Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 1 Sources of Indian History Short Answer Questions
Short Type Questions with Answers
From which Greek world History has come and what is its meaning?
From the Greek word Historia the history word has. come. The meaning of it is investigation, discovery, and experiment.
Who is regarded as the father of history and he had tried to write which type of history?
Herodotus is regarded as the father of history. He had tried his best to write history on truth matters yet sometimes be based on the facts of legend.
In ancient India how many important religions were promulgated and what are they?
In ancient India, three important religions of the world were promulgated. They are Brahmanical Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism.
The eminent ancient personalities of ancient gave the name of the land as what and their inhabitants were called as what?
The eminent ancient personalities gave the name of the land “Bharat Varsha” and the inhabitants were called “Bharat sanitation”.
The ancient Persians according to the name of which river gave the name India hind and in further times in which name it was popular?
The ancient Persians gave the name of this Hind according to the Sindhu river. In further times this country became popular as India.
Historian Thusidydes belongs to which country and he prefers to write which type?
Thucydides belongs to the country of Greece. He prefers to write scientific history.
What is regarded as an archaeological source and which compound secured place within it?
Archaeology is the science to know about the past. Inscriptions and ancient writing on various things are the main sources of it.
Outside India from which source it is known regarding this country and what are the discovered sources?
Outside India, we came to know some inscriptions which give information about this country. They are discovered the source of the Beghaj Kay inscription and the inscription discovered in Behistan of Persia.
Which monarch had told in his own language that he had engraved his administrative principles on stones and what was the reason for it?
Monarch Ashok had told in his own language that he had engraved his administrative principles on stones. The reason of it that it will last for many years to come.
The ancient script of India was discovered from which civilizations’ archaeological remains and it was engraved on which materials?
The ancient script of India was discovered from the archaeological remains of the Harappan civilization. It was engraved on seals.
Another ancient script of India was engraved in which century and was whose script?
Another ancient script of India was engraved in the 3rd century B.C. These engraved scripts were of King Asoka.
What is Archaeology and at the time which Governor-General in India department created it?
The science of digging up and its excavation of various materials is considered Archaeology. The Archaeological department was created by the then Governor General of India Lord Curzon.
Which coin is regarded as the source of history and this investigation is called what?
Varieties of coins from different ages in the depth of the earth and their discoveries are considered as an important source of history. This investigation study is known as numismatics.
Ambassador Al- Beruni has given information about how many Puranas prevail in India and among them the names of the chief Puranas are?
Ambassador Al-Beruni has given information about is Puranas prevailing in India among them the chief Puranas are “Vayu Purana”, “Bishnu Purana”, “Matsya Purana”, “Brahmanda Purana”, “Agni Purana” etc.
Name of the religious text of Buddhism and what are those?
The name of the religious text of Buddhism is “Tripitaka”. Those are “Sutrapitak”, “Binaya Pitaka” and “Abhidharma Pitaka”.
The “Arthasastra” of Kautilya is divided into how many parts and it reflects the social and religious life of the people of which age?
The “Arthasastra of Kautilya is divided into fifteen parts. It reflects the social and religious life of the people of the Mauryan Age.
Who was the writer of the “Astadhyayi” text and when it was written? The text stressed the importance of what?
The writer of “Astadhyayi” was Panini and it was written in the 4th century. This text stressed the importance of state administration.
“Mahabhaya” text was written by whom and this text was written in which B.C.?
The “Mahabhasya” text was written by Patanjali. This text was written in the 2nd century B.C.
“Mudra Rakshasa” was written by whom and this text narrates which subjects?
“Mudra Rakshasa” was written by Visakhadutta. In this text, the social condition and cultural aspects of the time of Chandra Gupta Maurya have been described.
“Harsha Charita” was written by whom and in this text which article was reflected?
“Harsha Charita” was written by Banabhatta. It was the life history of Harsavardhana and in it, the social religious and economic life conditions of the people of the 7th century had been described.
“Bikramarka Charita” was written by whom and in it the working condition of which king had been described?
