Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions
Very Short-Answer Type Questions
The traveler Al-Beruni was of which reign and in which of his book the social condition of India is seen?
The traveler Al-Beruni belongs to the region of Arab. In his written book of Tahiq-EHind, we came to see the social condition of India.
When and the time of which Muslim sultan Al-Beruni had come to India and how many books he had written about India?
Al-Beruni had come to India in 1017 A.D. and at the time of Mahmud of Ghazni’s Indian invasion. Regarding India, he has written 20 books.
According to the description of Al-Beruni which prevailing system was prominent in Indian society and which community was in the highest position in society?
According to the description of Al-Bruni, the prevailing system of caste system was prominent in Indian society. Brahmins reserved the highest position in society.
According to the description of Al-Beruni in the sphere of Brahmins which religious Ashram prevailed and how many Ashrams?
According to the description of Al-Beruni in the sphere of Brahmins, the religious “Chaturashram” has prevailed in society. The number of Ashrama was four.
According to the description of the traveler Al-Beruni which marriage system was prohibited in Hindu society? In the sphere of women were the many husband-accepting systems prevailed?
According to the description of the traveler Al-Beruni, the “same clan” marriage system was prohibited in Hindu society. In the sphere of women, the system of many husbands in the acceptance prevailed in the hill areas.
The traveler Ibn-Battuta belongs to which region and he had come to India at the time of which sultan?
The traveler Ibn-Battuta belongs to the African region. He had come to India at the time of the Sultan Muhammad-Bin-TughlaQuestion
In which written book of Ibn-Battuta the social picture has been given and in this book written in which language?
In the written book of “Rihla” by Ibn-Battuta, the social picture has been given. This book is written in the Arabian language.
According to the description of Ibn-Battuta, the Hindus of India celebrated which festivals?
According to the description of Ibn-Battuta, the Hindus of India celebrated the festivals like “Holi”, “Diwali”, “Dushahera” etc.
Who were Francois Berrier and belongs to which nation and in India, he was appointed as the personal physician of whom?
Francois Berrier wets a French physician and traveler. He was appointed as the personal physician of prince Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Saha Jahan.
In which book Francois Berrier has described the social picture in the reign of the Mughals and which personalities were in the highest position?
In the book “Travels in the Mughal Empire,” Francois Berrier described the social picture in the Mughal reign. According to him the personalities in the highest position were the king himself his courtiers, the king’s family kith and kin, etc.
According to Francois Berrier, the social condition of Hindus is based upon which principle and to which system he has condemned as a social evil?
According to Francois Berrier, the social condition of Hindus is based upon the principle of the caste system. He has condemned the caste system as a social evil.
At first, the Muslims of which country invaded India, and before the invasion the Muslims were engaged in trade on which coast?
At first, the Muslims of Arab countries invaded India. Before the invasion, the Muslims were engaged in trade on the Malabar coast.
Who was the administration of Iraq under Khalifà at the time of the beginning of the eighth century and at that time who was the Hindu king of Sindh?
Hejaz was the administrator of Iraq under Khalifa at the time of the beginning of the eighth century. At that time Dahir was the Hindu king of Sindh.
On which A.D. Muhammad-bin-Kasim with his army invaded and entered Sindh and on which A.D. did they conquer some places of Sindh and Punjab?
On 712A.D. Muhammad-bin-Kasim with his army invaded and entered Sindh. In 713 AD. they conquered some places of Sindh and Punjab.
After Sabuktagin who was the king of Gazni and by assuming which title he strengthened his position?
After Sabuktagin his son Mamud was the king of Gazni. He assumed the title “Sultan” and strengthened his position.
Sultan Mahmud had invaded India from which AD. to which A.D. and for how many times he invaded India?
Sultan Mahmud invaded India from 1000 A.D to 1027 AD. He invaded India seventeen times.
On 1175A.D. Muhammad Ghori waged an invasion against India and captured which region. At that time who ruled over Delhi and Ajmer?
In 1175 A.D. Muhammad Ghori waged an invasion against India and captured Multan. At that time the Chauhan dynasty ruler Prithviraj ruled over Delhi and Ajmer.
The first battle of Tarain was fought in which between whom?
The first battle of Tarain was fought in 1191 A.D. It was fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chouhan.
What was the result of the second battle of Tarain and which newness was created for it?
