Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Solutions Unit 1 What is Psychology? Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Psychology Unit 1 What is Psychology? Long Answer Questions
Long Answer Essay Type Questions
Discuss the nature and scope of psychology.
Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behaviour. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including relating to an individual’s daily life and the treatment of mental illness. Psychology differs from the other social sciences anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology in that psychology seeks to explain the mental processes and behaviour of individuals.
Whereas biology and neuroscience study the biological or neural processes and how they relate to the mental effects they subjectively produce, psychology is a priority concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behaviour on a systemic. subfield neuropsychology studies the actual neural process while biological psychology studies the biological bases of behaviour and mental states.
Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behaviour mind and thought and the subconscious neurological bases of behaviour psychology also refer to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals’ daily lives and the study of mental illness.
It is largely concerned with humans, although the behaviour and mental process of animals can also be part of psychology research, either as a subject in its own might i.e. animal cognition and ethology, or somewhat more controversially, as a way of gaining an insight into human psychology by means of comparison (including comparative psychology).
Psychology is a scientific study that relies on conspiracism, the use of experimentation, evidence and observation to draw conclusions. It is not based on common sense, reasoning or logic alone. There are two general grouping of psychologists: research psychologists and applied psychologists. Research Psychologists experiment and gather observations to improve understanding of the nature of the mind and behaviour.
Applied psychologists take these observations and leave the lab to deal with everyday problems. In order to obtain responses from individuals a number of psychological tools or instruments are used psychology has various methodological ways or approaches to understand and explain psychological phenomena.
How is psychology a science?
Wundt gave psychology a scientific status by opening the first psychological laboratory at Leipzig. Thus, psychology as a science has its beginning in the psychological institute at Leipzig and it went through several phases to reach the status of current psychology. Critics from different quarters, however, questioned the scientific status of psychology.
They asked, “Is psychology a science line physics chemistry ?” Even people make sarcastic remarks when we describe psychology as a science. Science is a systematic body of knowledge gathered by careful observation and measurement of events. The things and objects are systematized mostly by classifying them into various categories.
The general laws and principles are established which describe and predict the events as clearly as possible. Science seeks to explain the phenomena within its scope. The explanation is the ultimate aim of science. Psychology deals with oriental processes and activities of the organism in relation to its environment. It deals with experience and behaviour. Psychology seeks to explain the law of mind.
The aim of psychology precisely is to describe, understand, predict and control conditions and situations both in the world around him and within himself. As indicated earlier, it is mainly the scientific procedure adopted for the study of psychology that gave it a scientific status. Science uses methods like observation experiments, manes comparison and classification to investigate and collect data.
Psychology uses both observation and experimentation; which are scientific processes. The scientific procedure, according to mum (1950) “involves making systematic rather than aimless observations, being impersonal in one’s search for truth, seeking information to test rather than to prove ideas already had making it possible for others to repeat one’s observations under essentially the same conditions and to confirm or modify them.”
Science, in other words, uses experimental methods for the purpose of investigation. Instead of mere observation, certain conditions or variables of the object of study are changed (independent variables) and the effect of these changes on the subject matter of study is noted. Science starts with some assumptions or hypotheses and postulates about its subject matter.
Psychology as a science usually starts an experiment with some assumptions or hypotheses. In a scientific procedure like the experimental method, all variables are controlled except the independent variable of science should be quantitative. In other words, results obtained from a scientific study should be quantified or measured. Psychology uses statistical methods for the analysis of results.
Examine the contributions of Wundt and Titchener to Experimental Psychology?
William Wundt (1832-1920) opened the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, German. Thus he took the first step in making psychology a science. He gave the first touch by assembling the parts together formulated by the earlier investigations. It is, therefore, rightly called the father and founder of modem experimental psychology.