“Bikramarka Charita” was written by Bilharzia. In this book, the working condition of Chalukya king Vikramaditya had been described.
“Ram Charita” was written by whom and in it, the heroic episodes of whom had been described?
“Ram Charita” was written by Sandhyakar Nandi. In this book, the Character of Bengal king Rampal had given importance.
“Prithviraj Charita” was written by whom and in it, the heroic episodes of whom had been described?
“Prithviraj Charita” was written by Chand Kabi. In it, the heroic episodes of king Prithviraj are described.
When Kalhan’s “Rajatarangini” was written and in this text whom an elaborate description had given?
Kalhanas “Rajatarangini” was written on 1149-50 A.D. In this text, the dynasty, state administration, and punishment system of the state have been given elaborate importance.
“Raja Vamsabali” was the text of which state and what for it was famous?
“Raja Vamsabali” was the ancient text of Udara Desa or Odisha. The book gave enough information for writing an ancient history of Odisha.
“Malabikagni Mitram” was written by whom and this book is based on some aspects of which kings administration?
“Malavikagnimitram” was written by eminent poet and dramatist Kalidasa.- This text described some aspects of king pushy amitraz sunga’s administration.
Drama “Sakuntala” was written by whom and in it what kind of facts were given?
The drama “Sakuntala” was the eternal creation of the famous dramatist Kalidasa. In this drama, the social condition of people had given almost importance.
The drama “Swapna Vasabadutta” was written by whom and in it which picture had given importance? ,
Drama “Swapravasabadutta” was written by Vasa. In it, the picture of then-political India had given importance.
“Goudabaha” was written by whom and what is it described?
“Goudabaha” was written by Vakapati. This book described the adventurous works of Yasovarman.
“Dasakumara Charitam” text was written by whom and it reflects which condition of the then India?
“Daskumara Charitam” was written by Dandi. In this text, the political and social condition of then India had been reflected.
Monal teaching text “Pancha Tantram” was written by whom and it reflects which principle of the then India?
The moral teaching text “Pancha Tantram” was written by Vishnu Sharma. This text reflects the social principle of then India.
Sangam literature was written in which part of India and it had importance upon which language?
Sangam literature was written for South Indian kings and their dynasties. It gave importance to the Tamil language.
“Chachanama” text belongs to which country and in it what had been reflected?
“Chachanama” text belongs to Arab countries. In it, the Arab invasion of Sindh had been reflected.
“Tabata-I-Nasir” was written by whom and it was divided into how many parts and in it what had been described?
“Tabata-I-Nasir” was written by Minhas-us-Siraj and it was divided into ten parts. In it, an elaborate description had given regarding Islam and India.
“Histories” text was written by whom and this text gave information regarding what?
The “Histories” text was written by Herodotus, the father of History. This book gave information regarding the Persian Greek war and so also relation in between India and Persia.
Who gave details information about the Indian invasion of Alexander and on it what had been described?
Arrian gave details information about the Indian invasion of Alexander from Greek. description it was known how Seleucus was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya. (Sandrokotus)
Name of the eminent ancient geographist and in his geography text what he had narrated?
The name of the eminent ancient geographist was Talmy. In his Greek language, he described Indian ports.
Who was Megasthenes? The written information by him was named?
Meghasthenes was a Greek Ambassador. The written information by him was named “Indika”.
Who Was Megasthenes? He was sent by which Greek King to the Mauryan court and settled at Pataliputra?
Megasthenes was a Greek Ambassador. He was sent by the Greek king Seleucus to the Mauryan court and settled at Pataliputra.
Did fashion come to India at the time of the reign of which king? The book written by him was?
Fabien came to India at the time of the reign of Chandragupta II. The book written by him was named “Fo-Kuo-ki”.
China ambassador Hiuen-Tsang came to India at the time of which emperor? The book written by him was?
China Ambassador Hiuen-Tsang came to India during the reign of emperor Harshavardhan. The name of the book written.
Who was Hiuen-Tsang ? Which title was given to him?
