Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 4 Teaching Learning Materials Purpose and Uses.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Foundations of Education Unit 4 Teaching Learning Materials Purpose and Uses
Long Type Questions With Answers
What is the importance of Audio Visual aids? Explain?
Sensory experiences form the foundation of intellectual growth. It is a common practice with teachers to communicate knowledge by means of written and oral languages. But language has some limitations which result in bearing difficulties. The modem educationist, therefore, recognizes of audio-visual aids to remove learning difficulties by ensuring concreteness and dynamic interests. The most abstract concept can be presented to the pupils in a concrete way by means of more than one aid. Some of the distinct advantages claimed for audio-visual aids are discussed below.
Audiovisual aids are the best attention compellers:
Those arouse interest and motivate the pupils to action and stimulate physical and mental activity.
Audio-visual aids give variety to the classroom atmosphere:
Variety is always attractive and attention-getting to the child. It breaks the monotony and sustains the attention of the child for a longer period.
Audio reduces verbalism:
Audio-visual aids reduce verbalism or the use of unnecessary language, words and phrases and contribute towards clearness of perception and accuracy in observation
Aids extend freedom:
Aids provide some freedom to the child. The child may freely observe, talk, laugh, question, and comment and may act in a natural manner. An atmosphere of friendliness and cooperation proves inside the classroom between the teacher and the students.
Aids provide first-hand experience:
Audio-visual aids provide first-hand experience when the students see a demonstration, handle the apparatus, perform, the activity operates a model specimen, draw a picture or diagram and manipulate the situation.
Aids being a vivid reality in the classroom:
Aids provide some naturality end reality in the classroom. The students from some images of real objects when they observe. This reduces abstractness and increases Concentrate concepts.
Aids may represent actual sources :
In many cases, actual objects may not be brought to the class for various reasons expensiveness, oversize, danger in handling or difficulty in the collection. In such a situation, the teacher may improvise some aids to represent the real object. For example, it is not possible to bring an elephant to the class, but the teacher can use a mode of the elephant past objects, and distant objects represented through improvised aids.
Aids provide an opportunity to inculcate a scientific attitude and give training in the scientific method:
Children become more sincere, industrious and systematic, they develop the powers of critical thinking, reasoning, and judgement. They develop an enquiring bent of mind through questioning and argument.
Discuss the different types of audio-visual aids and their functions?
For using the senses children different aids may be used by the teacher. On the basis of the senses, the teaching aids may be broadly divided into the following three categories:
- Auditory aids
- Visual aids and
- Audiovisual aids
Auditory aids :
These aids involve the use of the auditory sense or the ear. The children by hearing various sounds can gain some experiences. Instruments used in such auditory aids are radio, tape recorder, and gramophone records.
These aids are meant to utilize the sense of vision, (eye) and therefore are called visual aids. Examples of such aids are many
(a) Charts, globes, specimens
(b) Motion pictures, slides, films
(c) Maps, diagrams, sketches, .models, pictures
(d) Flannel graphs, bulletin board
(e) Printed materials, newspapers
These aids involve the use of both auditory and visual senses and can be simultaneously heard and seen. Therefore, these aids are called as Audio-visual aids. These includes
(a) Sound motion pictures
(c) Dramatic plays
Broad classification of instructional aids:
Broadly Instructional aids can be classified into three categories, as
(a) Projected aids
(b) Non-projected aids and
(c) Activity aids
When a projected aid is used an enlarged image of the material is t projected on a screen kept at a distance from the projector. The room is either totally or partially darkened. A projected aid is bound to be more effective since a darkened room reduces destruction and the bright image on the screen secures the attention of the audience. Colour will make the aid more attractive motio^ more dynamic and motion associated with sound will be most effective.
Projected’aids are suitable for small as well as large groups. Projected materials are shown viewers by means of various projectors. A list of the projected materials is given below. Projected materials include, books, diagrams, pictures, then opaque objects, slides, motion pictures etc. and projectors like Epidia scope, slides projectors, film projectors, motion picture projectors etc.
Non-Projected Aids :
These aids cannot be projected on the wall or on the screen. Such aids individually or in groups can be shown to the students teaching. These can be too, used on the blackboard or classroom walls. All these non-projected aids generally are visual aids.
Examples of these aids are as follows :
- Graphic aids – line graphs, bar graphs, histograms, pictorial graphs
- Diagrams with symbols and labels
- Pictures with various colours, shapes and sizes.
- Maps, illustrations, flat pictures
- Posters, cartoons, sketches
- Charts, models, specimens
- Globes, improvised materials
- Display boards, flannel graphs, bulletin board
Modern educations give stress on learning by doing or learning by experience. The students can get three types of experience during the teaching-learning process.
It consists of having, immediate sensory content with the actual object or place. It is the purposeful experience that is seen handed tested, touched, felt and smelled. Such experiences give first-hand information and are thus the most educative type of experience.
