Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Solutions Unit 1 Sociology & Its Relationship Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Sociology Unit 1 Sociology & Its Relationship Long Answer Questions
Long Type Questions and Answers
Briefly discuss about the emerge and development of Sociology.
Sociology is the study of the ways in which social experience function in developing maturing and repressing human beings through their interpersonal stimulation. It is the study of social relationship and the various forms which affect them and whatever they affect.
It is a systematic study of society and social institution. Its study started as early as in the 5th Century B.C. more systematic study of the subject has however only recently started.
Science of sociology as we understand it today emerged very late. Attempts to understand social phenomena have been made since earliest times. The Greek Philosopher Plato and Aristotle attempted an analysis of the only community of those days. Their investigation resulted in deflecting the character of an-ideal social order.
However, they were prejudiced to defined their own social system and found fault with their systems. They did not favour a change though social life is never static, it is definitely dynamic.
It is hue that old order change yielding place to new Among the Roman the most outstanding thinker is cicero. He gave the tributes to Greek learning in philosophy politics law and sociology to the western world. The Roman were however more concerned with law.
In India too, the society has always remained the most important subject of study Hindu Shastras discuss at large about the way one should behave individually and in society Upanishads Sutras and Puranas, Manu Smruti discuss in detail about the observance of moral laws and duties which is the highest Dharma.
There is a clear mention of the four ashrams and the clear instructions to be followed by an individual for the well-being of the society. Our sages and Roishis have discussed at length the duties and responsibilities of each and every man in society Kautilya’s Arthshastra lays down the duties of the ruler and the people to make an ideal society. He has discussed as length the economic social and political life of man in society.
In the Mughal period the celebrated scholar Abul Fazal of Akbar ‘s court has discussed at length in Ain-i-Akbari about the social institutions of those day, one can get a fairly good idea of state and society in those days.
It was until the 16th Century that clear cut distinction was made between state and society and there were writers who treated life’s problems on a more realistic plan. Hobbes and Machiavelli were the most distinguished one among those thinkers who studied state and statecraft and discovered the principles which go to make an ideal state and society.
The ‘Prince’ of Machiavelli is devoted chiefly to an exposition of the principles governing the successful state. Another scholar Sir Thomas more in this Itopia published in 1515 tried to deal with everyday social problems thereby depicting on an ideal social order which was meant to serve as an example to others to be emulated.
He presented a picture of ideal life as a way of painting out what real life of an individual should be on real life. Other thinkers who made rich contribution in the exposition of social life and institutions were Sir Frances, Bacoft and James Harrington in their works New Atlarris and The Common Wealth of Nations respectively.
Development of Sociology:
In Italy Vico and in. France Montesquieu made notable contribution in the development of sociology as a science of social relationship. They studied social life and human behaviour in all its aspects. Vico in his great work.
The New Science contended that society was subject to definite laws which can be observed through objective observation and study. Montesquieu in his book, “The Spirit of laws analysed the role of external factors like climate etc. on human societies.
The laws determining national character were to be explained in the light of social and geographical conditions under which man loved. Credit goes to Auguste Comte who is rightly the fathers of sociology who sought to establish a science embracing the totally of human life and activities.
In the evolution of society it has to traverse through three stages of social development theological stage metaphysical stage and scientific stage.
Man has now reached the scientific stage so far his thinking about natural phenomenon is concerned but his thinking about society was still in the metaphysical stage with the publication of origin of species by Darwin it was made clear that all complete forms of life gave evolved from the simple process of survival of the fittest and natural selection.
Herbert Spencer attempted to integrate all the sciences into one system and to find one fundamental law that would explain all phenomena physical and social.
He pointed out that the social phenomena like the organic undergo an evolutionary process of growth from the simple and homogenous to the complex and heterogeneous. The primitive man represented the sample human type from which civilised man evolved. Spencer occupies the foremost place in the biological school of sociology”
Herbert Spencer’s theory of organic evolution of society was displaced by psychological interpretation of social life. By the beginning of 20th Century Mac Dongal G Wallace and Hobhouse in England and Ward.
Giddings and Dewey on America tried to interpret social evolution in psychological terms Durkheim was the first modem thinker who emphasized on social facts and provided a separate ground to sociology from that of psychology.
According to him social facts and provided a separate ground to sociology from that of psychology. According to him social facts are extreme and exercise constraints our individuals. He gave a new direction to the study of sociology.