Hiuen-Tsang was Chinese Ambassador. The title “Prince of Pilgrims” was given to him.
Is-Tsing when came to India? What he had described regarding Buddhism?
Is-Tsing came to India in the 7th century. At his time of coming to India Buddhism was in a deteriorating condition.
Who was Al-Beruni? The name of his text was?
Al-Beruni was a famous Al-Abian writer. The name of his text was “Tahiq-i-Hind”.
Who was James Princep? In which year he was capable to study Asokan inscription?
James prince was a western learned man. In 1837 A.D. he was capable to study the Asokan inscription.
In which year by archaeological excavation was the city Harappa & Mahenjodaro came established and who was it discovered?
In 1922 A.D. by archaeological excavation the city Harappa & Mahenjodaro came to establish. The discoverer of it was Dayaram Sahani and Rakhal Das Banerjee.
Give information regarding the location of Harappa and Mahenjodaro?
Harappa city was established in the Montogomery district of Punjab near the bank of the Rabi river. Another city Mahenjodaro or “Dead city” was situated in the Larkana district of Sindh near the shore of the Sindhu river.
Who was Charles Mason? What he had described Harappa?
Charles Mason was an English archaeologist. In 1829 A.D. he described Harappa as a “Puinous Brick Castle”.
Where Lothal was situated for what it was famous for?
Lothal was situated in Gujarat state. It was famous for its ancient port.
Who was Mortimer Wheeler? He had fixed which time as the time of Sindh civilization?
Mortimer Wheeler was a famous personality in Archaeology. He had a fixed time of Sindh civilization from 2500 B.C. to 1500 B.C.
What was the chief livelihood of Harappans? For their economic development, we came to know from which?
The Chief livelihood of Harappans was cultivation. For their economic development, we came to know from the excavation of granary found from it.
What was the eminent project of Harappa? What were its length and breadth?
The eminent project of Harappa was the “Great Bath”. The entire home preserved the. bath had a length of 180ft. and breadth of 108ft.
Whether the people of ancient Sindh know the process of writing? Their writing was discovered from where?
The ancient Sindh people knew one process of the writing system. Their writing is known from the discovered seals.
Whether the Sindhu people knew about the domestication of animals? They had not domesticated which animal?
Yes, the ancient people knew about the domestication of animals. They had not to domesticated and could not know the use of horses and dogs.
Regarding the golden ornaments of the Harappan civilization analyze the version of John Marshall?
John Marshall opined regarding the gold ornaments of Harappa that the ornaments of discovered Harappa were so beautiful, fine, and attractive that it was not 5000 years gold ornaments and as if it is available at the different gold shops of London’s bond road.
The weapons of the Harappan civilization were made in which metal? For which purpose they used it?
The weapons of the Harappan civilization were made of copper and bronze. For the purpose of war and haunting, they used it.
In the developed time of the Harappan civilization which type of rainfall was continuing? At that time which food particles produced more?
In the developed time of the Harappan civilization maximum rainfall was continuing. At that time wheat and barley produced more.
For cultivation purposes which type of utensils was used by the Sindh people? Now that place is called?
For cultivation purposes the Sindh people used plow, sickle axe, etc, Now that place is called the “Garden of Sindh” (Nakhalistan)
In which industry the Sindh people were experts and for this which material has discovered from excavation?
In the weaving industry, the Sindh people were experts. This we came to know from the discovery of knitting machines and engraved seals.
For the clay pot of Harappan civilization what was the opinion of Mortimer Wheeler?
Regarding the clay pots of the Harappan people, Mortimer Wheeler opined that those were very attractive in comparison to Iran and Mesopotamia.
The Sindh people were accustomed to which metal and whether they knew the use of iron?
The Sindh people were accustomed to copper, bronze, gold, silver, tin, etc. Whether they knew about the use of iron still no information is found regarding it.
Estimate the opinion of Hunter regarding the metal architecture of Sindh people?
According to famous historian Hunter, the Sindh people were experts in metal architecture. From it, they were capable to make different types of ornaments also.
