliere, and certainly the philosopher piece Gassendi (1592-1655) whose aide and secretary, he became.
He developed a ‘taste for travel (1647) in the company of monsieur d Arpojan, the French ambassador to Poland and Germany.
In 1652 during a prolonged stay with Gassendi in the south of France he managed to became a medical doctor on the strength of a speed course at the famous Faculte de Montpellier an intensive three month course gave the medical degree providing one did not practice on French national territory.
Liberated from his ties to France by the death of Gassandi in 1655, he sent but his twelve year journey to the East, at 36 years of age, Palestine Egypt, one year in Cairo, Arabia and an attempt to enter Ethiopia which was frustrated by civil war in the interior.
In 1658 he debarked at Surat in India, in Gujarat state. Attached at first and for a short while to the retinue of Darashikoh the history of whose downfall he was to record he was installed as a medical doctor at the court of Aurangzab, the last of the great Mughal emperors.
A tour of inspection by Aurongzeb (1664-65) gave Bernier the opportunity to describe Kashmir, the first and for a long time the only European to do so.
In “Voyagres la description .des Etets du Grand Mogal, de Plndoustan, du royaume de kachemire” (David-paul mare ted. Amsteralry 1699). He subsequently visited the other extreme of the empire in Bengal.
European medical training was highly esteemed amongst the Mughal and gave him access to all ranks of the Court, even on medically required occasions to the Emperor’s haren.
After his return from Kashmir, he travelled around on his own, meeting with jean- baptiste Tavernier in Bengal and white preparing for a journey to Persia at Surat with jean chardin, that other great traveller in the Orient (1666).
He returned once more to Surat (1668) to write a memoir on Indian commerce for the use of jean. Baptiste Colbert (who recently had founded la Compagnie des Indes oriental in 1669 Bernier left India for Paris, to stay.
In 1671 the almost was jaiced for writing in defense of the ideas of Rena Descartes, against whom a-judicial arrest had been issued an exploit he followed with an (Aberge dela philosophile de Gassendi” also not a subject to arouse official approval (1674).
Meanwhile he was a favoured guest at some of die great literary salons,” for example that of marguerite de la sabliere who introduced him to jean de la Fontaine, or at that of Ninon de Lericlos His much debated text on “races” – A new division of the Earth” of which second half is dedicated to feminine-beauty may be read against his background.’
In 1685 Bernier visited Ldftdon where he met with some famous exices from France, Hortense mancine, duchessd de Mazafin, niece of the redoubtable cardinal Saihf-E remind, others.
He returned to Paris via the Netherlands where he probably visited the philosophical correspondent Pierre Bayle.
Bernier died in 1688, the year that saw the publication of his “Lettre des India” (see note : Talk: Idries shah # the way of the scholar) Formost among his correspondents whife he was in India had been Jean Chapelin, Who shipped him crates of books. Melchisedech Thevenot, and Francois de la mothe le vayer.
From chapelain’s correspondence we know of a link with the elder petis de la croix. Whose sojn franco is petis de la croix was sent on a language course to Persia two years after berriier’s return from India.
State the Chief characteristics of the state of Delhi Sultanate?
The period from 1206-1526 is known as the age of the Delhi sultanate. Many dynasties ruled from Delhi during this period. The following are chief characteristics of nature of the state.
- The state was expected to be a theocratic state.
- The government of the Delhi sultanate worked with the Islamic principals of sovereignty.
- The govt, followed the Islamic law in all administrative matters.
- The sultan of India took pride to call himself the Deputy of the Caliph.
- The Sultan usually thried to believe in the light of divine right of kings.
- The Sultanate state was a military state to a considerable extent.
- The sultanate state was a Feudal state.
- The sultanate was greathly influenced by the Ulemas in general.
- The state revenue was levied in accordance with Islamic law.
- The nobles tried to exercise their influence over the appointment of the Sultan as well as his survival.
- There was no clear-cut law of succession to the throne.
The Delhi sultAnswerand the caliphate: According to the Islamic theory the Caliph was the spiritual and temporal head of the entire Muslim world.
A ruler of any Muslim state wherever it might be located he must consider himself as deputy of calpiph. The SultAnswerof Delhi paid ceremonial homage to the Caliph.
