Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions
Very Short-Answer Type Questions
When Mahavira preached the religion of Jainism and in total there were how many Tirthankaras in Jainism?
In the 6th century B.C. Mahavira preached the religion of Jainism and in total one after another, there were twenty-four Tirthankaras in Jainism.
Who was the first Tirthankara and so also who was the last Tirthankara of Jainism?
Rishavanath was the first Tirthankara was Jainism. The 24th or the last Tirthankara of Jainism was Mahavir Vardhaman.
Who was the just previous “Tirthankara” of Mahavira and how many years before Mahavira was he born?
Parsvanath was the just previous Tirthankara of Mahavira. He had bom two hundred and fifty years before Mahavir.
The twenty-third Tirthankara Parsvanath convocated how many vows and what are they.
The twenty-third Tirthankara Parasavanath convocated four vows. They are truth non-violence, non-stealing, and non-attachment.
Mahavir was born in the village of which kingdom?
Mahavir was bom in the village kundagrama near to Vaisali of the kingdom of Videha.
What was the nickname of Mahavira and who were the parents of Mahavira?
The nickname of Mahavira was Vardhaman. The name his father was Siddhartha he belongs to the Jnatrika clan and the name of his mother was Trisala.
For which purpose Mahavira left home and at first meet which saint?
For the purpose of obtaining the truth, Mahavira left home. At first, he met the leader of the Aryavika tribe Gosala Mankhaliputra.
After the attainment of supreme knowledge in which designation. He was popular and after that in which work he engaged?
After supreme knowledge, he was popular with the designation of “Kevalin”. After that knowledge, Mahavir lived the life of a wandering teacher and preached his doctrines.
Mahavira breathed his last at which age and where?
Mahavira breathed his last at the age of 72 at a place called Pava in the Patna district of Bihar.
Which two dynasties mourned at the death of this great teacher Mahavira?
The Lichachhavis and the Mallas mourned the death of this great teacher by burning lamps as a symbol of the Mahavira spirit.
What were the four principles of parsvanath and to which principle Mahavira added with it?
The four principles of Parsvanath were truth, non-violence, non-stealing, and non-attachment. Mahavira added the principle of chastity observation as the fifth principle.
How many sets are in Jainism and what are they?
There are two sets in Jainism. They are svetambara and digambara..
What is Triratna or the three-fold path of Jainism?
The Triratna or threefold path in Jainism was right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct.
Mahavir advocated the doctrine of which philosophy in extreme form and he attributed life to which aspects?
Mahavir advocated the doctrine of non-violence or Ahimsa in extreme form. He attributed life to plants, animals, metals, and water and urged non-injury to them.
What are the religious texts of Jainism?
The religious texts of Jainism are Anga, Upanga, and Kalpa sutra.
In the 6th century B.C. which clan had established a republican state and who was the elected chief of it?
In the 6th century B.C. the Sakya clan had established a republican state. The father of Gautama Buddha, Suddhodan was its elected chief.
When Gautama Buddha was born and where?
Goutama Buddha was bom 566 B.C. at Lumbinivana in the Sakya country.
Who was the mother of Gautama Buddha and she died how many days after the birth of Gautama Buddha?
The mother of Gautama Buddha was Maya Devi. She died Seven days after the birth of Gautama Buddha.
What was the justification for the name of Buddha as Gautama?
After the death of Buddha’s mother, his rearing rested on his aunt Gautami. According to her name, the name of Buddha is Gautama.
At which age was Gautama married to whom?
At the age of sixteen, Gautama married Yasodhara on Gopa, sister of Devadatta.
Which “four great signs” deeply affected the mind of Gautama?
The four great signs which deeply affected the mind of Gautama were an old man, a cripple, a corpse, and an ascetic.
For which purpose Gautama Buddha renounced worldly life and in Buddhist scripture what is called this renunciation?
In the search for truth, Gautama Buddha renounced worldly life Gautama is known in Buddhist scriptures as “Mahavinish Kramana”.
Gautama learned the doctrine of Sankhya philosophy and the art of meditation from which ascetics?
Gautama learned the art of Sankhya Philosophy from the ascetic Arada Kalama at Vaisala. He also learned the art of meditation from Rudraka Ramputra at Rajagriha.