The psychological institute at Leipzig thus started programmes of making psychology an independent science. Though prior to Wundt the attitude towards scientific psychology was growing in the minds of various investigators. Wundt alone gave it an independent status by separating psychology from philosophy and giving up speculation and armchair observation in favour of scientific methods of study.
Wundt, a German physiologist took a lot of interest in the subjective and personal experiences of the organism, a response to sensory Stimulation. After publishing “fundamental of psychological psychology (1871)”. Wundt opened his psychological institute at Leipzig.
A large number of students from all over the world came to Wundt’s institute to conduct research on scientific psychology under his able guidance. Wundt defined psychology as the science of immediate experience with consciousness being the main subject matter, which simply means the science of consciousness.
Titchener, the English psychologist who went to Leipzig to work under Wundt, propounded the structural school of psychology. Like Wundt, he was also determined to establish psychology as a pure and perfect science. Thus, he established a laboratory at Cornell, in America, to develop a structural school of psychology.
He based his work and research on the pattern of Wundt. He was a staunch believer in the experimental approach towards the study of mental science. He published a number of books on psychology and thus helped in the enrichment of psychology as a science. In fact, it is Titchener who owes the credit for establishing Wundt’s concept of psychology in the U.S.A.
Titchener defined psychology as the science of conscious experience which is dependent upon the experiencing person. He developed a monistic approach towards psychology with the view that all sciences have more or less the same content, which refers to some aspect of the human experience. Only the approach is different.
Mind according to him is the sum total of human experience and the subject-matter of psychology is conscious experience. Titchener was a very devoted worker. He sincerely tried to develop fully the concepts of psychology put forward by Wundt. The above two psychologists’ contributions are discussed.
Discuss briefly the different branches of psychology?
Modem psychologists have developed certain conceptual approaches to the understanding of psychology keeping in view the current needs. Zimbardo and Member (1997) have identified six broad conceptual models which are normally used in the study of human behaviour.
- Psycho-dynamic and
We will discuss below the first three models widely used by psychologists.
The biological approach is basically interested in the functioning of genes, the nervous system, the brain and the endocrine glands to trace the causes human behaviour. Zimbardo (1997) views that the biological approach makes four assumptions. Psychological and social phenomena can be understood in terms of biochemical processes.
Complex behaviours can be understood by analyzing them into smaller and more specific units. All behaviour or behavioural potential is determined by physical structures and hereditary processes. Experience can modify behaviour by changing these underlying biological structures and processes.
a conglomeration of these two sciences has led to the development of a biological approach to psychology. The biological approach also includes the Biophysical; or Neuroscience approach. Which attempts to find out the physiological or biological changes that take place in the nervous system. brain, glands and chores when we learn, perceive, think, emote, became angry, hungry see a movie, dream or engage in daydreams.
Structuralism was too mentalistic because it attempted to deal with mental processes. In the early twentieth century, some scholars pioneered an approach in America popularly known as Behaviourism which placed importance or the overt behaviour of organisms. The propounder of behaviourism was Y.B. Watson.
He and his associates reduced psychological understanding to a simple ABC formula:
- first, identify the antecedent (triggering) stimulus conditions, that elicit behaviour,
- secondly, measure changes in observable behaviour and friendly,
- record the consequences that the behaviour has on the environment.
All these three, ABC elements, antecedent conditions, behaviours and consequences or change must be objectively observable. Watson viewed drat mental events could not be studied scientifically and that psychology must look not within the individual for the causes of behaviour, but outside the individual at the environment and the observable stimuli that lead to behavioural responses.
Another learning theorist, B.F. Shinner restricted the domain of psychology to the study of how behaviour and environment operate on and affect each other. Modem scientific psychology has however accepted to quite an extent the behaviouristic approach of Watson, particularly those aspects of behaviour that are carefully and objectively measured by contemporary.
psychology because of its scientific orientation still consists of overt behaviour. According to Baron (1999) “Behaviouristic approach to psychology has stood the test of time and continues to remain as an important approach to modem psychology”.