Various experiences :
It refers to the experience gained through the represented or substituted materials models, pictures and specimens, photographs, exhibits and posters. It is not always possible to get direct experiences.’There are situations, objects and phenomena where a representation is better for instructional purposes. For, example, an atom cannot be seen directly but can be studied only through a model or diagram.
Symbolic experience :
Symbolic or abstract experiences are afforded through verbal symbols – oral or written. These experiences occur at the conceptual level. The verbalism is the quickest method representing an experience, at times it becomes more confusing and abstract. These sensory experiences are such effective than, verbal ones. The more will be the number of direct experiences, the more effective will be the learning of a child. Therefore, the teacher must plan activities that can provide first-hand information to, the learners.
Discuss the activity aids and activities that provide direct experiences to pupils in their learning?
From activities, the sensory experiences are gainer which becomes more effective for the learning of a child. The activities that provide direct experiences are as follows.
The learning process should not confine to the four walls of the classrooms. The pupils should be taken away from the school to visit places of educational importance located nearby the school or in the community. They can get some first-hand information regarding the objects or places written in the book or told by the teacher.
Such field trips may be organized to enable the pupils to visit local schools, museums, hospitals, gardens, parks, radio-station, TV stations, telephone exchanges, forests, airports, factories, agricultural and industrial forms, natural spots, and places of such categories situated in the locality. Through field trips, children gather experiences of locality and community life.
Excursions are undertaken mostly for recreation, and pleasure learning experiences outside the local community. The pupils have some knowledge and information the visiting places and the educational information becomes first-hand. They correlate school life with the outside world. Generally, children can be taken to visit lakes, rivers, mountains, forest parks, historical towns, monuments, places of historical importance, airports, zoos, etc. scientific and industrial farms and other places.
The exhibitions arranged in schools are usually planned to communicate something interesting educative and valuable to students, parents and the public. Parents and visitors can have an idea of the talents present in the pupils. Self-activity is fostered in the children who take part in the exhibition.
Individual interests, fancies, and skills are exhibited by the participants. Exhibitions are effective models of mass communication instruction on a large scale. The exhibition must be an annual affair. All students of the school must cooperate and contribute something valuable. Students must be trained as to what features of the exhibit must be stressed while giving explanations.
Museums are the wonderful media for mass education. These institutions collect passive original objects and specimens available in the locality. The students must be encouraged to contribute exhibits to the museum. Each exhibit kept in the museum must be properly labelled giving details about the exhibit and the names of the donor.
The pupils can leam many things from the nature and environment through observation. They can get a comprehensive idea of plant and animal life.
Community resources provide educational learning situations to the pupils. Through community study, the pupils can understand the value of social life, develop citizenship and civic responsibility achieve vocational understanding and economic self-sufficiency. The child leams what is relevant to him. The school must provide a chance for children for talks to and visit postmen, policemen, political leaders, social workers, farmers, and other people, who help the community. Community study must include visits interviews, participation, field trips and journeys Resource persons may be invited to the school to deliver talk to the pupils.
Creativity in children is manifested in a number of activities. By observing these activities the pupils can leam many things and can also get many direct and concrete experiences are as follows.
- Music, dancing, songs
- Arts and crafts,
- Play way. activities, like mock
parliament, and assembly, mock elections, students, self govt., school co-operatives, folk music and folktales etc.
What are objective-based and objective-type test items? What are the different types of objective tests in Mathematics or any subjects?
Tests are essential features in the teaching-learning process. They are used for various purposes. The main purpose is prognosis, diagnosis and survey. Very often we talk of objective-based tests and objective tests. They are not the same. The meaning is different objective-based tests are there which are based on specific objectives. At the beginning, based on specific objectives. At the beginning of the teaching-learning process set certain objectives.
In the end, we have to assess the extent to which broken pupil behaviour patterns and test items asked to evaluate each behaviour pattern. Such test items are called objective-based tests. But, objective test items are those which elicit answers in either a word or in number. Now adays educationists put emphasis on objective test items instead of essay-type items. Various types of objective tests are used.
Alternative response type test :
It is the testing situation in which a pupil has to choose one of the two persons. The items can be answered either ‘yes’ or ‘no’ or by true or false. Such items can even be answered by putting either a tick mark or a cross mark. Example – Some of the following statements are true as some are false. Write ‘T’ against the statement and ‘F’ against false statements in the space provided for Q.
- The three angles of a triangle are 360°.
- The sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.
- The difference in the length of the two sides of a triangle is smaller than the third side.
Completion type :
In this type, items consist of a sentence or statement in which there is a blank space which is to be filled up by the pupils. Alternate responses may be supplied in the bracket among which the pupils have to choose the correct one.
Example – Fill in the blanks:
- The square root of 256 is _____.
- The sum of three angles in the triangle is equal to ______.
Matching type :
In this type of test, two-column of items are given. Each item on the first column is to be matched with the corresponding items on the sound column.
