Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Solutions Unit 1 What is Psychology? Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Psychology Unit 1 What is Psychology? Short Answer Questions
Short Type Questions With Answers
J.B. Watson (1878-1958) developed the Behaviouristic school of psychology, otherwise known as Behaviourism. Watson advocated the S-R approach towards psychology instead of the S-O-R approach.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), was making his contributions to the study and treatment of abnormal behaviour. Freud who was a neurologist and a psychiatrist developed a “school of psychology”.
The behaviouristic was influenced by Russian physiologist Pavlov’s principles of classical conditioning and other related works in the area of learning. The behaviouristic perspective deals with overt or external behaviour that can be objectively recorded and manipulated.
It is also a branch of applied psychology. Legal psychology is concerned with the discovery of motives behind the crimes and methods required for the detection of crimes.
Kohler and Loffka?
Kurt Loffka (1856-1941) and W. Kohler (1887) were the founders of the Gestalt School of Psychology (1914). They mainly did research on the area of perceptual and learning processes.
Jung and Adler?
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) and C.G. Jung (1875 – 1961) were the earlier associates of Freud. Adler developed the school of individual psychology “Jung’s school of Psychology” is known us the school of Analytical Psychology.
He was an English Psychologist who wait in Leipzig to work under Wundt and propounded the structural school of psychology. He was also determined to establish psychology as a pure and perfect science.
When the application of experimental and use of naturalistic methods may not be feasible, that is called participant observation. In this method, the observer takes part or participants with the ‘O’ in a particular and simultaneously observes the behaviour.
Self-observation is popularly known as introspection. It is a unique method used in psychology which is not found in any other science.
According to Ruch (1970) “The most highly developed scientific method is the experimental method. The experimental design is important aspect of an experiment.
It is the opposite of participant observation. In this method, the observer does not participate in the activities of the subject being studied but he tries to observe the behaviour from an observable distance through one vision screen.
Field study method?
Application of experimental technique requires a well-equipped laboratory it can not be earned to different fields of life. The field study is used as an alternative to laboratory investigation.
Political attitudes, consumer preference, attitudes towards family planning, dowry, marriage and divorce, women’s liberation, health care etc. are studied by survey method. The survey method used questionnaires, interviews, rating scales, checklists etc.
The independent variable is the factor which is manipulated or changed in an experimental design. In complex experimental designs, more than one independent variable is introduced particularly when it is necessary for the investigation.
Health psychology has gained tremendous importance as an emerging branch of psychology. Health psychology’s main purpose is to make people conscious that “prevention is better than cure”. Health psychologists can give counselling for a lifestyle characterised by high levels of commitment, flexibility in attitude and a strong motivation to change one’s irrational and anti-health activities. Health psychology also aims to maintain a harmonious and cordial relationship between the doctor and the patient. Several channels of T. V. have regulated programmes on health and health care.
It is originally based on Gestalt Psychology, it has developed in recent years into a separate field of psychology. Cognition means knowing or knowledge. Modem psychologists hold that emphasis on human thought, perception, knowledge and all processes of cognitive functioning centre around the heart of psychology. Cognitive psychology stands as a direct challenge to the limited view of behaviourism that scientific psychology is only the study of the overt behaviour of the organism. The cognitive model is a very broad one encircling consciousness, attending, thinking, problem-solving etc.
Social psychology has been accepted as a major branch of psychology. Social psychology like clinical, educational and industrial psychology is an applied branch of psychology. It deals with the behaviour and experience of an individual in a group situation, in a community and in society. Social psychologists are taking a tremendous interest in the study of mass communication, cognitive dissonance and population research. Social psychology mainly aims at solving the various social, political, and economic problems of our life.
Abnormal Psychology / Clinical Psychology?
Abnormal psychology also studies the topographical aspects of the mind, the id, ego, superego, conscious, subconscious and unconscious, and the psycho-sexual development of the child. The credit for extending the scope of psychology to the study of abnormal behaviour duly goes to If Freud, Jung and Adler. Clinical psychology applies its principles and therapies to deviants and mentally disordered persons. The clinical psychologist is mainly engaged in the classification, diagnosis and treatment of behaviour disorders. According to Morgan and King (1978), clinical psychology is now the largest field of specialisation.