Study of sociology in India started in 1919 at the university of Bombay, but it was in 1930 that its study as a separate discipline was started. Thus it is clear that many individuals and thinkers on their own way and in their Own times tried to discuss social institution and systems.
How did Sociology Emerge?
Sociology is the science of society and its institutions. It is considered as one of the youngest social sciences. There has been numerous factors that can be attributed to the development of the subject in the historical perspective, specially in the Nineteenth Century.
It is true that we can find in the writings of philosophers religions and legislatures of all civilizations and epochs observations and ideas which are relevant to modem sociology.
Kautilya’s Arthashashtra and Aristotle’s politics analyse political systems in ways which are still of interest to the sociologist. Nevertheless there is a real sense in which a new science of society and lot merely a new name was created in the Nineteenth Century.
It is worthwhile to consider the circumstances in which this happened and examine the characteristics which distinguish sociology from earlier social thought.
The conditions which gave use to sociology were both intellectual and social. Naturally these were inter-woven and an adequate sociological history of sociology which has not yet been attempted would have to take account of these inter-connections.
In fact, literature concerning the subject matter of sociology is not of recent origin.
But the name to this subject matter was not given before Auguste Comte who in his work course i.e. philosophic (Positive Philosophy) clearly emphasized the need for a distinct subject for studying the society and in his endeavour he first named it as social physics but later remained it sociology which is universally accepted as proper title, and by virtue of this Auguste Comte is called the father of sociology.
Describe the scope of Sociology.
Define Sociology and discuss its scope.
(1) Auguste Comte, the founding father of sociology, defines sociology as the science of social phenomena “subject to natural and invariable laws, the discovery of which is the object of investigation”.
(2) Morris Ginsberg defines sociology in the following way: “In the broadest sense, sociology is the study of human interactions and interrelations, their conditions and consequences”.
There are wide differences of opinion about the scope of sociology. It is maintained by some that sociology studies everything and anything under the sun. This is rather too vague and vast a view about the scope of sociology. As a matter of fact sociology has a limited field of enquiry and deals with those problems which are not dealt with by other social sciences.
Sociology is the study of human inter-relations, interactions their conditions and consequences sociology has for its field the whole life of man in society, all the activities whereby men “maintain themselves in the struggle for existence, the rules and regulations which define their relations to each other, the systems of knowledge and belief, art and morals and any other capacities and habits acquired and developed in the course of their activities as members of society.
There are two views about the scope of sociology:
(1) Specialistic or Formalistic School; and
(2) Synthetic school.
(1) The Specialistic or Formalistic School: This school of thought is led by the GermAnswerociologist George Simmel. The other main advocates of this school are Vierkandt, Max Weber, Small, Von Wise and Tonnies. Simmel and others are of the opinion that sociology is a pure and an independent science.
As a pure science it has a limited scope. Sociology should confine itself to the study of certain aspects of human relationships only. Further, it should study only the forms of social relationships but not their contents.
Social relationships such as competition, subordination, division of labour etc. are expressed’ in different fields of social life such as economic, political, religious, moral, artistic etc.
Sociology should disentangle the forms of social relationships and study them in abstraction. Sociology as a specific social science describes, classifies and analyses the forms of social relationships.
Vierkandt says that sociology concerns itself with the ultimate form of mental or psychic relationship which links men to one another in society.
He maintains that in dealing with culture, sociology should not concern itself with the actual contents of cultural evolution but it should confine itself to only the discovery of the fundamental forces of change and persistence. It should refrain itself from making a historical study of concrete societies,
Max Weber opines that the aim of sociology, is to interpret or understand social behaviour. But social, behaviour does not cover the whole field of human relations.
He further says that sociology should make an analysis and classification of types of social relationship.
Small insisted that sociology has only a limited field. Von Wiese and Tonnies expressed more and less the same opinion.
1. It narrows the scope of sociology to merely abstract forms.
2. Abstract forms separated from concrete relations can not be studied. Study of social relationships remains barren if it is conducted in the abstract without full knowledge of the terms to which in concrete life they relate.
3. The conception of pure sociology is impractical. No social science can be studied in isolation from other social sciences.
4. Sociology alone does not study social relationships. Political science. Economics and International law also study social relationships.
Thus the formalistic school extremely narrows and confines the fields of sociology.