Example Match each item in column ‘A’ with its related item in column‘B’
Multiple choice tests :
In this type of test items with each question are given 4 to 5 possible answers among which only one is the correct answer. The pupils have to choose the correct answer. This type is considered to be the best of objective-type test items.
Example – Choice the correct answer from the four alternatives given below which of the following is correct is a right angle triangle?
(a) All angles are right angles
(b) Two angles are right angles
(c) Only one angle is a right angle
(d) No angle is right angle:
What are the different types of items used in classroom evaluation? What is objective-based evaluation?
Objective-based evaluation :
The evaluation process should be based on the intended learning outcomes. The evaluation process should be organized to access the extent to which the instructed objectives are achieved through instruction. If it is found through evaluation that some objectives have not been achieved to the desirable extent.
It will be inferred that the learning experiences and activities provided and the methods of teaching adopted have not been sufficient or appropriate from this consideration evaluation becomes the basis for continuous review and revision. the entire process of education fills the desired level of efficiency is reached.
Types of test items :
A variety of evaluation tools and techniques are needs to be used for making the evaluation process effective. The most frequently used tests that have a direct relationship with classroom instruction, are the achievement tests. The teacher makes use of these tests to access the achievement of pupils in various school subjects.
A science teacher in a similar manner constructs and uses achievement tests at different times. A variety of test items can be asked by the teacher. The different types of test items can be classified in the following manner. The test items include Essay type short answer type, very short answer type and objective types.
The objective-type test questions include:
- Simple recall/fill in the gaps type.
- Alternate response type
- Multiple choice type
- Correct the error type
- Matching type
- Master lost type
- Analogy type
Essay-type tests :
The items that require a long answer are called essay-type items.
Describe the preparation, properties and uses of carbon dioxide. Explain with a suitable diagram, the cell division (mitosis, in plants and animals)
Short answer type:
The short answer type items usually require answers within a paragraph of about 50-75 words.
Write down the chemical proportion of chlorine, Distinguish between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse.
Very short answer type :
These items require answers within 10-20 words. State two physical properties of oxygen gas, Define buoyancy.
Objective tests :
The objective-type items require answers in a word or a number or a tick mark or the like. As has been mentioned in the classification tables are a large variety of objective-type items. Some of such items with examples are discussed below.
- Simple recall fill in the gaps type – Hydrogen is prepared in the laboratory by the reaction of _______
- A rod made of _______ and H, SO. is, used as an electrode in the dry cell.
Fill in the gap:
Type questions alternate words may also be given in the bracket.
Example: In a dynamic energy is transformed into electric energy (Kinetic, potential, chemical, light)
Alternate Response type:
In this type of item, the examine has to choose the correct answer from among the two alternative answers. The same of each type are yes / no type, right/wrong type (V/x) mark type etc.
Please write ‘R’ for the correct statement and ‘W’ for incorrect statements in the box provided for the purpose.
- Graphite is an amorphous carbon
- The chemical formula of lime is CaO
Multiple Choice type:
This type is considered one of the best types. objective test items. Usually, four or more alternate answers called distracters are given under each question. The examine has to point out the most appropriate answer from among those alternatives.
Example – Which of the following is used in the extraction of iron?
Correct the Error type :
In this type, the examinee has to correct the error if any in a statement
Example – Correct the error if any in the statement without changing the underlined portion. Jupiter is the nearest planet to the sun.
Classification type :
This is also called to find the odd man out type item.
Underline the item which does not fall under the groups. Iron, copper, rubber, aluminium, zinc
Matching type :
In this type of item, there are usually two columns, one acts as a stem and the other as an alternative. The number of items in the alternatives column should be more by two / three items them of the item to avoid the chance element.
Example – Join each word of column ‘ A’ with the appropriate word of column ‘B’
|Column – A||Column – B|
|Alternate Current||Dil. sulphuric acid Voltaic cell Transformer|
|Dry cell||Copper sulphate solution Non-conductor of electricity Dil. Hydrochloric acid|
Analogy type :
In this type of test item, the examinee has to find out an analogous response having the same relationship as in the case of a known relationship.
Example: Fill in the blanks
- C02 : CaC03 = H2:
- Anophelis : Malaria _______ : Philaria :
Discuss the merits and limitations of objective-type tests?
The merits of objective type test:
It can be scored objectively and easily. The scoring will not vary from time to time, from the examiner. In this test, examiner a more extensive and representative sampling can be obtained. This reduces the role of luck and cramming of expected questions. As a result, there is greater reliability and better content validity. It possesses an economy of time, for it takes less time to answer than the easy test, and comparatively, many test items can be presented to students.
It eliminates extraneous factors such as speed of writing, fluency of expression, literacy style good handwriting, neatness etc. It creates an incentive for pupils to build up a broad base of knowledge, skills and abilities. It measures the higher mental process of understanding, application, analysis, predictions and interpretation.