Developmental psychology studies the physical and mental development of human organisms from conception to old age. According to Morgan and King (1978), developmental psychologists attempt to understand complex behaviours by studying their simpler beginnings. Child psychology occupies a large place in the study of developmental psychology. Developmental psychology includes the study of sensory and motor development of the child and his specific abilities. Developmental psychology also deals with superior, disturbed, disadvantaged and backward children.
It is also an emerging branch of psychology. Sports psychology helps athletes to concentrate their attention on competitive goals, makes them more motivated and enables them to deal with their anxiety and fear successfully which often accompany competition in a sports field. Sports psychology is used as a therapeutic technique in hospitals and psychological clinics. The sports psychologist has a very crucial role to play particularly when the player is discouraged because of missing a ball or a catch or losing a match. A sportsman may be in high physical form but if he is psychologically unfit he cannot be a successful player.
Field study method?
Psychology has extended itself to various spheres of life. Since application of experimental techniques requires a well-equipped laboratory. It can not be carried to different fields of life. The field study is used as an alternative to laboratory investigation. The method is free from artificial nature. The field study method is used in this study of children, industrial employees, animals etc.
A traditional experimental design involves two groups or conditions, such as :
- Experimental condition
- Controlled condition
The independent variable is manipulated in the experimental condition. Subjects of the experimental conditions will not be given only rest during the retention interval. Experimental conditions would indicate the effect of interpolated activity on remembering. There are different designs one balancing another factor.
Limitations of experimental methods?
For the application of the experimental method, a well-equipped laboratory, tools and equipment, and subjects are necessary. Human beings and animals are the subjects used in the experimental method. The artificial arrangement of the experimental set-up. The artificiality of laboratory experiments is a source of strength and a source of weakness. On the side of weakness, this control may make experiments so different from real life that the results do not apply to real situations.
It is also called the response variable. According to Ruch “The dependent variable in an experiment is the factor which the experimenter predicts with change in the same way as a result to changing the independent variable. The dependent variable is better memory in the case of meaningful words. The dependent variable is the effect while the independent variable is the cause. The effect of the independent variable is observed in the results which are called the dependent variable.
What advantages of Naturalistic observation?
This method does not require the cooperation of the subject. The ‘S’ is completely kept ignored that he is being observed. the artificially of the laboratory is completely absent here. Spontaneous reactions of the ‘S’ are observed and the ‘S’ makes no change in his response same to the presence of the observer.
When it is not possible to study the behaviour of children, adults, human beings and animals. Under artificially constructed laboratory situations the naturalistic observation method becomes extremely useful. Pinget feels that only through the naturalistic observation method one can get into the heart of the child’s various problems.
Political attitudes, consumer preference attitude towards family planning, dowry, marriage and divorce, women’s liberation, health care etc. are studied by survey method. The survey method used questionnaires, interviews, rating scales, checklists etc. to obtain information about the tire problem of the study. The survey method is a procedure of collecting certain information from the population by carefully prepared questionnaires.
The survey method has extended from mere administration of questionnaires and tests and interviews to telephone surveys, surveys by postal questionnaires etc. The personal interview technique is more popular and extensively used in survey methods. The survey method is extremely useful in social sciences like psychology, providing carefully prepared questionnaires, well-trained interviewers, carefully and cautiously selected samples and appropriate methods of data analysis and reporting used.
Case study method?
it is qualitative research used mostly by clinical psychologists. A case study or case history is an in-depth look at a single individual. Mainly case studies are performed by clinical psychologists. A case study provides information about the person’s fears, hopes, fantasies, traumatic experiences, upbringing, and family relationships, herewith. A case study is the most exhaustive method of collecting data about the behaviour of a person. The case study has a clinical orientation with a focus on helping the individual self-improvement.