In the second battle of Tarain Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Muhammad Ghori. The newness in this battle was that Muslim reign was established in Delhi and North India.
When Maham made Chon dead and after him who took the administration charge of Delhi?
Muhammad Ghori died on 1206 Ai). After him, his faithful commander Kuttabuddin Aibak took charge of the Delhi administration independently.
After Kuttabuddin who took charge of the Delhi administration?
After Kuttabuddin in 1211 A.D., Ilnitmish became the emperor of Delhi.
When Allauddin Khfflji by staining who became the sultan of Delhi?
Allauddin Khiji staining to his father-in-law Jalaluddin became the sultan of Delhi.
For which administrative policy the reign of Allauddin KhIljI is memorable?
For the administrative policy of the “Market regulating system,” the reign of Allauddin Khilji is memorable.
After the death of their father prince, Juna Khan was styled in which name took in charge of the throne and he ruled from which A.D. to which A.D.
After the death of their father prince, Juna Khan styled himself Muhammad bin-Tughlaq took charge of Delhi’s throne. He ruled from 1325 A.D. to 1351 A.D.
When the first battle of Panipat was fought and what was the result of this battle?
The first battle of Panipat was fought in 1526A.D. between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi. The result of this battle was that the reign of the Sultans came to an end.
In the sultan’s administration to whom importance was given and in his name what was read?
In sultan, administration importance was given to “Khalifa”. In the name of Khalifa “Khutba” was read.
In sultan administration which religious law had given importance and with this law which law and condition widely prevailed?
In the sultan administration, the I slam law “Sariyat” had given utmost importance. The law and condition of the state have widely prevailed.
The administration of sultan reign prevailed by which law and by which clan they were dealt with?
The administration of the sultan’s reign prevailed by “Quoran” law. They were dealt with by the religious clan “Ulema”.
Who was the chief of the sultan’s administration and at the same time he was the supreme of which system?
The Sultan was the chief of administration. At the same time, he was an administrator, chief executive, and chief lawgiver.
What was the name of the ministry at the central level and which people were getting a chance in this administrative sphere?
The name of the ministry at the central level was “Mazlis-E-Khalwat”. In this administrative sphere, the people of learned and experienced got a chance.
At the central level, how many eminent members were the help of important works to the sultan and advised him and they were called what?
At the central level, four numbers eminent members were the help of important works to the sultan and advised him. They were called as “Raizan-E-Daroga”.
In the absence of the sultan who was the administrative head of the state and in which field he took in charge of the administrative system?
In the absence of a sultan, the Prime Minister or wazir was the head of the state. In the minor age of sultan, Wazir can take charge of the administrative system.
“Diwan-E-Urge” was the minister of which department and this minister gave suggestions to the sultan in which matter?
“Diwan-E-Urge” was the minister of the defense department. This minister gave suggestions to the sultan regarding the military system and war.
What was told to the minister engaged in the duty of state postal information and he was engaged on which letter corresponding?
“Diwan-E-Insa” was told to the minister engaged in the duty of state postal information. He was engaged in royal letter correspondence.
The minister who was engaged in military work was called what and which was he was maintained?
The minister was engaged in military work called “Ariz-E-Malik”. He maintained the works like appointments, communication, weapons, military commodities -etc.
What was the designation of the Chief Justice of the Kingdom and by administering that department he also administered to which other departments?
Kizi-E-Mamalik was the designation of the Chief Justice of the Kingdom. By administering that department he was also in charge of Madrasa, Philanthropic and common distribution work.
What was the designation of the spy and corresponding head in the sultan age and what was his chief work?
Baird-E-Mamalik was the designation of the spy and corresponding head. His Chief work was to appoint spies in different regions of the country and to communicate the actual state of affairs.
What was the designation of the minister of agriculture and which work he performed?
Amir-E-Koh was the designated of agriculture minister. His chief was to deal with various methods of cultivation, cultivators, and all works regarding this aspect.
What was the designation of the Urban Development Minister and which work of the country was in his custody?
Mir-E-Amrat was the designated of urban development minister. Eminent construction works were held in his custody.
What was called to the Chief of the royal family and the royal palace and to which important work he had to deal?
The Chief of the royal family and royal palace was called “Vakil”. His Chiefwork was to deal with the menu of the royal kitchen, deal with important festivals, and give hospitality to the royal guests.