While Gautama was in deep meditation at which place he was offered milk by which village girl?
While Gautama was in deep meditation at Kuruvilla he was offered milk by the village girl Sujata.
After the attainment of enlightenment Gautama was popular by which name?
After the attainment of Enlightenment Gautama was popular in earning the name Buddhadeva.
According to Buddhist literature, what is the meaning of the title “turning the wheel of law” (Dharma-chakra pravartana)?
According to the Buddhist literature after enlightenment Buddha proceeded at first to Samath near Bananas. He delivered his first sermon to five learned Brahmanas. This is called in Buddhist literature “turning the wheel of Law” (Dharma-chakra pravartana)
After enlightenment Buddha embraced which life and covered up to how many years?
After enlightenment Buddha embraced the life of a missionary as a preacher of truth. It covered a period of 45 years.
Buddha converted his creed to many illustrious figures and who are they?
Buddha converted his creed to many illustrious figures. They were Bimbisara, Ajatasatru, Sariputta and Maudgalayana.
Which king of Kosala listened to the Buddha’s discourses and which queen and two sisters became Buddha’s disciples?
King Prasenjit of Kosala listened to the Buddha’s discourses. One of his queens Mallika and his two sisters became Buddha’s disciples.
While staying at Vaisali, Buddha converted to which courtesan to his faith and also gave consent to the formation of which union?
While staying at Vaisali, Buddha converted to courtesan Ambapali to his faith. Buddha gave his consent to the formation of Bhikshuni Sangha.
Which is the earliest available source of Buddha’s teachings and what are they?
The earliest available source of Buddhas teachings is the pali pitakas and nikayas. The pitakas consist of three parts the Vinaya pitaka, Sutra pitaka and Abhidharma pitaka.
Buddhadeva asked his disciples to comprehend how many noble truths and what are they.
Buddha asked his disciples to comprehend four noble truths. They are:
- life is full of suffering
- the cause of suffering is desire and attachment
- suffering can be ended by the destruction of desire
- there is a way (Marga or Path) for the destruction of desire.
For deliverance from suffering Buddha outlined which path and what are they.
For deliverance from suffering Buddha outlined an eightfold path (Astangika Marga). They are right speech, right action, right means of livelihood, right exertion, right-mindedness, right meditation, right resolution, and right point of view.
Which observance leads to the attainment of Nirvana or salvation?
The observance of the sila and attainments of the samadhi and prajna would lead to nirvana or salvation.
What was the central theme of the moral code of Buddha and Buddha urged his followers to avoid which way?
The middle path or the Majjhima path was the central theme of the moral code of Buddha. Buddha urged his followers to avoid the extreme path.
Buddha did not preach his doctrines in which language rather he preached it in which language?
Buddha did not preach his doctrines in the Sanskrit language. But he preached it Magadhi i.e., the language of the people.
When the first Buddhist council was convened and where it was held under the auspices of whom?
The first Buddhist council was convened a few weeks after Buddha’s death in the year 487 B.C. It was held at Rajagriha under the auspices of Ajatasatru.
Where the second Buddhist council was held and in which year?
The second Buddhist council was held at Vaisali almost a century after Buddha purinirvaha or demise. The time of the second council is in and about 387 B.C.
The third Buddhist council was convoked by the presidentship of which Buddhist monk and when?
The third Buddhist council was convoked by the Presidentship of eminent Buddhist monk Moggalpur a jiha in the year 251 B.C.
By whose auspices the fourth Buddhist council was summoned and where?
By the auspices of Kanishka I the fourth Buddhist council was summoned. It was the last Buddhist council held at Kundala van vihar in Kashmir.
How many creeds were in Buddhism and what were those? Which age saw the emergence of a new creed?
There were two creeds in Buddhism and those were Hinayana and Mahayana. The Kahana age shows the emergence of a new crowd of Mahajan.
In Odisha where the Buddha chronicles are found?
In Odisha, we found Buddhist chronicles at Ratnagiri and Lalitgiri.
After which Mauryan king when Ashoka ascended the throne?
After the Mauryan king, Bindusara Ashoka ascended the throne in 273 B.C.
For which reason the coronation of Ashoka was delayed for four years?