The critic state and the Ulemas: The Muslim divines, cailed the Ulemas were the authoritative interpreters of Islamic law. They were a highly influential body.
The sultans consulted them not only on points of Muslim law but also on matters of state policy. The Ulemas had a great influence over the sultans.
The sultan as the superme sovereign: According to the Muslim theology sovereignty was vested in the Muslim law.
Subject to general conformity with the law the sultan was the head of the state and he enjoyed unlimited powers. All legislative, executive and judicial powers were concentrated in him.
His order was the Law in the state. The sultan was the highest commander of the army. He appointed all ministers nobles and other officers of the state.
What could curb the despotism of the rulers was that they could not defy the Muslim Jaw. But in fact not in theory many rulers were the supreme interpreters of the law. Everything depended on the personality of the ruler.
Why is the age of Shaha Jahan called Golden Age?
Mughal architecture reached perfection during, the reign of Shah Jahan, the great patron of architecture. He is often called the Engineer king as he built a large number of buildings.
He was a perfectionist and looked into the minutest details of his building projects. The buildings constructed by him have the finest features of Indian Persian and central Asian architecture.
Shah Jahan’s patronage to architecture stemmed from his love for monuments. He also wanted to establish his identity as a ruler and also set an example for the coming generations. The monuments constructed by him are majestic and graceful in appearance.
Features of the monuments: Under Shah Jahan there was a change in the building style as well as material. The emphasis was now on uniformity and symmetry. Red sandstone, popular with Akbar and Jahangir was replaced by white marble.
The walls began to be decorated with precious and semi-precious stones. This method of decoration is called pietra-dura. Domes and Minarets also began to form an important part of the buildings.
Monuments constructed: Shah Jahan constructed many mosques. The Moti Masjid in Agra was completed is 1653.
It was built entirely of white marble and has three domes. The Jama Masjid in Delhi was completed in 1656. It is the largest mosque in India.
Taj Mahal the most famous monument is as tall as a 20 storey skyscraper. It took 22 years to build and was constructed at a cost of 32 million rupees. Over 20,000 labourers worked on it day and night Ustad Isa khan and Ustad Ahmad Lahori were its chief architect. The Taj is a mix of several architectural styles.
It is placed in the middle of a garden. It is built of white marble which was obtained from Makrana in Rajasthan. Shah Jahan used the pietradune ornamentation of white marble on a large scale in his favourity Taj. The Taj Mahal reflects the glory of Mughal architecture.
Red Fort in 1639, Shah jahan laid the foundation of a new city. Shajahanabad. He bult the Red Fort here. It was numerous beautiful structures as :
• Diwan -I – Aam built in red sandstone, this was the place where the king head his court.
• Diwan – I- Khas – Shah Jahan’s peacock throne was kept here.
• Khwabgah: It was the private chambers of the king.
• Rang mahal: it was a piece for the women of the royal household.
With Shah Jahan’s death the Mughal art in all in manifestations began to decline. His son Aurangeb cared. Little for architecture and loss for painting and music lack of royal patronage led to the decline of Mughal architecture.
To Sumup, Shah Jahan was the most prolific and magnificent builder among the Mughal Emperons. In the time the art of building in India reached its zenith of perfection. Shah Jahan’s buildings are upparalled and unequalled.
They may be regarded as ‘Jewels Caskets magnified into architecture? Therefore, his reign is regarded as ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Mughal’s art and architecture.
Write a notes on Din-I-Ilhahi.
The Din-I-IIhai was a unique conception introduced by Akbar in 1582. It was a gift of Akbar so far as his religious policy is concerned. After interacting with people of different religious. Akbar concluded that all religious preach a common message of love for humanity.
He felt that it the best points of all religious could be combined, the people of his empire would greatly path called the “Din-I-ffliahi” or divine monotheism-religion of one God. It was on the main ideals given in all religions.
The basic principles of Din-I-IIahi were very simple. It encouraged belief in one God. Akbar declared himself as the spiritual guide of his people. He discouraged the killing of animals people.
He discouraged the killing of animals giving cruel punishments to criminals, the custom of sati, eating flesh, onion, Garlic, etc.
The practice of worshipping the sun, fire and other sources of light was an important part of it. Akbar also popularized the principle of sulh- i-kul or peace with all.