(2) Synthetic School: In reaction to the formalistic school of thought there arose the synthetic school. This school hold the view that sociology is a synthesis of all social science. The main exponents of the synthetic school of thought are, Emile Durkheim, Hobhouse, P. Sorokin and others. According to Durkheim sociology has three principal division, viz.,
(i) Social morphology,
(ii) Social physiology and
(iii) General sociology.
Social morphology covers the geographical settings, the density of population, etc., social physiology deals with such dynamic processes as religion morals, law, economic life, etc. Each of these becomes the subject matter of a special discipline like sociology of religion sociology of morals, sociology of law and so on.
General sociology is an attempt to discover the general social laws manifest in the specialized social processes to this he regards as the philosophical part of sociology. Hobhouse also holds a view similar to that of Durkheim regarding the functions of sociology. According to him sociology should be a synthesis of numbers social sciences. It should include other science in its scope.
According to Sorokin, the subject- matter of sociology includes.
(i) The study of relationship between the different aspects of social phenomena.
(ii) The study of relationship between the social and non-social.
(iii) The study of general features of social phenomena.
From the foregoing discussions on the scope of sociology it can be conveniently concluded that the range of this science is very wide. Sociology is regarded as a general. Science as well as a special science like all other sciences, the subject matter of sociology is society.
Explain the nature of Sociology.
Certain elements are essential before any study can be regarded as science. The essential characteristics of science are the following:
(1) The scientific method consists of minute and careful observation, recording, classification, generalisation and verification. A science is so called not because of its subject matter but because it employs the scientific method.
(2) Science is the study of facts. Its subject matter is facts not ideals.
(3) Scientific principles are universal. They hold true irrespective of the temporal and spatial order.
(4) Scientific law is vertical. Its validity can be examined at any time and tested any number of times. It will prove true in every case.
(5) Science searches for the cause and effect relationship in its subject matter and in this connection provides universal and valid laws.
(6) Science can also make predictions on the basis of universal and valid laws relating ‘ to the cause effect relationships in any subject. The foundation of science is based upon a faith in causality. What will happen can be predicted by basing the prediction upon what is, for the law of cause and effect is universal and inevitable.
Some objections against sociology being called a science are the following:
(1) An objective and unbiased study can not be made in sociology. It is because the sociologist has to resume the dual role of both the doctor and the patient. He is also a part of that very society with his studies.
(2) The objection which has been raised to challenge the scientific status of sociology is the lack of laboratories. Sociology as a science can neither catch, nor see neither weigh nor analyse its fundamental elements in the test tube of a laboratory. The relation at cooperation or non-cooperation of love and hatred are such which cannot be studied under any microscope. Sociology makes the world its laboratory for its purposes.
(3) It is alleged that the knowledge of sociology is not exact as that of physical sciences., Society cannot be weighed in the balance nor tested in the test tube. The socialist himself is a part of society.
(4) Critics raise objections that sociology cannot make predictions. It is true we can not hope for the same degree of the capacity of prediction from sociology which can be found in physics and other sciences. Sociology can lay claim to being a science because it employs
the scientific method m its study.
Its exactness, the capacity to predict, the possibility of measurement in it etc. are comparatively less than the physical sciences in view of the unique subject matter. But, it can, despite these factors be called a science. Since a number of other sciences are sciences in spite of all these drawbacks.
Define sociology and discuss its relationship with Economics.
(1) “The subject matters of sociology is the interaction of human minds”- L.T. Hobhouse
(2) “Sociology is the study of relationships between man and his environment”- II.P. Fairchild
Relation: Sociology and Economics are closely related to each other. Because society is greatly influenced by economic factors and economic processes are largely and determined by the environment of society. Economics is a science which deals with production consumption and distribution of wealth. It studies the economic life of man.
The economic factors plays a vital role in every aspect of our social life. Total development of individual depends very much on economic factors without economic conditions the study of society is quite impossible social life of man is greatly influence by economic factors. The sociologists study present social problems with the help of economics. All the social problems are directly connected with economic conditions of the people.
In the same way Economics is also influenced by Sociology. Economics takes helps from Sociology in order to study the economic welfare of the people. Economic welfare is considered as a part of human welfare and it can be sought only proper knowledge of social laws.
Without the social background the study of Economics is quite impossible because the economic life of the people is directly controlled and regulated by the society.