In the sultan age what was the designation of the Hindu revenue collectors?
In the sultan age, the Hindu revenue collectors were designated as Khat. Choudury and Mukaddum.
Who were the Chief foreign travelers in the sultan age?
The Chief foreign travelers were Macro polo and Ibn-Battuta.
In Indian History, the Muslim administration was commonly divided into how many parts?
In Indian History, the Muslim administration was commonly divided into two parts. They were the sultan Age and Mughal Age.
In the sultan Age who was the caretaker of religious institutions and which chief work, he had to deal with?
In the sultan Age, the caretaker of the religious institutions was Sadar-Us-Sadar. His Chief work was to propagate and circulate religious principles.
What was the designation of the minister of punishment to manage the marriage customs of the girls of poor Muslim families?
The designation of the minister of punishment and management of marriage customs of the poor Muslim family named “siyasat”
Which was the capital city in the Sultan Age and which dignitary was in change of administration?
Delhi was the capital city of the sultan’s age. “Katual” dignitary was in charge of the administration of the capital.
What was called to the states in the Sultan administration and who was the chief of income-expenditure and revenue?
“Beta” was called to the state in the sultan’s administration. Diwan-E-Wizarat was the Chief of income-expenditure and revenue.
Each state was divided into which units and who was the head of these units?
Each state was divided into “Sik”. In each, a sirdar or Nazim was appointed.
What was the specialty in sultan age tributary states and mention the name of two main tributary states?
The specialty in sultan age tributary states was that in a special condition they circulate their own coins. The name of two important tributary states was Ranthambar and Devagiri.
In the sultan’s administration what were the names of the union territories and what was the name of the administrative chief of this area?
In the sultan’s administration “Khalsa” was the name of the union territories. Its administrative chief was Amir or Sahaba who was directly appointed by the sultan.
Which type of costly garments were used by the sultans in the sultan Age?
The costly garments in the sultan Age were Diba-E-Hata (seven-color princely dresses) and Bishan-E-Jamuradi (Dress with gems) and so also foreign clothes were imported.
What was the name of the foreign traveler at the time of Jahangir and what is known regarding the menu of Mughals from his accounts?
Sir Thomas Roe was a foreign traveler who came at the time of Jahangir. It is known in his account that in the Mughal age at a time twenty numbers of dishes can be found on the table of Amirs.
What was the name of the historian of Akbar’s court and what was the name of his written book?
The name of the historian of Akbar’s court was Abul Fazil. The name of his written book was Ain -E-Akbari.
In 1563 AD and 1564 AD which takes were withdrawn from Hindus by Akbar?
In 1563 AD and 1564 AD the taxes like pilgrimage tax were withdrawn from Hindus.
In 1575 where Samrat Akbar built a worship hall what was the name of that worship hall?
In 1575 Samrat Akbar built a worship hall in the new city of Fatepur Sikri. That worship was named “Ibadutt Khanna”.
From the discussions of various religions which new “ism” came into existence and when Akbar declared this heavenly faith?
From the discussions of various religions the new “ism” Din-I-Illahi or Heavenly faith.
Who built the tomb of Humayun and who was its architect?
By the memory of Humayun, his widow-wife Hamidabanu Begum built the “ Humayan Tomb” in Delhi. The architect of this tomb was Miraz Mirzaliyas of Persia.
The reign of which Mughal monarch is considered the highest time of Mughal art and sculpture and this time is considered by historians as which time?
The reign of Mughal monarch Sahajahan is considered the highest time of Mughal art and sculpture. This time is considered the “period of marble” by historians.
What was the eminent sculptural episode at Agra built by Sahajahan & for whose shake it was built?
The name of the eminent sculptural episode at Agra built by Sahajahan is “Taj Mahal”. It was built as a tomb tower for the departed wife of Saha Jahan Aiju Mandbanu popularly known as Mumtaj Mahal.
Samrat Sahajahan to glorify his dignity and wealth built which eminent architect and how many years are required for this episode?
Samrat Sahajahan to glorify his dignity and wealth built the “Peacock Throne”. At that time seven years were required for this episode.
Which son of Sahajahan has secured small pictures of the Mughal age in his album narrow these valued pictures are seen in the library of which city?