Whether the Sindh people were experts in the trade business? They were engaged for internal business from which place to which place?
There availed enough evidence that the Sindh people were experts in the trade business. They were engaged in internal business from Kashmir Valley to Southern valley.
On which route the Sindh people had foreign trade relations and with which country they were engaged in trading?
On the land route and sea routes, the Sindh people had foreign trade relations. They were engaged in trade with countries like Sumeria, Egypt, and Greece.
Give proof regarding the trade relationship between Mesopotamia civilization and Sindh civilization?
They excavated Mahenjodaro seals in Mesopotamia and excavated cuneiform writing from the Mahenjodaro civilization tracing the trade relationship between them. So also Sindh people had trade relations with Akkad and other countries of Persia.
Whether the Sindh people were experts in the analytical and mechanical wing? Whether their weight and measurement, the system in comparison with England’s ounce and Greek Unica system?
From the excavated archaeological things and their examination, we came to know that they were experts in the analytical and mechanical wing. Their weight and measurement system was inaccurate with the ounce system in England and unrar system in Greek.
In 2001 the archaeological excavation from Mehergarh in Pakistan describes the medical treatment of Sindh people?
In 2001 the archaeological excavation from Mehergarh in Pakistan. We came to anticipate that the Sindh people acquired knowledge about teeth treatment.
The Sindh people worshipped to which force? The woman’s picture engraved on the seal gave which information?
It came to be known that the Sindh people worshipped to “Mother Goddess”. The woman’s picture engraved in the excavated seal indicates that the picture may be the picture of the Dharitri Goddess.
The excavated Yogi posture was surrounded by which four figures? Analyze the statement of John Marshall regarding this figure?
The excavated seal with Yogi posture was surrounded by four animals and they were elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, and buffalo. From this study, Sir John Marshal imagined that perhaps Saivism was the earliest religion of India.
Evaluate the statement of Mortimer Wheeler regarding the decline of the Indus civilization? When this Civilization came to an end?
According to Mortimer Wheeler, Harappa and Mahenjodoro were destroyed by the Aryan invaders. In the Vedas, the early Aryans described their God Indra as the destroyer of the cities of the Asuras. According to wheeler the fall of this civilization occurred about 1500 years before the birth of Christ.
Analyze the statement of other scholars about the fall of the Indus valley civilization?
To other scholars, the climatic changes led to the decline of the cities. It may be that the rivers Indus and Ravi changed their courses for which the cities were badly affected frequent floods of those rivers made it difficult for people to live. Being deserted the cities perhaps got buried under the earth in course of many many years.
Give an estimate of the legacies of the Indus civilization?
The influence of the Indus civilization on the future can not be denied. The civilization had two faces. Spiritual and material. But the spiritual faiths of the Indus people survived forever.
Which Eastern eminent scholar when given the opinion that the Sanskrit language of India and other western languages had derived from one common language?
Eminent Eastern scholar Sir William Johns gave an opinion in 1786 that the Sanskrit language of India, the language of Persia language of Greece, and Rome, and the German language had deep relations and those languages had derived from one original language.
Regarding the unity of various tribes which western scholar has given which opinion?
Regarding the unity of various tribes eminent western scholar Maxmuller opined strongly in 1861 that “The forefathers of Indian, Persian, Greek, Romans skills, Kelat, and Germans not only lived in the same place rather they lived under one home.
The Aryans first settled in which place in India and how many rivers flowed there?
The Aryans first settled in Punjab India. At that time in Punjab, seven rivers were flowing.
The Aryan gave which name Punjab and define the name of the seven rivers?
The Aryan given name to Punjab was Saptasindhu. The name of those rivers is Sindhu, Vitasta, Chandrabhaga, Iravati, Bipasa, Satadru, and Saraswati.
What was the first literature of the Aryans and when it was written?
Veda happens to be the earliest literature of the Aryan race coming to India they began to write it.
What are the meaning of Veda and other names for it?
The word Veda means supreme knowledge. The Aryans believed that the Vedas were the words of God. The other name of Veda is called Shruti.
