Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 4 Method of Teaching English Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching English Questions and Answers
Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.
Last night Mr. Khanna _______ a noise. He ________ a torch from his table, he _________ the light and saw ________ thief. The thief was taking Mr.Khanna’s clothes ________ and ________ hold of the man’s collar and ________ I am going to call the police.
signed, caught, heard, switched on, picked up, about, quietly
This type consists of test items that are to be answered by choosing a correct answer from among several possible answers.
The following questions have four distractors. Choose the appropriate one and rewrite the sentence.
They could scarcely believe their eyes when they saw the violets. Here the word scarcely means _____________?
(b) not at all
It was the man who _______ the killing?
(a) has done
(b) is doing
Delicious food was served at the feast. Here the best meaning of the word, delicious is?
(c) is happening
(d) had happened
The test consists of sentences to be completed with the use of the correct form of verb indicated with the brackets. This can be reliably used to test the knowledge of the sequence of tense and such other abilities.
(a) Mohan (seem) tired today.
(b) You (remember) the name of the boy who (walk) on the other side of the road.
(c) You (look) very thoughtful what do you (think) about?
(d) You (see) this box? It (contain) watches.
(e) He will meet me when I _____ arrive.
Substitution Table For example:
The test can reliably be used to assess the pupils, ability to use sentences correctly.
Match the words in column’ A’ with the appropriate words in column ‘B’.
Joining the sentences:
Example:- Join the sentences using the words in the brackets. It was time for dinner. They went on talking up to time till.
Short Answer Type Questions
What advantages of the Structural Approach?
It facilitates the learning of English by imparting knowledge of its structures. The structural approach promotes the use of everyday English As such it stimulates the activity and interest of the pupils. It enables the children to speak English which is more important than to be able to read and write it only. The pupils listen to sentence patterns as spoken by the teacher.
By learning the structures of sentences child automatically learns some grammar, word order, and use of words. Thus, he avoids common errors in grammar and composition. It teaches four language skills to children. They are listening and understanding, speaking, reading, and writing.
Explain the principles of the structural approach?
- Importance is given to the child’s activity rather than the activity of the teacher.
- Importance of the speech for family foxing all groundwork.
- Importance of the formation of the language habit to arrange words in suitable English sentence pattern of the child’s mother-tongue.
Principles of direct method?
Teaching by the direct bond between foreign words and their meaning.
Oral practice will give the children fluency in English speech.
Inductive Approach to Grammar:
In the direct method, there is the functional use of grammar rather than formal grammar learning precedes grammar.
Inhibition of mother tongue:
It prevents the intervention of the mother- tongue. The foreign language is directly associated with its meaning without the use of the mother tongue.
The method works on the principle of graded teaching of vocabulary.
What advantages of the direct method?
Pupils acquire good speech skills, including the use of proper pronunciation, stress and intonation, Pupils acquire a reasonable mastery over correct spoken English. Good command over the spoken language. Lack of interference of mother-tongue results in quick and economical learning of English. Grammar is learned without the help of rules through repetitions of various patterns.
What disadvantages of the direct method?
The direct method emphasizes only the teaching procedure irrespective of language material which must be controlled and graded. Skills of reading and writing neglected. Banishment of the mother tongue altogether makes teaching difficult in many situations. The method can be employed effectively only by efficient teachers but such teachers are not available in large numbers.
Long Type Questions With Answers
Explain the aims and objectives of teaching English?
In the process of teaching and learning aims are more important. When the teacher is clear about the aims his teaching becomes more meaningful and planning 1 becomes more effective. In the present system of education, the teacher should be clear about the aims and objectives. The objectives of teaching differ from the lower class to the higher classes and different linguistic activities general aims of teaching English.
There is four general. aims in teaching English in the school stages. They are as follows:
- To hear and understand English
- To speak in English and to understand.
- To read English with understanding.
- To write English with understanding.
The four aims correspond to the four language skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These skills are the foundation of language learning.
The specific objectives of Teaching English:
The Semantic Aspect:
This aspect emphasizes the structural approach and usage of rudimentary grammar and fundamental principles of making sentences. The child is taught how to know the meaning of words and writing.
Pronunciation of English:
Pronunciation of the English language is the most important aspect. The spelling of words in English is a paradox speaking well in English is an art. To speak English correctly requires a good deal of practice. So a student should be carefully taught to speak English with the correct pronunciation.
The graphic aspect:
Writing makes a man perfect. To acquire the habit of writing in English the student should listen to the language, understand the theme and then write.
The phonetic cue-graphic aspects:
The success of learning the English language depends on both reading and writing side by side.
The literary aspects:
The beauty of the language lies in representing the things in which there is a lucid style and appropriate meaningful words. Most of the books are translated into English.