For the fratricidal war it was anticipated that the coronation of Ashoka was delayed for four years i.e., it was held o 279 B.C.
When Ashok was a prince he was appointed as the governor of which state and after ascending the throne he assumed which title?
When Ashok was a prince he was appointed as the governor of Taxila. After ascending the throne he assumed the title “Devanampriya Priyadasi Ashok”.
In the eighth year of his reign, Asoka invaded which country in which B.C.?
In the eighth year of his reign, Asoka invaded Kaling in 261 B.C.
The material prosperity of Kalinga country was augmented by commercial relations with which countries?
The material prosperity of Kalinga country was augmented by commercial relations with Malay, Java, and Ceylon.
Which Rock edict of Asoka has described the Kalinga war and the appealing story of Carnage, death, and deportation of the people of Kalinga?
The rock edict XIII of Asoka has described regarding Kalinga war and the appealing story of carriage death and deportation of the people.
The policy of “Verighosha” was converted to which policy after Kalinga War?
The policy of “Verighosa” was converted to “Dharmaghosha” after the Kalinga war.
On Rock edict, VIII Asoka narrates that in the tenth year of his reign he converted to which Yatra to what?
In Rock edict, VIII Asoka narrates that in the tenth year of his reign he converted Vihar-yatras (pleasure tours) to Dharma yatras (Religious tours)
It is described in which is rock edict Ashoka appointed a class of which officials to work for the temporal and spiritual welfare of the people.
It is described in rock edict III that Ashoka appointed a class of officials called Dharma Mahamatras to work for the temporal and spiritual welfare of the people.
At the time of Ashoka when the third Buddhist council was convocated and what was the purpose of it?
At the time of Ashoka, the third Buddhist council was convocated at Pataliputra. The purpose of it was an attempt to eliminate schism within the Buddhist Church.
Ashoka send to him which son and daughter were and what was the purpose of it.
Ashoka sends his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Ceylon for the propagation of Buddhism.
Ashoka send which two Buddhist saints to the so-called golden land?
Asoka sends the Buddhist saint Sura and Uttara for the propagation of the Buddhist religion to the golden land of Burma.
According to legends who was Karubaki and in which rock edict her name was engraved?
According to legends, Karubaki was the princess of Utkal fisherman king. Her name was engraved in the Allahabad rock edict.
Which are the main source of information for the political and administrative system of the Mauryas?
The main sources of information for the political and administrative system of the Mauryas are the Indika of Meghasthenes, the Arthasastra of Kautilya, and the inscriptions of Asoka.
In the Mauryan Administration who was the sovereign authority of the state and in which divine origin he was identified?
In Mauryan, the Administration king was the sovereign authority of the state. He was identified with “Beloved of the Gods”.
In Maurya kingship enjoyed unlimited executive power and which author opined that “the king was the fountainhead of all powers”.
In Mauryan kingship, the kings enjoyed unlimited executive power. The author Kautilya opined that the king was the fountainhead of all powers.
In which separate edict which Mauryan king declared that “All men are my children”?
In a separate Kalinga edict, the Mauryan king Ashoka declared that “All men are my children”.
The Mantri-Parishad-in the Mauryan government was considered with Which Vedic organization and for it, we obtain information from which accounts?
The Mantri-Parishad in the Mauryan government was considered with “Samiti” organization of the Vedic period. For it, we obtain information from Arthasastra and rock edict IE and VI of Ashoka.
The high officials in Mauryan times were styled in which position and in the Mauryan period the financial year began from which month?
The high officials in Mauryan times were styled as “amateurs” corresponding to the councilors of Meghasthenes. In the Mauryan period the financial year began from Ashadha (July-August).
In Mauryan Administration the whole empire was divided into how many parts and what are they?
In Mauryan Administration, the whole empire was divided into two parts. They are kingdoms under direct rule and vassal states.
During the kingship of Ashoka in the Mauryan age how many provinces were in the kingdom and what names of the capitals of those?
During the time of Ashoka in the Mauryan age, there were five provinces. The capitals of these provinces were Taxila, Ujjaini, Tosali, Suvarragini, and Pataliputra.
The provinces were subdivided into which units and what was the name of the divided units of provinces in the frontier areas?