This was primarily aimed at achieving eace, tolerance and unify in a county of diverse religion. According to some historian Akbar’s din-i9llahi was very similar to asoka’s Dhamma.
Din-i-llahi was not a new religion. It did not have any sacred books, rituals, priests or places of worship. It was only a code of moral conduct.
To most people, it appeared to be very heavy on philosophy. Hence, few people accepted it. Raja Birbal has one of the few who accepted it. Akbar respected the views of everyone and never forced anyone to follow it.
Din- i-llahi feded out after Akbar. Indeed, to preserve the unity of India and to maintain religious harmony between Hindus and Muslim Akbar promulgated the Din-i-ilahi.
Write a notes on Mughal Painting.
The art of painting was shall mark of Islamic culture. The Mughal emperors were patronized the beautiful painting of the day. The period of Jahangir was called ‘Garden Age’ in the field of Mughal painting. The mosques, tombs & palace testified to the artistic acumen of the masons.
Special the floral designs, adorning the walls of mausoleums and mosques were copied from the embroidery and textile work of the Indians.
There were well known styles of painting such as the Gujarati, Rajasthani and Kashmiri before the Mughals, established their rule. The Mughals added new styles of painting.
The Mughal emperors encouraged the Indian artists to draw pictures on Subjects its of stories written in India and foreign languages. They inspired them to pain pictures of historical events and famous persons.
By that time the most interesting stories of the Indian ‘Panchatantra’ were translated to different Mulsim languages. Akbar advised his artists to decorate the Panchatantra stories with paintings.
The pages of the manuscripts of the Panchatantra were covered with life like small paintings of various creatures in different colours. Those paintings made the stories very attractive and very popular.
The time of Emperor Jahangir had been described as the golden age of the Mughal painting. Jahangir paid greeter attention to painting than to architecture.
The artists of his time were experts in painting of nature scenes of landscape of birds & beats and human beings. The pictures were small in size, but looked realistic.
The emperor patronized the painters and honoured them in the royal court. The memories of Jahangir known as Tazuki Jahangir contained many pictures of real scenes, such as the scene of coronation picture of the emperor, of the court and hunting of animals etc. The most celebrated printers of Jahangir’s time were abul Hasson, Muhammad nadir Bishan Das & Son.
The Miniature paintings were persevered inside picture albums. Such albums were may in number. The paintings contained the names of the painters.
They used such fine brushes than even the hairs of the beards of the saints or on the father of birds could be counted. After the decline of the Mughals, foreign merchants took away many of the picture albums to western countries.
Such albums are now available in the muslum of Tehran, London, Berlin. The western artists were greatly influenced by the Indian miniature painting and painted the stories of the Bible in that pattern.
Analyse the impact of Bhakti movement.
The Bhakti movement brought about harmony between the Hindus and the Muslims. It gave birth to a new sect. i.e. Sikhism. Akbar’s broad out look was no other its impact.
Social impact: The most important social impct of the Bhakti movement was that the followers of the Bhakti movement rejected the caste distination. They began to mix together on the basis of equality.
They took their meals together from the common kitchen. The movement tried to bosen the bond of caste. A spirit of harmony among different sections of society and religion received impectus.
The evil practice of sati received some set back. The status of women received more importance.
Religious impact: The movement aroused awakening among the Hindus and Muslims Regarding the futility of ritualism and superstitions. The feeling of appreciation of the two religions emerged. The movement encouraged religious toleration.
Guru Granth Saheb the holiest book of the Sikhs which was complied later on included the messages of saints belonging to different sects. This was on account of the spirit of toleration preached by the Bhakti saints.
Promotion of regional languages of the common people: In place of Sankrit, Arabic and Persian, the Bhakti saints preached through the medium of local languages which could be understood very easily.
For instance the language of Kabir was a mixture of several languages of everyday use. Sudar used ‘Brig’ dialect. Goswami Tulasi Das composed his works in ‘Awadhi’
Political influence: Some of the rulers adopted liberal religious policies due to the impact of the Bhakti movement. For example Akbar the great.
Moral influence: The movement attempted to infuse a spirit of piety in the daily life of the people. It emphasized earning of wealth through hard work and honest means. It encouraged the value of social service to the poor and the needy.