Limitation of objective type test:
Objectives like the ability to organize matter ability to present matter logically and in coherent fashions etc. cart not be evaluated. Guessing is possible. No doubt, the chances of success may be reduced by the inclusion of a large number of items. The construction of the adequate type of test items is difficult. It requires special abilities and is time-consuming. The printing cost is considerably greater than that of an essay-type test.
Discuss the advantages and limitations of short answer items (T/ F) items, matching tests and multiple-choice items?
Short answer items – A short answer item is classified as a supply type/recall type objective item.
Example: Who succeeded Akabar?
A relatively large sample of content can be covered. It is easy to construct. It provides little opportunity for guessing. It is useful in evaluating the ability to interpret diagrams, charts and graphs. It is useful in evaluating spelling and knowledge of a foreign language. It is mathematics and science where a computational answer is required or where a formula or equation is to be written. Objectives understanding, application and problems during skill can be measured with short answer items.
It is less objective than the other type of objective item. It is almost impossible to write good short answer items that require a student to exhibit synthesis and interpretation so that one and only one answer will be correct. It is limited to questions that can be answered with a word, phrase, symbol or number. Its excessive use may encourage a student to memorise and develop poor study habits because short answer items are best for measuring highly specific facts like dress, names, places and vocabulary.
True / False items :
Here the student is presented with a declarative statement that is true or false.
T / F – The sun rises in the east T/F – Columbus discovered America.
Advantages of T/ F items:
They are good for young children who have poor reading habits. They can cover a large portion of the subject matter in a relatively short space and a short period of time. They provide high reliability per unit of testing time. They can be scored quickly, reliably and subjectively. They are adaptable to most content areas. They can be more easily constructed than other objective-type items.
They can be conveniently used to measure :
The ability to identify the correctness of the statement. The ability to distinguish fact from opinion and The ability to recognize the cause-and-effect relationship. It is carefully constructed they can measure the higher mental processes of understanding, application interpretation.
Pupils’ scores on T/F items can be unduly influenced by good or poor luck in guessing. They are more susceptible to ambiguity misinter pretation than any other selection type objective item and here therefore low reliability They lend themselves most easily to cheating.
They tend to be less discriminating Matching tests :
A matching test consists of two columns ‘A’ and ‘B Each item in column ‘A’ is to be paired with an alternative given in column ‘B Usually with the columns containing an unequal number of items.
Match the dates in column ‘B’ with the events in column ‘A’ by writing the number of items in ‘B’ in the space provided.
|1. India got her independence||(i) 1525|
|2. Sepoy muting||(ii) 1857|
|3. Odisha become an
|4. First Battle of Panipat||(iv) 1947|
|5. Death of Mahatma Gandhi.||(v)1948|
Advantages of Matching Test:
Because they require relatively little reading time, many questions can be asked in a limited period of testing time. They afford an opportunity to have a large sampling of the content, which ultimately increases the reliability of the test. The matching test can be Constructed relatively easily and quickly. The matching test gives less opportunity for guessing than, T/F items or M.C. items. Like T/F or MC items they are amenable to machine scoring.
If sufficient care is not taken in their preparation, they may encourage serial memorization rather than association. It is sometimes difficult to get clusters of questions that are sufficiently alive so that a common set of responses can be used. They cannot be very successfully used for measuring understanding of the ability to discriminate because of the difference in finding a homogenous response.
Multiple Choice Items :
Multiple choice test items have stems in form of a statement or a question and more than one option is provided. The examinee has to point out the correct answer.
Example: Stem which of the following men invented the telephone Responses or options,
Advantages of MC items:
They can measure learning outcomes with respect to factual recall, ability to apply to understand, ability to interpret the data ability to reason, ability to exercise judgement, ability to justify methods etc. They can be scored objectively, quickly, and accurately by machines, clerks and even students themselves. The degree of difficulty of the test can be contained by changing the degree of homogeneity of the responses.
They provide valuable diagnostic information especially if all the responses are plausible and vary only in their degree of correctness. They are easier to respond to and are better liked by the students than T/F items. They can be conveniently used for numerous subject matter areas.
They are very difficult to construct. More skill and more time are required. They are not well adapted for measuring the ability to organize and present ideas. They require more space for items.
Discuss different kinds of Evaluation. Explain the need for objective-based test items with examples?
In the evaluation of English language teaching, it is needed of the testing the objectives of language learning i.e. knowledge, skill attitude. Therefore mainly three kinds of examination such as
a. Oral Examination:
In the oral test, the teacher make some questions and the children answer them orally.
In the practical examination, the child is given some tasks to perform such as preparation of flashcards or cutting the letters from newspaper etc.
In written examination students are given written answers of 3 kinds such as
(a) Long answer type
(b) Short answer type
(c) Objective tests
Different types of questions:
There are three kinds of questions as there are three kinds of written examination
Long answer type or Essay type questions:
This type of question requires some descriptions etc.
Example: Write what you do in children’s day.