The provinces were subdivided into Visayas. In the frontier areas, the Visayas were Probably named Pradesh.
In Mauryan Administration, the Visayas were divided into which units and the divided unit was a mixture of what?
In Mauryan Administration the visayas were divided into Janapadas. Each Janapada has comprised of a mixture of the number of villages.
In the Mauryan provincial administration which was the lowest unit and who was the head of this unit?
In Mauryan provincial administration village was the lowest unit. Gramika was the head of this unit.
The city administration in the Mauryan era was provided by a board of how many members and how many numbers in committees?
The city administration in the Mauryan era was provided by a board of 30 members. The board was divided into 6nos. of committees.
From the description of which country it is known that the palace of Pataliputra is more decorative and decent looking in comparison with the palaces of Persian Susa and Ecbatana?
From the description of the Greek country, it is known that the palace of Pataliputra is more decorative and decent looking in comparison with the palaces of Persian Susa and Ecbatana.
In the Mauryan administration what was the principal share of revenue and what was the proportion of land tax?
In the Mauryan administration, the principal share of revenue was derived from the land. The proportion of land tax was one-sixth of the produce.
In the Mauryan administration who was the head of the judiciary and what was the name of the judges?
In the Mauryan administration, the king was the head of the judiciary. He appointed many judges named Vyvaharika Mahamatras.
In the Mauryan justice administration, there were how many tribunals, and what were they?
In the Mauryan justice administration, there were two types of tribunals as Dharmasthiya courts and the Kantakasodhana court.
The ancient Gupta age is considered to which age of ancient India and it was compared with which ages of the ancient world?
The ancient Gupta age is considered the golden age of ancient India. This age was considered with Pericles’s age of Greece, Augustus’s age of Rome, and Elizabeth’s age of England.
The Gupta age had remarkable progress in which field and which language became the chief vehicle of literary creation.
The Gupta age had remarkable progress in the field of literature. Sanskrit became the chief vehicle of literary creation.
Who was the creator of literature and brilliant luminary of the Gupta age? He was in comparison with whom?
Kalidasa was the creator of literature and a brilliant luminary of the Gupta age. He was considered as Shakespeare of India.
The engraved scripts in 1964 signify where the birthplace of Kalidasa and he was contemporary with which king?
The engraved scripts in 1964 signify that Ujjaini was the birthplace of Kalidasa. He was contemporary with king Vikramaditya who was Chandra Gupta II.
Which was the best among the dramas of Kalidasa and which critics have offered high praise for this drama?
The Avijnana Sakuntalam of Kalidasa is one of the best dramas of Kalidasa. European literary critics have offered high praise for this drama.
What were the two Mahakavyas of Kalidasa and which lyrical poem of his was regarded as a valuable gem in Sanskrit literature?
The two Mahakavyas of Kalidasa were Raghuvansham and Kumara Sambhavam. The lyrical poem Meghaduttam was universally regarded as a valuable gem in Sanskrit literature.
Name of the other literary dignitaries of the Gupta period and what was the name of their works?
The other literary dignitaries of the Gupta period were Bhairavi, the author of Kirataijuniyam, Sudraka, the author of Mrichchhakatikam, and Visakhadatta, the author of Mudra Rakshasa.
Who was Harisena and what was his poetical episode?
Harisena the minister of Samudra Gupta was a poet of no mean order. He was the author of Allahabad prasasti.
Who was virasena and in which sphere he was famous?
Virasena was a member of the court of Chandragupta II. He was not only a poet rather a grammarian.
Buddha Ghosa composed which poetry and it was the subject matter of which personality?
Buddha Ghosa composed the Pandya Chudamani. Its subject matter was the life of
In the Gupta age who was the important figure in practical and applied sciences and what was the name of his work?
In the Gupta age, Varahamihira was an important figure in practical and applied sciences. The name of his work was Panchasiddhant which is regarded as the bible of Indian astronomy.
Who was Aryabhatta and which theory he depicted first?
Aryabhatta was a great mathematician and astronomer in the Gupta age. He was the first astronomer to invent the cause of solar and lunar eclipses.
Aryabhatta is said to have invented which famous system and which country borrowed it?