Veda is divided into how many parts and what is the earliest Veda?
Veda is divided into four parts such as Rigveda, Samveda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda. The name of the earliest Veda is Rigveda.
Give an opinion against “Aranyaka”?
Aranyaka is a part of Veda. There is a philosophical theme in it. There is six Aranyakas. In future times it was enlarged and came to be known as Upanishad.
Who was the head of the Aryan family and estimate his relation with family members?
Father was the head of the Aryan family. The relationship between father, mother, brothers, and sisters rested on a sense of duty, devotion, affection, and cordiality. The younger members obeyed the senior members.
The Aryans believed in which system of life and what are they?
The Aryans believed in the system of Chaturashrama or the fourfold division of life. They are Brahmacharya, Garhasthya, Vanaprastha, and Sanyasa.
Give an account of the tradition of the education system of the Aryans?
In Vedic society, there was Gurukul where the students earned their education. With obtaining knowledge they also imported education for work efficiency, building good character, truth, honesty, etc.
What was the position of women in Vedic Aryan society and they secured which position?
Women held a high position in Vedic Aryan society. They secured an equal position with men and also exercised much influence in domestic affairs.
What is the meaning of the Aryan word “Dough”? Are the Aryan girls fond of looking at the cow?
The Aryan word “Dough” means milking the cow. Perhaps the Aryan girls were fond of looking after the cow as their domestic duty.
Was there child marriage in the Rig-vedic society? Was there seclusion of women?
There was no child marriage in the Rig-vedic society. Girls live in the house of their parents till they attained marriageable age. There was no seclusion of women in Vedic society.
Were the Vedic women taking part in the highest socio-religious duties? Give the name of some important women in Vedic society?
The Vedic Women took part in the highest socio-religious duties. They also studied Vedas, some important women personalities in Vedic times were Lopamudra, Ghosha, Viswavara, and Apala.
What were the dress materials of early Vedic people and what are they?
The Aryans generally used cotton and woolen garments, sometimes deer skins were also used for the dress. The men were generally one lower and one upper garment called vasa and Adhivasa. The women in addition to the above two used an undergarment called “Nivs”
What was the daily food of the Aryan people?
The daily food of the Rigvedic people consisted of barley, rice, beans, vegetables, milk, milk products, and cakes. They also ate non-vegetarian foods like fish, birds, goats, bulls, horses, etc. Ox, goat meat, and mutton were eaten. Bull cow meat was not touched.
What were the game and amusement in the Aryan society?
The virile people in the Aryan society passed their time in boxing, hunting, and chariot race. The Aryans used many musical instruments like drums, flutes, harps, and cymbals.
What was the principal occupation of the Vedic Aryans for plowing the land? How many bullocks did they use?
Agriculture was the principal occupation of the Vedic Aryans. For plowing land they used as many as 8,10 and 12 bullocks.
What type of industry was prevalent in Aryan times?
The weaving of cotton and wool was the principal industry. Carpentry was a lucrative profession. The blacksmiths made weapons household implements and gold smith mode ornaments.
Give a short note about the internal trade of the Aryan people?
The Rigvedic people carried trade among the members of the same tribe and also with other tribes sometimes traders made journeys to distant lands for larger profits on the trade.
What was the medium of exchange of Aryan trade? Name of the gold coin used by the Aryans?
The medium of exchange in the Aryan trade was the barter system. The gold coin used by the Aryans was named “Nishka”.
Whether the Aryans had overseas trade?
We do not know definitely whether the Aryans had overseas trade with west Asian countries. The Harappans had extensive trade with West Asia. Whether the Aryans were able to continue is not certain.
Which was the lowest unit in the Rigvedic society and what is a clan?
The lowest unit of the Rigvedic society was the family. A number of families bound by ties of blood and other relations formed a clan.
Which unit formed in Rigvedic society as a union of several gramas and which was the higher unit?
The union of several gramas formed a vis. The Jana was the higher unit.
Name of the leaders of grama, vis, and Jana?