The elder son of “Sahajahan Dara-Shiko has secured small pictures of Mughal age in his album. Now, these valuable pictures are seen in the library of London city.
Question 62. Which eminent stories in Ancient India were renewed in the Mughal world and which Mughal Kind or mousy picturized these stories which were widely accepted?
The ancient Indian story “Pancha Tantra” was renowned in Mughal World. Mughal king Akbar enormously picturized these stories which were widely accepted.
Before the Muslim age in which century which Indian saints advocated the theory of “Omnism” derived from the philosophy of IJpanishad?
Before the Muslim age, in the century A.D., the eminent Hindu saint Sankaracharya advocated the theory of “Omnism” derived from the philosophy of the Upanishad.
Who was the first preacher of “Sufism” in India and he was born at where and when?
The first preacher of “Sufism” in India was Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti. He was bom at Seisthan in 1143 A.D.
When Khwaja Muinuddin was living in Ajmer who was the king of that area and the king sent which chief priest of Ajmer to Khwaja to evacuate Ajmer?
When Khwaja Muinuddin was living in Ajmer the king of that area was Prithviraj Chowhan. He sent Chief Priest of Ajmer Ram Deo to Khwaja to accurate: Ajmer.
Who was the young disciple of Khwaja Mainuddin Chisti and what was his specialty?
Shaikh Hammiduddin was the young disciple of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti. His importance was that he translated the principles of Sufism into local languages and preached them.
Who was the eminent disciple of Baba Farid and he was born where and in which A.D.?
Nizamuddin Aulia was the eminent disciple of Baba Farid. He was bom at Badaun in 1236 A.D.
Which Sultan requested many times to meet Nizamuddin Aulia and which message was sent to him by Nizamuddin?
Sultan Alauddin Khilji requested many times to meet Nizamuddin Aulia. Nizamuddin sends a message to him that “There are two doors in my home. If sultan enters my home through one door then I shall exit through another door”.
By viewing the religious impact of Nizamuddin Aulia which sultan was various to him and he ordered him to left Delhi. On return what Nizamuddin has told?
By viewing the religious impact of Nizamuddin Aulia sultan Giyasuddin Tughlaq was favorable to him. He ordered him to left Delhi and in return got an answer that “Delhi is now so far from you”.
Which Sufi saint has come from Badaun to Delhi and he was titled as what?
Sufi saint Nasiruddin Aulia has come from Badaun and settled in Delhi. He was titled “Pioneer of Delhi”.
Which Sufi saint was an eminent writer and philosopher and in which region in India he preached Sufism and popularise this movement?
Saint Khwaja Banda Nawaz was an eminent writer and philosopher. In the southern region of India, he preached Sufism and popularize this movement.
Who was the introducer of the survey Vardi clan of Sufism and for the propagation of this movement to whom he engaged in India?
Shaikh Sihabuddin Survavardi was the introducer of the survey of the Vardi clan of Sufism. For the propagation of this movement in India, he engaged his disciple Shaikh Bahauddin Zakaria.
The people of which country was much more interested in the principles of Sufism? Many people of which clan converted to Islam religion?
The people of Bangladesh were much more interested in the principles of Sufism. Many people of the Hindu clan were converted to Islam religion.
At the beginning of the twelfth century which saint preached Vaishnavism and so also introduced the Bhakti Cult of India? He was born in which region of India?
At the beginning of the twelfth-century saint Ramanuja preached Vaishnavism and so also introduced the Bhakti cult in India. He was born in the Andhra region of India.
After Ramanuja which saint in the Bhakti cult was the chief preacher and for which policy he was famous?
After Ramanuja, the saint Nimbark in the Bhakti cult was the Chief Preacher. He was famous for his “Dividend Policy”.
In the thirteenth century which chief saint in the Bhakti cult was famous in south India? His Bhakti philosophy of him was narrated in which book?
In the thirteenth century, the chief saint Madhaba was famous in south India. The Bhakti philosophy about him was narrated in the book “Sutra Bhasya”.
In the fourteenth century among the Vaishnav saints who was the chief preacher and he was born at where?
In the fourteenth century among the Vaishnav saints saith Ramanand was the chief preacher. He was bom at prayag.
In Middle Ages among the Bhakti preachers which saint secured an eminent position? When he was born and when he was dead?
In the Middle Ages among the Bhakti preachers, Sant Kabir secured an eminent position. He was born in 1440 A.D. and died in 1510 A.D.