Aryabhatta is said to have invented the famous decimal system. The Arab country borrowed Indian Mathematics and decimal systems from India.
The Gupta emperors were the patrons of which religion? Were they tolerant of other creeds?
The Gupta emperors were patrons of Brahmanism. They were highly tolerant of other creeds.
Some caves in Ajanta are rich in which painting and these paintings depict which stories?
Some caves in Ajanta are rich in Gupta paintings. These paintings first depict the jataka story and the life of Buddha.
The Gupta gold and silver coins depicted which earmark and which emperor showed considerable originality in casting his coins.
The Gupta gold and silver coins depicted the high water marks of Indian coinage. Emperor Chandra Gupta II showed considerable originality in casting his coin.
Whose account is the valuable and chief source of knowledge for the social life of the Gupta age and which personality remained in India from 401 to 410 A.D?
The account of Fa-Hien is a valuable and chief source of knowledge for the social life of the Gupta age. Fa-Hien remained in India from 401 to 410 A.D.
What was the position of women in literature and what was their practical life?
Women had an idealistic position in literature. In a practical way, they lived in subordination to the male members of society.
Which amusements were popular in the Gupta age and which was a popular pastime?
In Gupta, age amusements consisted of theatrical entertainments, dance performances, and musical concerts, and gambling was a popular pastime.
Which educational system was provided in the Gupta period and was there a distinction between Buddhist and Hindu teachings?
The educational system provided in the Gupta period was Brahmanical and Buddhist culture. No distinction was made between Buddhist and Hindu teachings.
Stress the educational atmosphere at Nalanda University? Was admission to this university an easy process?
Nalanda became a very well-equipped university with a big library, classrooms, and student homes. Admission to this university was not an easy thing and willing
students had to face various competitions.
Which foreign traveler lived in Nalanda for 10 years and how many students were at that university?
A foreign traveler lived in Nalanda for 10 years. Near about three thousand students were studying at that university.
Give an account regarding the excellence of metallurgy teaching at Nalanda University.
Nalanda University metallurgy course proves the excellence of its signifies that the Delhi Iron pillar of king Chandragupta and the life-size copper image of Buddha though had a remaining length still these items were even after hundred and hundred years still not less rusted.
Was there a caste system in the Gupta period and who was in higher status?
Caste system was widely prevalent in the Gupta period. The law book describes the Brahmins were in higher status.
The prosperity of India due to Roman trade started from which period and when the direct link was established between Gupta India with Roman trade?
The prosperity of India due to Roman trade started during the Kushana period. Chandragupta II conquest of Malwa and Saurashtra by overthrowing the Saka rulers established a direct link between Gupta India with Roman trade.
Which port bore the bulk of trade with the west and which town served as a great link market with the rest of India?
The port of Brigukachchha bore the bulk of trade with the west. Ujjairutown served as a great link market with the rest of India.
The roman trade continued in a flourishing condition till which period and for what it was declined?
The roman trade continued in a flourishing condition till the early Gupta period. It suffered from the time of the Hun invasion.
Which country’s trade compensated for the loss of roman trade and after Brigukachchha which port became a great center of trade?
Trade with China and Southeast Asia compensated for the loss of roman trade. After Brigukachchha Tamralipta port became a great center of trade.
Which system was a part of the Jive of traders and manufacturers and what was the name of the president of this committee?
The Guild system was a part of the life of traders and manufacturers. The name of the president of this guild was Bhandagarika.
Short-Answer Type Questions
Tri-Ratna in Jainism.
Jina asked his disciples to follow three conditions for a nobler life. Those were Right Faith, Right knowledge, and Right Action. These conditions are known as the Tri-Ratna or the Three Jewels. In Jainism, man is required to regulate his life under those conditions. It was through faith, knowledge, and action that man could realize his own soul.
In the Jaina faith, the perfection of the soul was regarded as the real purpose of life. There was no need to worship God or Gods or to offer prayers or sacrifices. A pure soul could surely reach salvation without such things.
Karma And Rebirth in Jainism.
In Jainism faith in the theory of karma and rebirth was absolute. Man has to work in order to live. His soul, therefore, is engaged in various works. But a man should also know the difference between good and bad work. Because he has to face the results of his work. If one does good work in life, the results will be good.