The leader of the grama was called Brahmani and that of a vis was called visit. The lord of the Jana was called Copa.
What was the prevailing form of Government and by which term the king was denoted?
Kingship was the prevailing form of government. The king was denoted by the term “Rajan”.
Which form of government was by the Vedic tribes and what was the title of their leader?
The Vedic tribes did not have a monarchical constitution. They were ruled by tribal chiefs, who formed an oligarchy. The title of their leader was known as Ganapati.
What was the prime and supreme duty of the king and the administered justice with the help of whom?
The king had the prime and supreme duty to protect the life and property of his people from external and internal enemies. He administered justice with the help of (Priest).
The Rigvedic king had to consult popular bodies in grave political matters and act according to their decision?
The Rigvedic king had to consult with popular bodies like “Sabha” and “Samiti” in grave political matters and act according to their decision.
The king attended to which meeting and what Rigveda suggested regarding the decision of this popular body?
The king attended the meeting of the Samiti and took part in the debates. The Rigveda urged people to be unanimous. One-minded in taking decisions of the Samiti.
The Aryans expanded to which valley in the later Vedic period which places are mentioned in later Vedic literature?
The Aryans expanded to the Ganga Yamuna valley in the later Vedic period. The places like Kosala and Videha are mentioned in the later Vedic literature.
Which high-sounding title of Raj came into vogue and which sacrifices were performed to signify the imperial of the monarchs?
High-sounding titles like Ekrat now came into vogue. The sacrifices like Rajasuya, Vajapeya, and Asvamedha were performed to signify the imperial of the monarchs.
Apart from the officials in the Rigvedic period in the later Vedic age which new officials were appointed?
Apart from the officials in the Rigvedic period in the later Vedic age new officials like treasurer, Ceuta or royal announcer, superintendent of gambling, etc.
In the later Vedic period far-reaching changes took place in the sphere of the four caste systems. Which two castes now enjoyed the highest privileges in society?
In the later Vedic period far-reaching changes took place in the sphere of the four caste systems. Brahmanand Kshatriya now enjoyed the highest privileges in society.
What was the condition of women in the later Vedic age?
The high position of women in the early Vedic age deteriorated. They lost their right to perform religious duties and lost their position in political affairs.
Were the four Ashramas became more regularised in the later Rigvedic age and the students got an education in which subject?
The idea of four Ashramas became more regularised in the later Vedic age. The students got an education in philosophy, Vedas, scriptures ethics, etc.
What became the staple food of the later Vedic Aryans and what were the other items of food?
Rice became the staple food of the later Vedic Aryans. The other items of foods were vegetables, meat, fish, etc. killing of cows was looked disfavor. Drinking wine on sure was still favored.
What were the chief crops of the later Vedic people and how many bullocks were used for deep plowing?
The chief crops of the later Vedic people were rice, wheat, and barley. There were 24 nos of bullocks were used for plowing purposes.
What was the opinion of reference of Atharva Veda regarding the navigation in the seas by the later Vedic people?
The later Vedic people became familiar with the navigation of the seas. According to the reference of the Atharva Veda, the people were aware of the eastern and western seas perhaps trading contact with Mesopotamia was established.
In later Vedic times who were hereditarily engaged in trade and by which name the rich merchants were called?
In later Vedic times, the vaishyas were hereditarily engaged in trade. The rich merchants in this period.
Were there coins used in the later Vedic period and who used these coins as a unit of exchange?
There was a coin named “Mishka” which was not ordinarily used. The merchants used this coin as a medium of exchange.
Who was the most powerful and popular God in the later Vedic age and in which name he was described in Rigveda?
India was the most powerful and popular God in the later Vedic age. In Rigvedic he is described as the “Purandara” because he has destroyed the puas of the non-Aryans and ensured the security of his devotees the Aryans.
In the Vedic period language became the vehicle of expression of thought and towards the later Vedic age. This language became the language of which class?
In the Vedic period, Sanskrit became the vehicle of expression of thought. Towards the later Vedic age, this language became the language of the upper class.