In order to solve the economic problems the economists have to take into consideration the social phenomena existing at particular period. The Economics is an independent social science whose relation to sociology is one of mutual assistance.
(1) Sociology studies all kinds of social relationships but economics deals with only those social relationships which are economic in character.
(2) Sociology is a general social science but economics is a special social science.
(3) The scope of sociology seems to be wider. It has a comprehensive viewpoint but the scope of economics is narrower. It does not have a comprehensive viewpoint.
(4) Sociology is a science of recent emergence but economics has attained an advanced degree of maturity.
(5) Sociology is abstract in nature and less precise also. Social variables are very difficult to measure and to quantity but economics is concrete in nature. It is more precise. economic variables can be measured and quantified more easily and accurately.
Define Sociology and discuss its relationship with History.
(1) Park regards sociology as “the science of collective behaviour”.
(2) Small defines sociology as “the science of social relations’’.
Sociology and History are very much interrelated. Like Political science, sociology is becoming one of the most genuine fruits of history to which it is intimately connected. The two sciences are so close that some writers like G Von Bulow refused to accept sociology as a science different from history.
History: History is the reconstruction of man’s past. It is the story of the experience of mankind. It is a record of the human past. It is a systematic record of man’s life and achievements from the dim past to the present. The historian studies the significant events of man in .the order of time. The historian is interested in what happened at a particular time in the past.
Sociology: Sociology as a science of society, on the other hand, is interested in the present Jt tries to analyse human interactions and interrelations with all their complexity and diversify. It also studies the historical development of societies.
It studies various stages of human life, modes of living, customs, manners and their expression in the form of social institutions and associations. Sociology has thus to depend upon history for its material. History with its record of various social events of the past often data and facts to sociologists.
Difference between History and Sociology:
(1) Sociology is interested in the study of the present social phenomena with all their complexity but history deals with the past events of man. It is silent regarding the present.
(2) Sociology is relatively a young social science. It has a very short history of its own. It is not even two centuries old but history is an age-old social science. It has a long story of2000 years or even more.
(3) Sociology is an analytical science but history is a descriptive science.
(4) Sociology is abstract in nature. It studies mostly regular, the recrurrent and the universal but history is concrete. This historian is interested in the unique, the particular and the individual.
(5) Sociology is a generalising science. Sociology seeks to establish generalisations after a careful study of the social phenomena but history is an individualising science. History rarely makes generalisations. It seeks to establish the sequence in which events occured.
(6) Sociology follows the sociological approach. It studies human events from the sociological point of view, i.e., from the view point of social relationships invovled but history studies human events in accordance with the time order. Its approach is historical.
Define Sociology and discuss its relationship with Political Science.
(1) “Sociology deals with behaviour of men in groups’ – Kimbal Young
(2) “Sociology in its broadest sense may be said to be the study of interactions arising from the association of living beings”.Gillin and Gillin.
Political science and sociology are intimately related to each other. Political science deals with social groups which live, work and develop under the sovereignty of the state. The state and the social groups cannot be separated from each other. In the same way many social institutions family, church etc. work in close cooperation with the state.
It is the responsibility of the state to give laws to the society. But no law can work successfully unless it has the cooperation of society.
The most significant thing about sociology and modem political theory is that most of the changes which have taken place in the political theory in the last thirty years have been along the line of development suggested and marked out by sociology knowledge of sociology is necessary for understanding the problems of political science because political problems have also a social aspects.
According to Catlin, political and sociology are two facts or aspects of the same figure. According to Comte and Spencer, there is no difference whatsoever between the two.
The laws of the state have a profound influence upon society. It is by means of laws that the Government changes and improves society. But while formulating laws it is necessary to keep in view the mores, traditions and customs of the country. The points of differences between the two are:
(1) Sociology is a science of society,Political science studies political society or government.
(2) Sociology proceeds in its investigation from social view point. But political science has an attitude of authority. Sociology studies both organised and disorganised communities. Political science studies only organised communities.
(3) Sociology studies all kinds of social relationships, political science studies political relationships only.
(4) Sociology studies all forms of society. Political science studies the political society only.
(5) Sociology studies all means of social control. But political science studies only of government recognised means of control.
(6) Difference in approach: Political science starts with the assumption that man is a political being, sociology goes behind this assumption and tries to explain how and why man became a political being.