The behaviouristic approach seems somewhat limited because it excludes mental processes. Cognitive psychology stands as a direct challenge to the limited view of behaviourism that scientific psychology is only the study of the overt behaviour of the organism. The cognitive model is a very broad one encircling consciousness, attending perceiving or knowing, thinking, problem-solving, even numbering etc.
Cognition means knowing or knowledge modem psychologists hold that emphasis on human thought, perception, knowledge and all the processes of cognitive functioning centre around the heart of psychology.
State the subject matter of psychology. How is it related to biology and medicine?
The subject matter of psychology includes air branches and all aspects of psychology, particularly those which deal with human behaviour, internal and external experiences and various mental processes. The mental processes include physiologist bases behaviour, sensation, attention, perception learning, memory process, thinking reasoning and creativity, personality, intelligence and emotional and motivational processes etc.
Among the above, learning is the core of psychology and its central subject matter. Humans’ adjustment to a tired environment is impossible without learning and the ability to learn and remember things. Psychologists study human behaviour as used as a mental process exploring the thinking process, ability creativity and reasoning capacity.
Cognitive psychologists, therefore, put emphasis on the cognitive behaviour of the organism as an important subject matter of psychology. I Human being is an intelligent person. His cognitive ability or intelligence determines his mental activities to a great extent and hence the complete without the study of intelligence or cognitive behaviour the subject matter of psychology subject matter related to Biology and medicine.
Biology is life science. It studies the life of plants and animals which includes the study of the growth and development of living beings and how they reproduce and continue to exist. The scope of biology is very wide in the sense that it is concerned with the study of genetics physiology, zoology, neurology embryology etc. Since psychology has an intimate relationship with physiology, animal psychology and neurology, it is logically related to biology.
Animal experiments truly speaking, have enriched our knowledge in understanding human behaviour. Animals are of then used in research and experiments in psychology, for instance, Pavlov experimented on dogs, Thomdive on cats, Kohler on chimpanzees, Lashley on rats and Skinner on pigeons. The laws and principles of learning drawn from these studies have provided valuable chees to the psychology of learning and motivation.
Medical science deals with both physical and mental disorders. This knowledge is a must for psychologists because both deal with the human organism, medicine, however, is more concerned with physical disease and psychology with mental disease. Since mind and body can not be separated from, each other and are interrelated, one influencing the Other, medicine and psychology are just like the coils of a rope, interwoven and interrelated.
Just as it is essential for doctors to know about human psychology and behaviour patterns it is equally necessary for psychologists to have knowledge of physical diseases and the various physiological organs and their functions. Both psychologists and medical men take each other’s help in the conduction of research on human beings.
Discuss the observational methods and their advantages?
The methods which a particular branch of knowledge uses, determine its scientific nature. Psychology as already indicated is described as a social science. In order to clarify the fact that psychology is a science. It is necessary to examine the methods used in psychology to study the behaviour of the organism. Methods in psychology refer to the ways or procedures to study behaviour, both inner and outer.
Methods are also used to analyse, predict and control behaviour in a given situation. Thus psychology like any other science subject uses observation and experimental methods. The introspective method comes under the observational method unique in psychology and not used in any other science for the purpose of investigation. That is why Morgan and King have said that psychology is both Science and Arts.
Psychologists have attempted to divide observational methods into various categories which are given below.
Subjective observation (Introspection):
Self-observation is popularly known as introspection. It is a unique method used in psychology, which is not found in any other science. Titchener developed the introspective method. Wundt also suggested as a method of studying conscious experience. According to Titchener, psychology must deal with the inner states of consciousness in order to find out its structure. As already pointed out introspection means slef-observation or ‘to look within.
In the case of introspection, the person observes his own feelings and experiences at a given tinie and reports the same to the investigator. By self-observation, only the experiencing person says what he is feeling or experiencing. To introspect means to attend to one’s own experiences. If a person is having a headache or toothache, only he can report it.