It developed a humanitarian attitude. It pointed out the virtues of contentment anger greed and vanity. To sum up the Bhakti movement succeded to some extent to reform Hindu religions and society during medieval period of India.
Discuss the life and teachings of Kabir :
Kabir was a great reformer of the Bhakti movement in India during mediaval age. His parentage and childhood are shrouded in mistery. It is however, believed that he was bom in 1440 A.D. He was nourished by a Muslim weaver named Niru. A muslim couple. Nima and Niru took proper care of Kabir.
As the couple were poor, they could not provide him any education. But Kabir developed-a-love for religion. Ramananda was his spiritual preceptor.
Mean while he married a girl named-Lohi and became the father of two children. Gradually he started preaching his faith, in the Hindi language. In 1510 Ad he died at Moghar in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
Teachings: The teachings of Kabir was very simple. He emphasized the unity of God. He used to say Ram and Rahim Were the two different names of the same God. Further he used to say that all the Hindus and muslims are-the children of the same God. To him the Hindus and the Muslims are brothers.
He advocated that there was no distinction between man and man between caste and caste high and low rich and poor. Kabir strongly denounced idol worship, going on pilgrimages, bathing in holy rivers, performance of rituals etc.
To him devotion to God and love for man are the best one should have purify of heart.
This can be had ‘ not by reading the Vedas or the karan not by performing rites and rituals, but by chanting the glories of God. Through love and devotion one could achieve salvation.
He acknowledged no caste distinctions. He condemned the orthodox practices of the Brahmins and maulvis. For the worship of God. The teachings of Kabir were of great appeal to both the Hindus and the Muslims.
His followers were known as Kabir Panthis. Since he was not very educated, he wrote nothing. His teaching was oral. He expressed it through little poems which are popular as do has or couplets.
It was after his death that all his do has were collected in a book named Bijak (the sed book), it is regarded as the principal religious text of the Kabirpanthis.
Discuss the life and teachings of Nanak.
Nanak (1469-1538 A./D.) was the founder of Sikhism, Nanak was an exponent of the Bhakti Movement. He was born in 1469 A.D. at Talwandi in Lahore district now in Pakistan. His father’s name was Kalu. His mother’s name was Tripath. Nanak had no interest in his studies during his childhood.
He engaged himself in religious discussion with saints and sages. Due to this unusual development in Nanak, his tather got him married off to a girl named Loi got two sons.
There after his brother in-law (sister’s husband) jairam took him to Sultanpur and arranged a job for his under Stultan. Daulat khan Lodi. But he gave up his job and home and led the life of an ascetic.
He was then thirty years old. He travelled extensively in and beyond India to acquire knowledge different religions. He breathed his last in 1538 A.D. at Kartafpur in the Punjab on the eve of his death Nanak nominated one of his disciples, Angada be his successor.
Teaching: Firstly, Nanak heralded the brother hood of man. He said that there is no distinction between the Hindus and the Muslims, between high caste and low between religions and religion, Secondly he taught that God is one and he is formless.
Thirdly, he taught that through love and devotion (Bhakti) one can get the grace of God.
Fourthly, Nanak believed in the existence of the soul and his views on the soul were simple. He stated that man is bonded to the cycle of birth and death.
Fifthly, Nanak opposed all evil rituals and practices which were creating hurdle in the name of religion. He stated that merely by going on pilgrimage or bathing in pure water did not help man reach God. Purity of mind truthfulness and good work helped one in attaining Godhood.
Sixthly, for the attainment of Godhood Nanak used to say only a pure heart helps one in realizing God, One’s heart can be made pure by praeticihg-morality and good qualities such as truth, honesty, humanity, mercy and moral character.
Seventhly, Nanak did not attach any importance to the supremacy and influence of the Brahmin priests of Maulavis, Nanak laid stress on the rede of the Gurus for the spiritual development of a person.
Nanak spread his teaching all over India with his disciple Mardana. Punjab, written in Gurumukhi, was the language of his teachings. He used to teach by reciting Bhajanas.
Nanak laid the foundation of a new religion named as Sikhism. The word Sikh is derived from the Sanskrit term sishya meaning disciple. The teachings of Nanak have been in coporated in the book Adigrantha.