(7) Sociology deals with unconscious activities also unlike political science with treats only conscious activities of man. Society treats unconscious activities of man also.
(8) Sociology is a general science while political science is special science.
Describe the relationship between Sociology with Psychology.
Sociology and psychology are contributory sciences Psychology has been defined as the study of human behaviour. In the words of Thoughtless, “Psychology is the positive science of human experience and behaviour”.
Emphasising the close relationship between sociology and social psychology, Paiere writes that “Social Psychology is to sociology and Psychology, as Biochemistry is to Biology and Chemistry”.
Maclver says that “Sociology in special gives aid to psychology, just as psychology gives special aid to sociology”. To Quota Murphy, “Social Psychology is to study of the way in which the individual comes member of and functions in a social group”.
T.B. Bottomore says that “Social psychology is that part of general psychology which as particular relevance to social phenomena or which deals with the psychological aspects of social life”. Robert. Bierstedt says that ‘ ’Social psychology, serves as bridge between psychology and sociology”.
Maclver and Page have said, “When we study the nature of the individual consciousness which expresses itself in social relationship, we are taking the psychological point of view.
When we study the relationships themselves we take the sociological point of view. Both sciences are concerned with different aspects of an indivisible reality. Individual cannot be understood apart from their relations with one another; the relations cannot be understood apart from the units of the relationship”.
1. Sociology studies society and social groups. It has no primary, interest in the individual, nor in this personality nor in his individual behaviour. But social psychology studies the behaviour of individual in group situation or in society. Its focus of interest in individual and not the society as such.
2. Sociology analyses social processes. But social psychology analyses mental processes of man.
3. Sociology is interested in the social forms and structures within which the behaviour of man takes place. But psychology and social psychology are primarily concerned with the behaviour of individuals as such.
4. Sociology studies in groups themselves and die larger social structure within which both individual and group processes occur. But psychology studies the individual and social psychology the individual in his social groups.
5. Sociology-studies society from the sociological view points. But social psychology studies the individual’s behaviour from the view point of psychological factors involved.
Describe the relationship between Sociology and Anthropology.
According To Hoebel, sociology and social Anthropology are in their broadest sense are and the same. Evans Pritchard considers social anthropology a branch of sociology.
Sociology is greatly benefited by anthropological studies. Sociologists have to depend upon anthropologists to understand the represent day social phenomena from our knowledge of the past which is often provided by anthropology.
The studies made by famous anthropologists like Radcliff Brown, B. Malinowski, Ralph Linton, Lewie Raymond fifth, Margaret Mead, Evans Pritchard and others have been proved to be valuable in sociology.
Sociological topics such as the origin of family, the beginning of marriage, private property, the genesis of religion, etc. can better be understood in the light of anthropological knowledge.
The anthropological studies have shown that there is no correlation between anatomical characteristics & mental superiority.
The notion of racial superiority has been disproved by anthropology. Further, sociology has borrowed many concepts like cultural area, culture traits, interdependent traits, cultural lag, culture patterns.
The knowledge of anthropology, physical as well as socio-cultural, is necessary for a sociologist. An understanding of society can be gained by comparing various cultures, particularly the modem with the primitive.
Anthropology as a discipline is so closely related to sociology that the two are frequently indistinguishable. Both of them are fast growing. The socio-cultural anthropologists, today are also making a study of the present peoples and their societies. In a number of universities anthropology and sociology are administratively organised into one department.
The conclusions drawn by sociologists have also helped the anthropologists in their studies. For example, anthropologists like Moryan and his followers have come to the conclusion regarding the existence of primitive communism from tire conception of private property in our modem society.
(1) Sociology studies the modem, civilised and complex societies but anthropology concerns itself with the simple, uncivilised or primitive and non-literate societies.
(2) Sociologists more often study parts of a society and generally specialise in institutions such as family marriage, or processes, such as social change, social mobility but anthropologists tend to study societies in all their aspects as whole. They concentrate their studies in a given “culture area”, such as Melanesia or Nagaland.
(3) Sociologists study, ‘small’ as well as Targe’ so anthropologists usually concentrate on small societies such as of Naga, Rongma Naga, Khasis, Gond, Bhil, etc.
(4) Sociology makes use of observation, interview, social survey, questionnaires and other methods and techniques in its investigations but anthropologists directly go and live in the communities they study. They make use of direct observations and interviews.