If one is thinking of somebody it is he who can make it overt. Thus the person himself can give an account of his experiences. That is why it is called self-observation. But, the inner mental activities can be made public by the experiencing person. Whatever one is feeling experiencing or thinking, he can only – give a report of same.
Here the job of the psychologist is to encourage the person under observation to look within and observe his own thoughts feelings, and experiences and report the same psychologist. Introspection as self-observation. But every self-observation is not introspection. Self-observation of one’s mental activities only refers to introspection.
Psychology is the study of behaviour and experiences. Behaviour is studied by observation technique. In fact, there is no other method by which private and personal experience can be studied except the method of introspection. Introspection is an easy, simple and traditional method. Many psychologists gathered lots of valuable information, particularly in the field of sensation with the help of the introspection method.
When the other scientific and objective methods fail to serve the purpose, introspection solves the problem. Specific principles are followed for the use of other scientific methods; no rules are to be followed for observing one’s own feelings and experiences. Introspection can be applied at any time and at any place. Further, no laboratory or test materials are necessary for introspection.
Introspection provides direct and first-hand knowledge to the person about one’s mental state. The data obtained by the introspective method can be compared with the data obtained by the observation method, later on, both the subjective and objective data can be synthesized. Attributes of sensation can be known through introspection.
A number of impressions and experiences about the tactual, auditory, gustatory and factory sensations can be known by introspection. Similarly experiences about like and dislikes applying the self-observation method. The subject’s response to a stimulus is revealed through introspection. How he registers the stimulus and his reaction to stimulation can only be known by introspection.
Define observation methods used in psychology?
The observation methods are defined below:
- Naturalistic observation
- Participant observation
- Non-participant observation
Naturalistic observation is made in an environment which is uncontrolled and unrestricted but natural. It is incidental and unplanned. The attitude of the teachers towards their students can be observed in classroom situations where the observer plays a passive role. Piaget’s studies on the cognitive development of children were frequently preceded by naturalistic observation which he called the clinical method.
This method does not require the cooperation of the subject. The ‘ S ’ is completely kept ignorant that he is being observed. The artificiality of the laboratory is completely absent here.
Data collected by the naturalistic method are different to reproduction, standardisation and quantity. It violates the standards of specificity, quantitativeness and standardisation of the observational procedure.
When application of the experimental method and use of the naturalistic method may not be feasible the method of participant observation comes into the picture. In this method, the observer actually takes part of participating with the ‘O’ in a particular act and simultaneously observes his behaviour. For example, while studying the play activity of children, the observer also plays with them, and the child never knows that he is observing him.
For studying cases on a large scale, when experimental methods are not practically possible, this method is used to sort out various problems of the employees, in industries and organisations and in a classroom situation.
In addition to the disadvantages and limitations of the observational methods, the additional disadvantage of this method is that once the subjects start suspecting the participant observer’s motive and the situation they may become furious considering him a spy.
As the name implies it is the opposite of participant observation. In this method, the observer does not participate in the activities of the subject being studied but he tries to observe the behaviour from an observable distance through a One-way vision screen.
What is the case history method? Define its limitations?
Psychology has adopted the use of a number of investigative methods for the understanding and analysis of human behaviour. Case history is one of these methods which is being used particularly by clinical psychologists for the diagnosis and treatment of behaviour disorders. Otherwise known as the life history or case study method. It involves making observations for a considerable period of time to trace the cause and development of a particular behaviour pattern.
This method actually has been borrowed from medicine and it has got special implications t in the study of problem children and in the study of problem children and in the treatment of abnormality. It is a two-way process in which the investigator uses tests, checklists questionnaires like the survey technique.
Under case study method :
- the day book method,
- clinical method.