Short answer type questions:
this type of question requires short answers. The child answers each question within two or three sentences. ;
Write an answer within two or three sentences – who was Nehru
Objective test questions:
These questions are answered with one word or so. There are two types of questions in an objective test. Like oral and written English vocabulary is tested through objective tests.
Vocabulary tests :
In the oral test, the teacher assesses recording comprehension and expression.
Objective type written test in English is designed to test the different linguistic abilities of the specimen of some questions are given below.
Comprehension type :
This type consists of a sentence or paragraph from which some words and phrases are omitted. The pupil is to fill in the blanks with suitable words or phrases. Correct use of prepositions and vocabulary can be tested with the type.
Fill in the blanks with the words from the box:
(Sighed, caught, heard, switched on, a packed up out, quietly)
Last night Mr Khanna ______ a noise. He _______ a torch from the table. lie _______ the light and saw the thief. The thief was taking Mr Khanna’s clothes
_______ and ________ hold of the man’s collar and _______ I’m going to call the police.
This type consists of test items which are to be answered by choosing a correct answer from among several possible answers.
The following questions have four characters choose the appropriate one and rewrite the sentences.
They could scarcely believe their eyes when they saw the violets. Here word scarcely means
(b) not at all
It was the man who the killing
(a) has done
(b) is doing
Delicious food was served at the feast Here the best meaning of the word, delicious is
The little girl asked what to here ice-cream
(b) has happened
(c) it happened
(d) had happened
Composition Test :
The test consists of sentences to be completed with the use of the correct form of the verb indicated within the brackets. This can be reliably used to test the knowledge of the sequence of tense and other abilities.
- Mohan (seem) tired today.
- You (remember) the name of the boy who (walk) on the other side of the road.
- You (look) very thoughtful. What do you (think) about
- You (see) this box? It (contain) watches.
- He will met me when I ____ (write)
Substitution Table :
In this test parts of sentences are put in different columns of a box and the pupils are asked to make sentences by joining these parts
The test can be reliably used to assess the pupil’s ability to use sentences correctly.
Match words of the column – A with the words in the column – B with its,
Joining the sentences :
Example: Join the sentences into one using the words in brackets. It was time for dinner, they went on talking up to time (will)
Discuss the instructional aids with their use in teaching general science?
The aids are necessary for successful teaching. Science apparently provides sensuous experiences to the students known as visual aids. The instructional materials used for successful teaching are as follows.
It is a good device presenting sides useful for projecting pictures and cinema films.
It is more costly than a magic lantern through epidiascope, it is possible to project pictures in much brightness, and by diminishing light, it is also possible to project pictures and sides etc.
It is a very important aid for education. The aid is not available everywhere. We can make arrangements for the techniques through cinema projectors. Projectors are helpful in representing films which are shown in the techniques of cinema. This is again a technical teaching aid.
It is also helpful in the teaching of science. These graphs show the temperature, the pressure of the air, rainfall etc.
Maps are also helpful in science teaching. Through these maps, it is possible to explain to the location of things of scientific importance.
Diagrams are very helpful in giving the correct ideas about scientific instruments and objects to students. These diagrams may be of scientific apparatus.
In the present day, world television has become an important mass media in education and also indoor cheap and best entertainment. Through TV talks and films, important scientific topics are seen and discussed.
This is an instrument through which recorded programmes are displayed before the students. It is not a possibility to get an important doctor or a scientist always to lecture with the class but his voice can be heard through experience.
Radio and Broad Cast task:
Radio is an important medium of education as well as a device of entertainment helpful in science programmes.
Discuss the use of Aids in teaching the mother tongue?
In present-day primary schools to make teaching effective a number of teaching aids and illustrative materials are used. The trained and skilled teachers handle the aids and illustrative aids with great care. To make influential teaching uses the aids while imparting teaching aids, teaching materials are broadly classified into three parts. They are as follows :
- Audio Aids
- Visual Aids
- Audio-visual aids
Which aids we can hear and learn, as known as audio-visual aids. Audio aids include a tape recorder, radio, and gramophone. Tape recorders and gramophone help in teaching language and literature. Through such instruments, talks lecture songs, speeches, discussion seminars etc. are recorded and used in the classrooms when required. This develops the skill aspect of the children.
In modem times Radio is also used as an aid for teaching. Through Radio, programmes on different study items of school subjects are prepared and propagated. The role of Vidyalaya programmes stands important. The subject matter being discussed was dramatically understood by the children. The children can easily comprehend the subject matter.
Those aids on teaching materials being seen the children get experience is known as visual aids. It is educative. Example of such visual aids is Blackboard, picture, drawing sheets, picture, films etc.
In every classroom, there is a blackboard. The teacher uses the blackboard. Frequently with chalks, he exposes difficult words. Pronunciation of words, model sentences and solutions to mathematical problems. Without the blackboard, teaching cannot be effective.