If one does evil work, bad results will follow. The results of the action or the karma are inevitable. No one can escape karma. Because it is the eternal law of existence. It is this karma that results in rebirth. Birth and rebirth are like an unending cycle. Man is bom again only to suffer for the sins of the previous life.
Non-violence in Jainism.
Absolute faith in Ahimsa or non-violence received the highest place in Jainism. The life of every living being was regarded as sacred. The smallest of the small creatures also possessed life as did the human being. It was therefore a supreme sin that man should destroy the life of other creatures.
As the man himself does not want to be injured or killed. So also no creature would like to be injured or killed. According to Jainism, it was the duty of man to protect and preserve the life of every living creature. To Mahavira Jina, the practice of Ahimsa was like the highest duty of every mart.
Salvation in Jainism.
Mahavira Jina taught his disciples to realize the absolute Truth of existence. Man is mortal. His physical body is unreality. Worldly attractions are meaningless. Karma or action leads to sins when a man is attached to worldly pleasures. It is for the sins that there is rebirth in an endless cycle. Unless on attempts to escape the rebirth there will be no end to his sufferings.
Jina showed the path for man to escape rebirth. In order to realize that the Atma or the soul is real while the body is unreal. Jina advised me to give up all attachments to the body. By putting the body in pain showing no desire for anything by giving up all possessions and even by inviting death by starvation a man can prove that he has no desire for worldly existence.
Four noble Truths or Arya Satya in Buddhism.
Buddha got his enlightenment with the knowledge of four things. They were life is suffering is due to desire, suffering ends with the end of desires, and desires end with noble thoughts and actions. Buddhism deviated its philosophy from these truths. To Buddha, the material existence of everything is momentary. The world is full of sorrows.
Life is unreal. Sorrows, sickness old age, and death are inevitable. It is necessary to escape all suffering. He searched for means to escape worldly sufferings. He discovered the causes of suffering. Most causes were man’s desires. He wanted the destruction of worldly desires. For that purpose, he discovered the Noble1 Eightfold path.
Noble Eightfold path in Buddhism.
Buddha saw how life rested on holes and desires. He also knew now hopes and desires were the root causes of sorrows and suffering. He discovered the path to come out of those miseries. That path is famous as the Noble Eightfold path. They were the Right view, the Right Aspiration.
Right Speech. Right conduct, Right Livelihood. Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right contemplation. This Noble Eightfold path is also called the Middle path Buddha knew that it was impossible and undesirable for all men to renounce the world and become sannyasis. At the same time, he wanted that men should not to be too attached to worldly affairs and pleasures.
Therefore, he gave a code of conduct that was possible for a man to follow. Between a sannyasi and an extremely worldly man. Buddha’s code of conduct was like the middle path. One could remain in the world without being worldly. The Noble Eightfold path was meant for that kind of life.
Nirvana in Buddhism.
Nirvana was considered the supreme goal of life. It was an escape forever, the extinction. It was possible to attain Nirvana by putting an end to the desire for life, for, the world, for birth, and for existence. When all desires and all cravings are extinguished once and for all life enters into a state of external peace. When it leaves the body it does not take rebirth. In Buddhist philosophy, the idea of Nirvana had a deep root.
In order to achieve that Nirvana a Buddhist was required to regulate his entire conduct. The conduct of Nirvana was a moral conduct man should give up violence, killing of animals, falsehood luxury, stealing, desire for wealth, and many such immoral acts. Thereafter, he should try samadhi or meditation, and try to attain propaganda or insight. Finally, he should aspire to re-enlightenment and salvation that is, Nirvana.
Spread of Buddhism.
From the time of Buddha, Buddhism began to spread slowly but steadily. Yet, in the long run, it would have perhaps remained confined to India only. But two centuries after Buddha, there rules in India a great emperor named Ashok. It is he who prepared the path for the spread of Buddhism outside India. In course of centuries, over the whole of Asia Buddhism swept like a great tide. It was the tide not merely of religion, but also of civilization. Buddha is rightly, therefore, called the light of Asia.
State their contribution of Buddhism to Indian Culture.