What was told the Hindi Bhajans of Kabir and after Kabir, his disciples were named as what?
The Hindi Bhajans of Kabir are known as “Doha”. After his disciples were known as “Kabirpanthi”.
The Bhakti preacher Guru Nanak of the Middle Ages was born in which village and when?
The Bhakti preacher Gum Nanak of the Middle Ages was born in the village Talwandi near Lahore in 1469 A.D.
The published Bhajan text of Nanak was popular as which text and his disciples are regarded as what?
The published Bhajan text of Nanak was popular as “Adigranth”. The disciples of Nanak are regarded as “Sikhs”.
When Nanak was dead and before his death to whom he chose as his successor?
Nanak was dead in 1538 A.D. Before his death he choose Angad, one of his disciples as his successor.
Which Sikh Guru built the “Golden Temple” at Amritsar and which text was worshipped there?
Fourth Sikh Gum Ram Das built the “Golden Temple” at Amritsar. The text “Adi Grantha” was worshipped there.
Who was the poet of the renowned “Ramcharita Manas” and in which part of India he was a famous saint?
Saint Tulsi Das was the poet of the renowned “ Ramacharita Manas”. In North India, he was a famous saint.
Where Sri Chaitanya was born and what was his nickname?
Sri Chaitanya was bom 1486 A.D. at Nahadwie of Bengal. His nickname was Biswambara.
Before the completion of which age Sri Chaitanya got initiation from which saint?
Before the completion of 22 years of age, Sri Chaitanya got initiation from the saint Iswarapuri.
Was there a caste barrier before Sri Chaitanya? Which disciple of his was Primarily a Muslim?
No there was no caste barrier before Sri Chaitanya. The disciple of him Yavana Haridasa was primarily a Muslim.
In which state did saith Jnaneswara the Chief of the Bhakti cult and in which language he wrote the Bhagavad Gita which was very popular?
In the state of Maharastra Santh jnaneswara was the Chief of Bhakti cult. In the Marathi language, he wrote Bhagabat Gita which was very popular.
Which Bhakti cult saint was contemporary to Shivaji and he was born in which family?
Bhakti cult saint Jukaram was contemporary to Shivaji. He was born near Poona in a scheduled caste family.
After the deterioration of which religion Bhakti movement was mostly broad and popular religious movement? For this movement which system was relaxed at the maximum point?
After the deterioration of Buddhism, the Bhakti movement was a mostly broad and popular religious movement. For this movement caste system was relaxed to the maximum point.
Short-Answer Type Questions
Role of Al Beruni in mathematics and astronomy?
Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Beruni were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects mathematical geography. His religion contributed to our research of astronomy, as in Islam, Muslim customs require knowing the direction of certain sacred locations, which can actually be found through this type of scientific study.
Biruni’s major work on astrology is primarily an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication. His endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology as “sorcery”.
Al Biruni’s role in History and chronology?
Biruni’s main essay on political history, vital at-Musa mare fi Akbar Kvarazm (book of highly conversation affairs of Karazm) is known only from quotations in Bayhaqi’s Tarikh-e mas. In addition to his various discussion of history and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-Athar-al-vaquita and in the Qanun as well as elsewhere in the Altar in India and scattered through his other works.
Brian’s study of history was not limited to the aforementioned topics, he also touched upon the topic of the earth’s creation. He elaborated upon the fact that the earth was created from the elements and not solely through divine creation. Even though Islam did influence his study, he did knowledge the ride of the elements.
Al Biruni as a pioneer in religion?
Biruni is one of the most important Muslim authorities in the history of religion. All was a pioneer in the study of comparative religion. He studied Zoroastrianism, Jainism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other religions. He treated religions objectively, striving to understand them on their, own forms rather than trying to prove them wrong. His underlying concept was that all cultures at least district relatives of all other cultures because they are all human constructs.
What Al Biruni seems to be arguing is that there is a common human element in every culture that makes all cultures distant relatives, however foreign they might seem to one another. Al Biruni divides Hindus into an educated and uneducated class. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshipped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God.
Early life of Ibn Battuta?