- Biographical method
are includes case history is a very comprehensive and useful method. But it requires specialised skills for the collection of information. The main purpose of the case study method is diagnosis and prognosis. In other words, it aims at finding the cases underlying human behaviour as well as making recommendations about rectifying the present behaviour.
It is held by some that the case study method is highly subjective. Unless trained and competent investigators conduct the interview collect case history, it may lead to erratic and erroneous findings. However, the subjective nature of the case history method can be reduced by using a particular format of a case study which can provide guidelines to the person collecting the information.
He can thus have the scope to add or to subtract very little and this can ensure objectivity and reduce subjectivity to a minimum. Some have argued that case study is retrospective in nature. It is based on the contemplation of an event after it has occurred. Thus many valuable experiences from that standpoint of psychological analysis are forgotten, disturbed or actively.
Discuss the characteristics of the experimental methods in psychology?
According to Ruch (1970) “The most highly developed, formalised and accurate of all scientific methods is the experimental method”. It is the most reliable of all the methods used in psychology. In 1879 Wundt started the first psychological laboratory at Leipzig and since then most psychological data are collected through well-designed and scientifically conducted experiments.
The experimental method is a procedure in which certain hypotheses framed on the basis of previous findings are tested by systematically varying certain conditions and controlling some other conditions. In other words, it is observation used in pre-arranged conditions. When the behaviour of a person is not studied under natural conditions, or in the field, but under artificially controlled conditions in the laboratory it is called an experiment.
The E should use the proper method for the presentation of the stimulus and should see that he gets the necessary cooperation from this. He must have a procedure for collecting data and testing the hypothesis. Proper instructions to the “S” must begin before starting experiment. The verbal and introspective report of the subject should be taken to interpret and verify the obtained findings.
Characteristics of the experimental method:
Variable Slid Conditions:
The experimental method involves certain variables. A variable is a factor which varies or changes in the experiment. A variable is any aspect of a condition that can vary or any quantity that can change in a valve.
Independent Variable :
The independent variable is the factor which is manipulated or changed in an experimental design. It is the factor whose effects are being studied on the result.
It is also called the response variable. According to such, “The dependent variable in an experiment is the factor which the experimenter predicts will change in some way as a result of changing the independent variable.
The relevant variables are those variables which are kept constant throughout the experiment except the independent variable. For example, in the experiment on memory for meaningful words and nonsense materials except for the nature of the material all other factors are kept constant in both conditions.
Show the significance of survey and statistical methods in psychology.
Survey While attempting to understand the dynamics of human behaviour one may come across certain problems which are difficult to study by observations experiments or case history methods. Political attitudes, consumer preference, attitudes towards family planning, dowry, marriage, and divorce, women’s liberation, health care, etc. Are studied by survey method. The survey method used questionnaires, interviews, rating scales, checklists, etc. to obtain information about the problem of the study.
In other words, the survey method is a procedure of connecting certain information from the population by carefully prepared questionnaires. The information is obtained from a scientifically selected sample which represents the view of the entire population. For social surveys, the sample must be randomly selected and it must be large enough to represent the population.
Currently, the survey method has extended from mere administration of questionnaires and tests and interviews to a Telephone ‘survey’. survey by postal questionnaires, etc. This is done for quick collection of data. Although the personal interview technique is more popular and extensively used in survey methods, it is very costly and time-consuming. A report is necessary at the first place.
Psychologists have borrowed the statistical method from mathematics as they felt that it is indispensable for psychological research. The design and interpretation of any data obtained by psychological research are incomplete without statistical analysis. To determine the average performance of a group or a person in a test or tests, the application of statistics is a must.
Similarly to find out the difference and relationships in the performance, intelligence score, anxiety, aptitude, and prejudice of two groups or members of groups, say, boys and girls, rural and urban children, of different age groups, the psychologists have to take the help of statistical procedures. Mum, therefore, comments “statistical analysis is an application of mathematics which enables the psychologist to arrange his findings so that he can discover their significant trends and relationships.”