In small pieces of glass written and drawn things are reflected through the projector light. A good teacher presents the teaching points before the students. Through the projectors, small picture drawings are seen in big sizes and visible to all. It is expensive but still used in schools for a clear understanding of children.
To give direct experience to the children the teacher prepares drawing, and pictures of historical characters, and things either handmade or collected from the market are shown to the children. It draws their attention towards learning,
In film strips just like a projector, the picture is drawn on the glass pieces exhibited before the student’s small pictures and drawings are seen in large sizes. It also affects the teaching-learning process a lot
Audio-visual aids :
The aids by which we can hear and see are known as Audio visual aids. This type of aid has become very popular among people students. Every primary school is supplied with a TV set to benefit the children to see different school programmes. Vidyalaya programmes like ideal teachings of different school subjects. Such programmes is having a definitely fixed table, as a result, the students are more benefited.
Utility of Audiovisual aids:
In teaching the pupils actively participate In helping in the development of the power of understanding. In the classroom sweet sound peaceful environment is set up. Learning experience develops permanently. It motivates children towards learning. It keeps teaching lively and interesting With the help of AV aids the teacher is able to present the new subject matter quickly.
Discuss the aids and instructional materials used in teaching history?
While teaching History a teacher in History uses a number of aids and instructional aids and materials for the success of teaching. A number of aids are discussed below.
Models are the substitute for a thing such as a temple, mosques, forts, persons etc.
for example, Taj Mahal, while teaching Tajmahal a teacher uses a small mode! of Tajmahal which gives a clearcut Understanding of the Tajmahalat Agra
While teaching history the teacher uses the. pictures of historical characters. It may be the historical place, fort temple, kings, queens rivers, oceans, etc. the movement pictures of persons are seen to the students as they can easily memorise it. Likewise, stories and samples of different metals and dolls are, used in the classroom.
For entertainment, radio has used the news of distant lands, talks, discussions, criticisms and cultural programmes are also high-lighted through radio. The historical facts, speeches and discussions are also learnt from radio. So radio is used as an aid in teaching history.
Television is also used as an audio-visual aid. It is. one of the aids used by the history teacher. It makes it easy to understand historical facts in school programmes.
If historical facts dramas are arranged by the students they will learn better suppose, the Haladighat war, and Kalinga war the discussion of historical characters gives lively knowledge to the students.
Sometimes the students go on an excursion along with the history teachers to places of historical importance when they will get a clear picture of it.
Historical films are now prepared. lt makes historical facts clear and understanding lively. Through films, the historical facts, are clearly understood by the students.
Timeline and history teaching is interrelated. To provide knowledge of the concept the time of incidents of historical facts timeline is used. It also gives the knowledge of BC and AD in which period the facts occurred. They can easily memorize it.
Discuss the use of teaching Aids in teaching English?
In teaching English in the upper primary and secondary stages the teachers use so many aids to make the teaching effective and successful. The important aids in teaching English as follows:
These aids need the sense of learning and the aids are radio gramophones and tape recorders.
In sense aids of sight are used. The items filling for them are class chalkboard, charts,-sketches, models, graphs, diagrams, bulletin board and flannel graph, motion picture, and film slides.
These aids need require the senses of hearing as well as sight. These are included in their films, television and video etc.
In these aids activity is the main function these are museum, excursion, nature study, garden, field trip, visits etc.
Photographs, and pictures flashcards, posters, charts, diagrams, graph maps etc.
Blackboard, planned board, bulletin board, magnetic etc.
Models, objects, specimens, puppets etc.
Projected Aids, Films, Film strips and slides:
In the modem times, radio and television are used as programmes for school subjects. The students can get a clear knowledge of the subjects studied. In English teaching field trips, excursions, fours and travelling develop the knowledge of concepts. Demonstration helps in speech development.
While teaching English the teacher uses pictures, models, graphs, charts etc. the develop their knowledge in language learning. Debates, seminars and discussions are necessary to develop language and pronunciation. So in English teaching, aids are essential to leam & a foreign language.
Give the main apparatus and tools used for teaching geography?
To make the teaching of Geography effective, lively, interesting, and understandable instructional materials as well as aids, audio-visual aids are used by skilled teachers With the use of such aids the students take a keen interest in learning geography. It becomes memorable to them and remains in their memory. Such aids are used in teaching the different fields of geography. The aids used in teaching geography are as follows
A number of blackboards:
A number, of blackboards, are used for drawing outlines, sketcher pictures and graphs and developing blackboard summaries.
The study materials include to “government prescribed textbooks, coloured magazines globes etc. These study materials help in the study of geography.
Written aids like graphs, maps, etc. help in the teaching of geography,”stick aids are helpful in providing the knowledge of earth, the natural things of the world the global view.
Sharing the life of the people of different1 regions should be preferable kept hanging and be changed according to the heeds of the class. Sets of pictures showing. vegetation and cultivated products.