Atharva Veda contains which information?
The Atharva Veda contains information on political, and social sciences, medicines, and also magic.
Regarding slavery in ancient Indian society what Meghasthenes has described?
Meghasthenes came to India in the 4th century B.C. He found that slavery was unknown to Indian society.
Which kingdom was popular as Varanasi and in the remote past who was the ruler of Varanasi and what was his name?
The Kasi kingdom was popular as the Varanasi kingdom. The name Varanasi is derived from the name of two rivers i.e.” Varuna” and “Asi”. The ancient king or ruler of Varanasi was Asvasena.
By consisting which modern area Kosala kingdom was constitute and what was the capital of Kosala?
By consisting Ayodhya area of Uttarpradesh the ancient Kosala kingdom was constituted. Sribasti was the capital of Kosala.
Which two states were the democratic states in sixteen Mahajanapadas and here it was developed?
Among the sixteen Mahajanpadas, Vrije and Malla were two democratic states. These two states were developed in the North-Western areas of India i.e., on the foothills of the Himalayas.
Anga was the neighbor of which kingdom and from which Veda we came to know about its name?
Anga was a neighbor of Magadha. From Atharva Veda we came to know about Anga.
In the 6th century B.C. who was the ruler of Vatsa and he was initiated in which religion?
In the 6th century B.C. Udayana was the ruler of Vatsa. He was initiated into Buddhism.
In the modern which area the Panchali kingdom was developed and in which century the democratic system established there?
In the modem Rohilakhand area the Panchali kingdom was developed and in this century the democratic system was established there.
In Buddhist J a taka what had described regarding the port of Bhrugukachcha and now it is compared with which port?
In Buddhist Jataka, it had described that Bhrugukachcha was an eminent port in ancient
Indian sea. Now it is compared with the port of Broch.
Define the word History?
The word History comes from the ancient Greek word ‘histo’ meaning ‘known this’. History is the Study of the past. If we look closely at the word, we will find the word ‘story’ in it. In fact, history is the story of how people lived in earlier times.
What is the sources of History?
With the help of historical clues, a historian writes the history of the past without which he can not reconstruct the past so these clues are called the sources of history. This source material can be divided into two categories, that is, archaeological and literary.
For collecting information about the pre-historic, past historians have to depend solely on the remains or rains of the past. Archaeologists dig up sites where people might have lived and bring out various objects which have been buried under the earth for many years. These objects may include tools, jewelry, fossils, and arts and crafts. At times, houses where people live, temples where people went to worship, and even the layout of an entire city have been excavated by archaeologists. These provide valuable clues to historians for reconstructing the history of that period.
The study of inscriptions is known as Epigraphy. In the absence of paper, people used sharp instruments to write on hard surfaces. These are referred to as inscriptions. Inscriptions may be found on seals, copper plates, stone pillars, rocks or temple walls. They provide valuable information. Though the Harappans were the first to inscribe their script on seals, these have not yet been deciphered so fax are those issued by Ashoka in the third century B.C.
The study of coins is known as numismatics coins struck at different times by different rules provide valuable dues regarding dates, names of rulers, regions where these have been struck as well as the metal sued. Ancient coins were made of copper-gold, silver, or lead. Coin molds made of burnt clay have been found in large numbers. Coins made of metal first appeared in the Buddhist period.
Write briefly about the position of Big Vedic women?
Women enjoyed freedom. Some of the outstanding women of the age were like Gargi, Maitree, Apala Visvabara, Ghosha Sikata Lapamudra. They did not remain confined within the four walls of the house.
Write about the Sabha of the Rig Vedia age?
The Sabha was a popular assembly to advise the King on administrative matters. The Sabha was the council of elderly people representing the wealthy and leading persons of the society. It was used to assist the king in the discharge of his functions.
Write about the Samiti of the Rigvedic Age?
The Samiti was a popular assembly to advise the kings on administrative matters. It was a larger body consisting of representatives from each village or group. The Samiti was concerned with taking decisions on the matters of war and peace, maintenance of law and order selection of the King.