Buddhism brought about unity in the religious field by preaching against class and caste distinction. Buddhist monasteries were great centers of bearing where people from all over the world came and studied. Buddhists contributed immensely to the religious literature in India. As Buddhist scriptures were written in pali, the language of the common people.
State three contributions of Jainism to Indian culture.
- In the religious field, Jainism was a reform movement in Hinduism. It did away with superstition, empty refuels, caste system which existed in Hindu Society.
- Jainism contributed a lot to the field of architecture. Jain caves at Udayagiri, Ellora, and the Dilwara temples of mount Abu are some notable examples of it.
- Jain literature is in Ardh-Magadhi and Prakrit dialects. Jain literature highlights the values of Ahimsa.
State the impacts of the Kalinga war on Ashoka.
- Ashoka left Digvijaya and started Dharmavijaya.
- Ashoka became a follower of Buddhism.
- The Kalinga war brought about a revolution in the life of Asoka.
Write about the architecture of the Gupta.
Countless temples, pillars rock- cut valves, palaces, and cities belonging to the Buddhist, Jain, and Hindu sects flourished during the Gupta period. In temple architecture, the Gupta Age reached a high water mark. Dalavatar temple at Tigowa in Madhya Pradesh, and Bhitargaon temple at Kanpur were the finest specimen of their architectural achievements form pillar at Mehrauli near Delhi and the Garuda pillar of Keshinagar were two examples of their greatness.
Write about paintings of the Gupta Age.
The paintings on the walls of the caves at Ellora and Ajanta at Aurangabad in Maharashtra and at Bagh in malwa testify to Gupta’s skill in painting. These paintings are a fine representation of the combination of the beauty of virtue carrying some themes. For example- revealing the life of Gautam Buddha, Charming and delightful scenes facial, expressions, festivals, and processions. Even after the passage of a long time all those now look quite lively. This painting is called Fresco – painting.
Write about Nava Ratna of the Gupta Period.
The court of Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) was bombed by a galaxy of nine celebrated scholars known as the (Nawa Ratna) or Nine Gens. They were Dhanwanfan, Kshyapanaska, Sanku, Amarsingh, Betalbhat, Ghatakapoor. Kaiidas, Barahamihir. Bararuchi of them Kaiidas was great by his literary genius.
The Jatakas are the stories of Buddha’s birth and his previous life. Jainism special literature like the epics. Through the Jatakas, we get an idea of the 3rd end 4th century B.C. The stories were written in pali and were compiled in book form in the first century B.C. The subjects from these stories were used in sculpture on the railings of the stupas.
Those who followed strictly the doctrine of Budda and denied the existence of God were known as the followers of the lesser vehicle or Hinayana. This sect does not believe in idol worship. Even its follower does not believe that. Buddha was God. They believe in the Eightfold path as the only mean of salvation. They use pali as the language of their scriptures. The Hinayana sets of Buddhism are confined to India Srilanka Burma, Cambodia, and Laos.
The term Mahayana means ‘Greater Vehicle’ of salvation. It was another sect of Buddhism. They believe in Buddha as God. They worship the statues of Buddha and the Bodhisattvas, the Buddha in the previous births. This sect introduced idol worship and performed complex rituals and ceremonies. They wrote their scripture in Sanskrit. Kaniska was cofollower of Mahayana. The sect spread to northwestern parts of India, China, Japan, and South East Asian countries.
Third Buddhist council.
In 251 B.C. Asoka organized the third Buddhist council at his capital putaliputra for the propagation of Buddhism. The famous Buddhist monk of Srilanka mogaliputta, Tissa, presided over this council. Ashoka’s active participation in this council inspired the followers of Buddhism to remain united.
After the Kalinga war, Ashoka stopped the practice of Bherighosha meant for conquering kingdoms and is stead started Dharma Yatra all over India. He started Vihara yatras (pleasure tours) and arranged for Dhamma Yatra (religious tour) in its place. He visited the places associated with the life of the Buddha. These activities had a tremendous influence on his subjects and thereby helped in the spread of Buddhism.
Outs of India, Ashok sent missionaries of peace to countries like Burma Egypt, Russia, China Tibet, Srilanka, etc. They spread the doctrines of Buddhism outside India. By sending messages of peace & universal brotherhood to these countries. Ashoka paved the way for the propagation & Spread of Buddhism there.