Visual aids include globe, samples, model, pictures; maps, graphs, photographs, slide etc; helps in teaching geography. The teacher remains careful in handling these materials. The child has seen this and gets geographical knowledge and a concept of the earth.
In teaching, geography teacher uses audio aids such as radio, gramophone, jape recorder, discussion, speeches, lecturers, conversations etc. the geography special teaching are given by experts in geography through radio programmes.
The teacher “of geography while teaching in the class uses certain audiovisual aids for effective teaching; The concept becomes clear. Model teachings by experts are also provided to the students. The audio-visual aids that function in this respect are like TV, Films, documentary films etc. The child gets the chance to hear and to see and gets practical knowledge about the subject of geography.
The activity aids and materials that help in the study of geography includes study pictures, travelling, excursions, study tour, and visiting zoo & exhibitions, the collected and presented materials help the child to develop knowledge of geography. Thermometers, barometers, crashes etc. also provide knowledge of geography. These aids are very much essential for practical knowledge of Geography.
The projected aids chart assists, the teacher to impart teaching to geography including magic lantern pictures* films, slides etc. these aids attract children towards study.
The display aids include cloth, blackboard, newspaper, panel board etc. the newspapers pictures and paper cut news gives fresh news of the geography of the world.
the role of the model is important in teaching geography. The teaching shows the models of the snow house Eskimos, large van, Paradip port and each other interesting things like Konark temple, Jagannath temple etc. for clearcut knowledge.
In the charts, the comparative data given is prepared through geometrical or arithmetical knowledge. For example, in the chart, a comparison of the length of different rivers, and oceans is given and there is a comparison chart, a chart of Odisha state. The children derive direct experiences of comparison.
Different maps like physical, relief maps, are helpful to the teacher to teach the places of the world the geographical situations, the forests, hills, mountains mines, and rivers oceans etc. The physical knowledge of the world and the situation of the states. Continents, subcontinents are known from maps.
Globe is a mini form of the earth. The students in this aid can derive ‘the knowledge of the geographical places, the population habitation. It also gives the knowledge of the North pole, Southpole, different places of the world etc. if develops a geographical outlook.
What are the general principles of teaching? Explain?
There are some general principles which need to be followed by a teacher for successful teaching in the classroom. They are as follows:
Principles of motivation :
Motivation is the driving force behind all kinds of purposeful activities and most learning is the outcome of motivation. The learner has to be motivated to learn and to react to the stimulus whether it is an object or situation or information self-motivation is the best motivation. It is the duty of the teacher to arouse interest in the teacher before any teaching is done.
There are some natural angles in the child and sometimes the interest is also created or required. The teacher has to utilize natural urges as well as acquired interests for teaching different topics. Curiosity is another strong urge for motivation. If a child is curious to know how people in different parts of the world live it is natural on his part to read the relevant books and journals, listen to suitable radio programmes or view TV. Programmes, programmes dealing with the people of different lands.
Principle of Activity :
Learning by doing is the basic principle enunciated by Froebel who successfully implemented c. it in the kindergarten system. It is found that learning becomes more effective if the child is physically and mentally made active in the teaching-learning process. The head with the hand should work together for making learning easier and more interesting.
For example, for effective teaching about Odisha to different children, we can ask them to draw a map of the state, dramatic scenes from Odisha history and so on. All these activities must create interest as well as curiosity among children and enrich learning experiences about Odisha. Similarly, in science teaching the principle of learning by doing is very well applied and students are required to observe.
the garden, make experiments in the laboratories and the activity methods are followed by teachers not only at the primary stage but also at the higher stages of education. The project method, the problem-solving method, the Heuristic method and so on are all based on activities in and outside the classroom. Students’ participation and involvement in the teaching-learning process make their education.
more relevant and meaningful. The principles of learning by doing is not only adopted in teaching various curricular subjects but also applied in organizing co-curricular activities, the programmes like sports and games, debates and discussions drama and music fieldwork and excursion etc. emphasize such activities.
Principle Relating to life :
All educationists and psychologists insist that teaching should always be related to life and its problem. While teaching children of pre-primary and primary schools their environment home, village, community-related to learning experiences. Education has been accepted as a preparation for life, teaching should be related to life and students be prepared to face the challenge of life with success.
The educational institution should satisfy individual and social needs teaching is linked to life and the issues to be effective and useful. The education commission 1964-66 also emphasized that our education has to be related to the life needs and aspirations of the people.
Explain the maxims of methods of teaching?
Various methods of teaching have been developed by educationists around the world b. through the ages for teaching students effectively.
But there are certain basic principles of teaching which are called the maxims of methodology and from the basis of the method of teaching. Adequate “knowledge of these maxims is essential for a teacher quality to perform his teaching activity with proficiency; They are as follows:
From the known to the unknown :
The most common way of teaching a lesson is to proceed from known to unknown. The pupils are taught end reminded about which they are already familiar and acquainted with them the facts and figures, which are not c. known but useful to them. They move from the familiar, concepts to the unknown and unfamiliar.