All that is known about Ibn Battuta’s life comes from the autobiographical information included in the account of his travels which records that he was of Berber descent, born into a family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier, Morocco, on 25 February 1304, during the reign of the Marinid dynasty. He claimed descent. from a Berber tribe known as the lowest. As a young man, he would have studied at Malikimadh’had (Islamic jurisprudence School) the dominant form of education in North Africa. Maliki Muslims requested Ibn Battuta serve as their religious judge as he was from or area where it was practiced.
Ibn Battuta’s travelling from Mecca to Aden?
Ibn battuta remained in Mecca for some time (the Rihla suggests about three years, from September 1327 until autumn 1330). Problems with chronology, however, lead common factors to suggest that he may have left after the 1328 hajj. After the hajj in either 1328 or 1330, he made his way to the port of Jeddah on the Red sea coast. From there he followed the coast in a series of boats making slow progress against the prevailing south-easterly winds.
Once in Yemen visited said and later the highland town of Taiz, where he met the Rasulid dynasty king(malik) mujahid Nur al-din Ali. Ibn Battuta also mentions visiting sans’s, but whether he actually did so is doubtful. In all likelihood, he went directly from Taizz to the important trading port of Aden, arriving around the beginning of 1329 or 1331.
Ibn Battuta’s back journey to Morocco?
After returning to Quanzhou in 1346, the Battuta began his journey back to Morocco. In Kozhikode, he once again considered throwing himself at the mercy of Mohammad bin Tughlaq in Delhi but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca. On his way to Basra, he passed through the Strait of Hormuz, where he learned that Abu said, the last ruler of the Dynasty had died in Persia, Abu said’s territories had subsequently lapsed due to a fierce civil war between the Persians and Mongols.
In 1348, Ibn Battuta arrived in Damascus with the intention of retracting the route of his first hajj. He then learned that his father had died 15 years earlier and death became the dominant theme for the next year or so. The black death had struck and he was on a wand as it spread through Syria, Palestine, and Arabica. After reaching Mecca he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter of a century after leaving home. On the way he made one last detour to Sardinia, then in 1349, returned to Tangier by way of Fez, only to discover that his mother Had also died a few months before.
Francois Bernier as a physician and traveler?
Franco Bernier (25 September 1620-22 September 1688) was a Fresh Physician and traveler. He was bom at Joul-Etilaw in Anjou. He was briefly a personal physician to Mughal prince Darashikoh (28 October 1615 – 30 August 1659). The eldest son of the Mughal emperor shakti Jahan and after Dara Shikoh’s demise was attached to the court of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (1 4 October 1618-20 February 1707) for around 12 years during his stay in India.
His 1684 publication division Delatorre parlors different species once (A new division of the Earth) is considered the first published post-classical classification of humans into distinct races. He also wrote Travels in the Mughal Empire, which is mainly about the reigns of Dara Shiloh and Aurangzeb. It is based on his own extensive Journeys and observations, and on information from eminent Mughal courtiers who had witnessed the events firsthand.
Position of women during the sultanate period?
In general, the status of women deteriorated in society. The Purdah system among Muslim women was strictly observed. Sati practice in Hindu society was continued, and polygamy was widely prevalent among Muslims. The nobles and rich Muslims kept a number of wives very little attention were paid to the education of women.
Slave system during the sultanate period?
Slaves were sold like any other commodity. It is understood that there were slave markets also in a few towns. The sultans and the nobles kept slaves in large numbers. The slaves were provided education and training. They were also provided opportunities to rise in their careers. Several of them like Malik rose to eminent positions in the state. Thus, the slave system was a social practice during the sultanate period.
The most famous monument constructed by Shah Jahan is the Taj Mahal. He built it in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Its chief architect was Ustad Isa Khan. It took 22 years to build and was constructed at a cost of 32 million rupees. Over 20000 laborers worked on it day and night. It stands as one of the seven wonders of the World.
It is a wonderful monument constructed by Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan made a fabulous throne for himself to exhibit his wealth. It is famous as the Peacock Throne. The Mughal treasury was full of jewels. Shah Jahan wanted to display them on a throne to cause surprise the man. So he ordered to take out precious jewels worth 86 lakhs of rupees to be used in the throne. When finished the peacock throne became 3 yards by 21 yards and 5 yards in height.
Its canopy was covered with rubies and gems. The canopy was supported by twelve pillars made of emeralds. Two peacocks were designed on each pillar with gems fixed on them. But when each pair of peacocks a tree was designed with rubies diamonds emeralds and pearls fixed on it. Later on, it was taken away from India by Nadir Shah in 1739 A.D.