It is popularly known as Granth Saheb. It is the sacred text of the Sikhs. The fourth Guru Ramdas constructed the famous Golden temple at Amritsar which is now the chief centre of Sikhism. Inspired by Nanak’s teaching many people embraced Sikhism.
Discuss the life & teachings of Sri Chaitanya.
Sri Chaitanya (1486-1533 A.D.) was an exponent of Bhakti Movement. He was born at Nawadip (Naida) situated on the banks of the Bhagirathi in West Bengal.
His father was Jagannath Mishra and mother Sachi Devi. His early name was Biswambhar. He was popularly known as Nimai. His parents used to call him Gama as he was white (Gaura) in complexion. Nimai studied in Sanskrit school and became a great pundit in Sanskrit, literature, grammar and logic.
After formal education he was married to Lakhsmi. But he has no desire to lead a worldly life. At the age of twenty two Chaitanya went to Gaya to offer Pinda to his deceased father.
There he met a saint named Ishwarapuri who initiated him with the Krishna Mantra. Thereafter he went on reciting the name of Lord Krishna. In 1510 he left home and became a sanyasi.
Then he came to Puri. From Puri, Sri Chaitanya went to South India, Varindaban, Mathura kasha, Prayag, Somnath, Dwaraka and a few other places or religious importance. He travelled all over India for six years. Chaitanya returned to Puri in 1515 and stayed there till his death in 1533 A.D.
Teachings: The fundamental teachings of Sri Chaitanya was love and love for Krishna. He put emphasis the name of Krishna and Radha. By uttering the name of Krishna and by having deep faith on one’s Gum or preceptor, one could attain salvation one of his principal disciples was a Muslim named Yavan Hari Das.
Sri Chaitanya was opposed to rites and rituals. He was against the priestly system. Speaking of the means to come nearer to God he said, “See everybody equally, treat man as your brother give up ego and anger, show kindness to animals and recite the name of God.
Then only you can attain god. While praying Sri chaitanya used to say O Krishna. I do not want education, power or followers. Give me a little which will enhance my devotion to you.
Sri Chaitanya laid greater emphasis on Kirtans. In his opinion true worship of God depended on love devotion, music (song) and dance. He said that it was through Singing Kritans, one could attain godhood.
The kirtAnswertransformed the surroundings into a divine atmosphere. Hence he suggested reaching God through the medium of Kirtans.
He accepted Brahmins, Sudras, Chandalas and Muslims as his discriples and created a bond of fraternity among them. His other great message to mankind was to love all living beings.
Chaitanya accepted some fundamental principles of the Sankhya philosophy. According to this there was no difference between the name of God and his incarnation.
His personality and preaching of love won the heart of the people in all parts of India. Bengal, Orissa & Vrindabaft became main centre of Vaisnavism. After his death, he is being worshipped as Gouranga Mahaprabhu.
Stress the origin of the Sufi movement and its impact in India.
There is no unanimity of opinion among the scholars regarding the origin of Sufism in India. Whereas Yusuf Hussain held the view that Sufism was born out of Islam and foreign ideas and practices A.L.S.
Srivastava believed that Sufism was profoundly influenced by Hindu thoughts, beliefs and practices. Prof. K. A. Nizami opines of the development of their order in India.
Such practices include bowing before the Shaikh, presenting water to visitors, circulating a bowl and shaving the head of new entrants of the Sufi order etc. Diversity of views persists regarding the origin of the word “Sufi”. Some scholars hold the view that die word “Sufi” is derived from the word “Safa” meaning pure.
Hence the Sufi saints are associated with a life of purity and renunciation of the world some other believe that the word Sufi originates from the word “Sooph” meaning wool.
Therefore the Sufi saints put on woolen clothes after the death of Prophet Muhammad. The third view is that the word “Sufi” is derived from the Greek world “Sophia” meaning knowledge.
The fourth view is that Sufis took shelter outside the Mosques constructed by Prophet Muhammed at Madina and got devoted to God. The Sufi saints in India succeeded in converting a large number of Hindus to Islam. The message of equality of Islam encouraged the lower castes to get converted into Islam.
The sufi saints adopted some of the practices of the Hindu Sadhus and their behavioural pattern in order to dispel any doubt from the minds of the Hindus. Even they did not hesitate to make use of the authority to compel the Hindu to embrace Islam.