Write about the Chaturashram of the water Vedic age?
Chaturashram or the four stages of life was a feature found in the society of dying later Vedic age. One’s life span was divided into four stages, namely, Brahmacharya. Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Samnyasa. To make life healthy and regulated, the divided into four stages.
How was the marriage system in the later Vedic Society?
Polygamy and polyandry were practiced during this time by the kings and nobles. Marriage among near relations was not the practice. More rituals were observed in the marriage ceremony.
Write about the religion of the Harappan civilization?
The Harappan worshipped the mother goddess, Lord Shiva as Pashupati, Pipai tree. Snake etc. The Harappans believed in life after death. They adopted the disposal of dead bodies.
Write about the dress of the Aryans?
The dress of the Aryan was plain and simple. The Rigvedic Aryans wore three pieces of clothing. The upper piece was called Vasa paridhana. The undergarment was called Aivi or Antalya. Besides these two, they also wore an over garment called Adhi.
Write about the food of the Rigvedic Aryan?
The food habit of the Rig Vedic Aryans was very simple. By and large, they were vegetarians. Barley, wheat, honey, fruits, milk, and products like curd, and Glu; end butter constituted their staple food.
Write about the political organization of the Vedic Aryans?
A number of families constructed one Grama or Village, a group of villages constituted one vis and a group of vis constituted. A Kingdom or Janapada. The head of the village was called Grammar. The head of the vis was called visit and the head of the janapadas was called Rajan. The family was the foundation of the political organization of the Vedic Aryans. The head of the family was called Grihapati.
Chief features of town planning of Harappan civilization?
The rains of the cities of the Indus valley civilization display the remarkable skill of the people in town planning and sanitation. The main features are cities with their wide and straight streets, efficient and covered drainage, structurally comfortable houses with bathrooms, and built of burnt bricks of various shapes. The most striking feature of Mahenjodaro is the Great Bath. It is a rectangular structure resembling a swimming pool. At Harappa, a number of granaries have been found.
Family system In early Vedic society?
The evolution of the family system in the early Vedic period provided a bedrock for a healthy, happy, and prosperous society. Society was organized on the basis of the family as a unit. Each family was considered a cradle of values. A training ground for learning the duties and obligations towards individuals, the family, society, and humanity at large.
The rigidity of the caste system in the Later Vedic Age?
The later Vedic period saw the rise of the rigid caste system Brahmanas, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra. It destroyed the values of human equality of the earlier days and created a distinction between man and man. Those who performed religious duties formed the priestly caste known as the Brahmana. Those who fought battles formed the warrior class called the Kshatriya. Those who looked to agriculture, trade or other productive works came to be known as the vaisya, and finally, those who performed social and human services to the society formed the lowest caste and were called the Sudra.
Gurukul system of education?
The education system was formalized, the ‘Gurukul’ system emerged and the students began to live as family members with their teacher. This system became the forerunner of the modem boarding system. Besides Vedas, the Puranas, the Upanishads, Astronomy, Mathematics, and Military education also formed part of the curriculum. After the completion of education, ‘Dakshina’ or gifts and presents were offered to the teachers.
Position of women in the later Vedic period?
During the later Vedic age, women lost their earlier status. Polygamy (marrying several wives of the man) was in vogue. Polyandry (possessing several husbands was also in vogue. The practice of swayamvar (choosing one’s husband) was prevalent in several sections of society. No doubt women had access to education but the status of women had been lowered during this period as compared with the Rigvedic Period.
Complicated Religious rituals in the later Vedic age?
Elaborate rituals and sacrifices became the order of the day. Numerous rituals and animal sacrifices to appease these gods began to be performed. The kings performed sacrifices. Individuals also performed sacrifices in their homes. The chanting of mantras accompanied all the rituals. In course of time, rituals became so important that every important event was followed by an elaborate ritual. The priests performed these rituals and sacrifices and were given cows horses, gold, and cloth as gifts. The priests were looked upon as messengers of God. As a result, they enjoyed tremendous power and prestige.