The Mughal age is famous for the development of painting. The time of the Emperor. Jahangir had been described as the golden age of Mughal painting. Jahangir paid greater attention to painting than to architecture. The artists of his time were experts in painting natural scenes, landscapes, birds and beasts, and human beings. The pictures were small in size but looked realistic.
The emperor patronized the painters and honored them in the royal court. The memo is of Jahangir known as Tuzuk-Jahangir, containing many pictures of real scenes such as the scene of coronation, pictures of the emperor of the court, and of hunting of animals. The miniature painting was preserved inside picture albums.
Meaning of Sufism?
Among Muslim society, Sufism carried a reform movement in the medieval period. Sufism is derived from two Arabic words i.e. safe and safe. The word means a carpet since the Sufis meditated upon God on a carpet, Sufism took its birth i.e. pure people who meditated on a carpet. ‘suF means work. The Muslim saints who wore garments of coarse wool began to be called Sufi saints.
Meaning of the Bhakti movement?
The literal meaning of Bhakti is devotion. But the Bhakti movement implied the movement which emphasized intense devotion to God. This devotion was expressed by a devotee through the repetition of the name of the Almighty. The mode of expression was usually singing and dancing in the praise of God. The saints of the Bhakti movement emphasized that there was no distinction of class, color, caste, etc. All were equal the Bhakti movement believed in leading a pure and simple life.
Results of the Bhakti Movement?
The Bhakti Movement led to significant results, Firstly it was a widespread religious upheaval. Though Kabir, Nanak, and Chaitanya were its Chief exponents, there were several other preachers to play part in it. Saints like Ramananda, Vallabhacharya, and Namadev left a large following. The movement covered all parts of India. Thus it developed an all-India base. The Bhakti Movement was not a movement of the wise few, but of the wider mass. It is said that after Buddhism the Bhakti cult saw the next most popular of all sections its effect was lasting. The most ignorant could think of getting God by uttering His Name.
It is a movement of the sultanate period in Delhi. Its construction was started by Qutatud-din Aibak in 1199 and was completed by Iltutmish in 1230 A.D. It was named after the Muslim saint Qutab-din of Ush (near Bagdad). It is a circular tower and is 72.5 meters high. The diameter of its base is 4 meters while that of its summit is 3.5 meters. The Qutab Minar is built of red sandstone & marble.
Akbar built the Agra Fort on the banks of the Yamuna between 1565-73 AD. In its plan, it forms an irregular semi-circle. The fort is fortified by a 2.4 km long and 21 m. high wall made of red sandstone. It has two big ornamental getaways. One each on its southern & western sides. The whole gateway is decorated with patterns in white marble. Such decorative art has representations of winged dragons, elephants, and birds. This is a fine specimen of Islamic tradition and is not found in any Islamic building in India.
It is a monument of the Mughals, built by Akbar in his new capital at Fathepur Sikhi situated 43 km away from Agra. The construction of this capital began in 1569 A.D. and was completed in 1584 AD Fatehpur Sikri had a wall on three sides with nine gateways & also had an artificial lake. The best examples of Akbar’s buildings are found in Fatehpur Sikri. It was designed as a grand capital with schools, public buildings, palaces, and mosques interspersed with terraces & gardens. The architectural styles of these buildings have Persian influence.
The Jama Masjid near the Red Fort was built by Shah Jahan in the 17th Century AD. It is the biggest mosque in India. It is built on a high platform with three onion-shaped a reservoir of water in the center. This courtyard can accommodate as many as 10000 people at a time. It is built with red sandstone with inlaid white marble. Its construction began in 1644-A.D. & was completed in 1658 A.D.
Buland Darwaza or the Gate of Magnificence was built in 1601 A.D. by Akbar to commemorate his conquest of Gujrat. Its gateway is approached by 42 steps. The Buland Darwaza is 40 m. high & 35 m. wide. It is the greatest gateway in the world. The gage way is read sandstone decorated by carving and interlaying of white marble. On the central face of the Buland Darwaza, there is an inscription in beautiful lettering that symbolizes Akbar’s religious broadmindedness. This inscription is a message from Jesus Christ advising his followers not to consider this world as their permanent home.