For example, to teach about warm deserts, we can draw a picture of the hot summer, with which they are acquainted. For teaching about freedom struggle, we can start with the Independence Day or Republic day celebration. Secondly, for teaching a lesson on profit and loss,- children may be reminded about their experiences in buying.
a certain thing and the Sale of goods in the local shops Thirdly in the teaching of new and difficult words in a language, the already known and familiar words with similar meanings can be recapitulated and made of it. Thus we proceed from known to unknown and from knowledge to experience.
From the simple to complex :
The topics to be taught are arranged according to the degree of complexity. In teaching a topic we divide various aspects or units of the topic according to the degree of simplicity so the teaching can be easier from the point of view of learning. The concepts which are simple to one may be complex to another so the experience of pupils is given importance while planning the teaching of a lesson. Topics are thus arranged according to the principle of proceeding from the simple to the complex.
From the concrete to the Abstract :
The abstract or vagueness of a topic poses a problem in understanding. Children find difficulty in understanding an abstract object or concept due to vagueness or lack of preciseness. For example, if we ask a pre-scholar to make a total of 2 and 3, he may find it different but if weask him to count 2 sticks after country 3 ones, then it may not be a problem.
Thus, manipulation with concrete things is easier than with abstract ones for children. In teaching a Geographical topic like Australia, the land and people, adequate use of maps, charts, models, and illustrations will be useful. Rather the use of radio and video programmes in Australia can make teaching more effective and interesting by going lively ideas and . experiences to the learner.
From the Indefinite to definite :
In the child’s mind, all concepts are indistinct, and unclear the interest and attitudes of children are also indefinite. But teaching aims at making all these ideas distinct and precise. In Indian schools, we emphasize blind memorization without understanding the meaning and implications which does not help in clarifying the concepts and removing the vagueness. We should give more emphasis on teaching concepts clearly and definitely. Teaching with the use of audio-visual aids should help on making the ideas distinct.
From the particular to the general :
Some students can easily comprehend particular of specific objects and ideas teaching should be started from the particular knowledge and proceed to give general knowledge which are comparatively vague and abstract in nature. The observing the specific objects, generalizations are drawn. In teaching various topics in arithmetic, sciences, geography and the like, this principle can be effectively applied in inducting method of teaching.
Induction followed by Deduction :
Induction is found more useful for teaching different subjects. In this method, teaching starts with particular examples then the conclusion is drawn. We accept a general principle or formula as valid which is then applied to individual or specific cases.1 This method is not proven sound and scientific for children’s learning. Both inductive and deductive methods have their advantage and can be used in teaching Suitable subjects.
For example, in teaching a new formula or a new theory the Inductive method can be used effectively. After teaching the formula of theory in the method it is easier to use the deductive method for teaching most of the exercises in arithmetic algebra and geometry and other subjects. So inductive teaching is always followed by deductive teaching.
Psychological vs logical :
The successful teacher teaches everything according to the psychological needs and conditions of pupils. But in the text-books topics are arranged logically. It is the duty of the teacher to arrange them Psychologically in the scheme of lessons as he is aware of the behaviours, needs, and interests of the students. Even in teaching a lesson a group’s teaching is to be done to their psychological needs and conditions. The remapping power is understood from the logical presentation. The teacher should apply the general principles and maxims in a psychological manner more effectively.
Discuss the relationship between teaching and learning. Discuss the factors affecting the teaching-learning process?
Prior the 20th century, teaching is considered a rigid, formal and stereotyped process of transmitting knowledge, facts and figures. Education was taken as a Bipolar process in which teachers are giving and pupils are receiving end. Teachers are the source of knowledge and schools are knowledge shops. Methods of teaching are logical and routine without the psychological needs and conditions of learners, their interests, curiosity, freedom and flexibility emphasis was laid on rigid discipline blind memorization and hard reinforcement.
Verbalism was enforced and no audio-visual aids or materials were utilized in the field of education. The learner is considered an empty vessel to be filled up with knowledge and information, facts and figures. But in the 20th century, the child is considered a tender plant and a teacher as a gardener. The child is taught according to his abilities, attitude interests and aptitude.
He is helped to learn to teach nourish, and cultivate the growing child and guide his growth. Children are motivated to search experiments, gathering facts and information. Various media and materials are used for making learning more interesting and effective. Now, learning has assumed more importance than teaching.
There has been a change in the learning process. New theories of learning highlight the principles of contiguity and the importance of the environment etc. Multimedia systems and educational technology. Now, stress is given in the principle of learning, than traditional teaching. There are three types of effectiveness in teaching such as pre-stage effectiveness, process effectiveness and product effectiveness.
The quality of learning depends on the quality of teaching. The end result of the teaching process determines the product’s effectiveness. The important teaching results in the outcome of learning. It is evaluated through achievement tests, and personality tests administrated to students. The input of teaching is results in the outcome of learning.