Rabia of Basra was one of the earliest sufis who said “Love of god hat so absorbed me that neither Love nor hate of many other thing remains in my heart” A real metaphysical basis to Sufism was provided by Abu Himid-al-Ghazale.
Abdual Karim-al-Jili believed that man attains spiritual perfection by passing through four stages. He was very much influenced by Hindu Vedanta. A large number of sufi saints appeared in India, particularty after the Ghazanavid conquest of Punjab.
Prominent among them were Shaikh Islam of Lahore Date Ganj Baksh and Sayyid Ahmed Sultan Sakhir Sarwar During the period from 1200 to 2500 A.D. a large number of new Sects and movement formed a mid way between Hinduism and Islam.
According to Abul Fazl, the sufis were divided into fourteen orders in India, the important being the Chisti, the Suhrawardi, the Naqshbandi, the Quadiri the Qulandaria and the Shuttari orders.
The Chisti order was founded by Khwaja Abdul Chisti in Heart. Khwaju Muin-Din- Chisti bought it to India. He was the founder of the Chisti order in India and as such he is considered the greatest among the Sufi saints in India. He preached that the greatest form of devotion of God consisted in service to humanity.
Therefore he spent his life in the service of the lower caste and the downtrodden people. Saikh Hamid-ud-din and Shaikh Qutb-ud-din Bakhtyar Kaki were the best disciples of Khwaja Mainud-din Chisti. Jhaikh Farid-ud-din Masud Ganj-i-shakar was a disciple of Kaki.
He was one of the most respected sufis in India who believed that one should keep away from kings and nobles because the ultimate result of such friendship is grief.
Also Shaikh Nizam- ud-din Aaliya considered it below his dignity to pay a visit to a sultan. His principles were based in love nad humanity.
He wrote O Muslims I swear by God that he holds dear those who love him for the sake of God. This is the only way to love and adore God. Another great sufi saint was Saikh Nazir-ud-din Mahmud who avoided kings and their courts.
The Chisti sufi saints lived simple and pure lives. They considered that possession of property is a big hindrance in the development of their personality.
They cultivated fasting in order to weaken and control their basic desires. They asked their followers to lead a life of asceticism amidst poverty. The disciples of the Chisti-Sufi saints depended on the charity of ordinary people.
They practiced 40 days of hard ascetic exercise in a cell or some lonely place and 40 days of ascetic exercise performed with the head on the ground and the legs tied to the roof or a brunch of a tree and the control of meditation.
Shaikh Shibad-ud-din Suhrawardi founded the Sutrawarder order. Shaikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya Suharwardi founded the Suhardwardi order in India. He led a comfortable life and did not believe in political affairs.
He did not prefer to come in contact with ordinary people and accepted gifts from the nobles and kings.
Therefore, a large number of people belonging to the upper stratum became his followers. The Suhrawardis were keen to convert Hindus to Islam and they were taking the help of the rich persons and administration in this regard. The Firdausia order was founded by Shaikh- harf-ud-din.
Yahya who believed that he union with God is not like the union of a body or of a substance with a substance, or of an accident with an accident.
He laid emphasis on the service of humanity and wanted his followers to serve the needy. His view was that the nearest way God was to help the needy and offer a helping hand to the downtrodden.
The nakshabandi order was founded in India by the followers of Khwaja Pir Mahmmad. It reached its climax under the leadership of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi. He opposed the pantheistic philosophy of the Sufis and advanced his own theory of the unity of phenomena Sikhindi said.
The monarch is to the words as the heart is to the body. If the heart reains pure, so does the body and vice-versa. The purity and impurity of the state depends upon the ruler. He believed that Islam and Hinduism were the anti-theses of each other.
The sufis put emphasis on the unity of God and gave priority to the means of devotion over rituals and ceremonial pilgrimages and fasts. The Sufis also maintained a high standard of morality and discipline by voicing against all vices like drinking. Gambling slavery etc. They also preached the gospel of brotherhood of man.
Due to such reasons the Sufis could be able to attract the lower classes of the Hindus who were prevented from reading the scriptures or entering the temples thus the Sufis were instrumental in maintaining the social equilibrium of the medieval society.