The linguistic aspects:
English is a world language. The linguistic aspect of the approach helps students to acquire a working knowledge of the language.
Specific objectives in primary classes:
As the child in the beginner’s stage, they should be devoted to oral exercise in the English language. The children are to be acquainted with simple words by drilling. The words should be expressed through simple sentences like Rama is a boy. I am going etc. By the end of class (IV). In Class V the pupils should be able to count the numbers, figures, and oral work, and able to answer the questions from textbooks. In Classes VI and VIII, the pupils are able to read, write, speak correctly and write correctly. In this stage, English is considered a skill subject rather than a context subject. The child is able to construct various sentences.
In secondary classes, the aims of teaching are as follows:
Understand English when spoken. Speak English correctly with correct pronunciation and fluency. Write English correctly with good handwriting. Read English silently and in a low voice. The pupils acquire knowledge of elements of the English language. The pupils develop an interest in English.
What is the translation method in teaching English? Write the merits and demerits?
The translation method is the oldest method of teaching English. Though this method is outdated still it is continuing in most of the classrooms of Indian schools. Mother- tongue or the regional language is maintained as a reference system in teaching English in this method. It means English is taught in the mother tongue. In the translation method English words, phrases, and sentences is taught by means of the word for word translation into the mother- tongue. In this method unit of speech or reading is not sentenced.
Principles of Translation Method:
The translation method is based on the following three principles. They are:
Translation interprets foreign phraseology best. In the process of interpretation foreign phraseology is assimilated. The structure of a foreign language is best learned when compared and contrasted with that of the mother- tongue.
Merits of Translation Method :
There are certain merits of translation. The pupils proceed from known language to unknown language. English is best interpreted through this method. The method gives better clarity and easy understanding. English is best assimilated in the process of interpretation. The pupil leams the accurate meaning of the words and sentences.
It develops the knowledge of grammar and the mother tongue. In the translation method the pupil’s associates with the foreign word, with the word spoken by him, and a strong memory bond is established. The child proceeds from known to unknown and derives better comprehension of English.
Demerits and Limitations:
This method does not promote speech training in English. It obstructs the pupil’s thinking of English. Language learning is difficult with this method. All the objectives of teaching English are not achieved by this method. The method does not encourage direct thought expression in the language to be learned. The structure of the English language is different from that of any Indian language. This method is dull and mechanical and the learner does not take part actively in the learning process. Objectives of teaching English are not achieved by this method.
What is the direct method of teaching English? What are the principles underlying the method? Explain. Give, its merits and demerits?
The direct method of teaching language consists in teaching words and phrases of the target language by associating them with objects. It consists in establishing a direct relation between a word and its meaning, between an. experience and its expression. Thus in English, the direct method consists in teaching English through the medium of English.
In this sense, the use of translation is totally out of question. To Webster’s New International Dictionary any direct method is a method of teaching a foreign language especially a modem language through conversation, discussion, and reading the language itself without the use of the pupil’s language, without translation, and without the study of formal grammar.
The word is first taught by pointing to an object or picture or by performing the action. For instance, when the teacher wants to explain to the students the meaning of the word’ book’ he should not bring in the mother- tongue. He should show a picture of the book and present the symbol (that is a book) and the real object (that is a book).
Characteristics of Direct Method:
It proceeds from simple living situations too complex abstract situations. It lays emphasis on oral work. The sentence is the unit of teaching. There is the use of the situation, action, and audio-visual aids. Grammar is taught functionally. Emphasis on pronunciation.
Principles of the Direct Method:
The principle of Direct Bond:
The method is based on the principle of creating a direct bond between foreign words and their meaning. The learner is initiated into thinking in a foreign language and then expressing themselves by using the same medium.
The principle of oral practice:
Oral practice will give children fluency in English speech.
The principle of an inductive approach to grammar:
In the direct method, functional use of grammar rather than formal grammar is emphasized. learning grammar is not a precondition to learning the language. In the direct method, learning precedes grammar.
The sentence as the unit of speech:
In the direct method sentence and not a word is taken as the unit of speech. Emphasis is laid on speaking in full sentences.
Inhibition of mother tongue:
Everything in a foreign language should be directly associated with its meaning without the intervention of the use Of the mother tongue.
The principle of limited vocabulary:
The method works on the principle of gradual teaching of vocabulary.
Merits of Direct Method :
Pupils acquire good speech skills including the use of proper pronunciation, stress, and intonation. Pupils acquire a reasonable mastery over correct spoken language. Good command over spoken language prepares the ground to lay the foundation for the development of the skills of reading and writing. Lack of interference of the mother- tongue results in quick and economical learning of English. Grammar is learned without the help of rules, through repetitions of various patterns. It offers direct learning of foreign languages.
Demerits of Direct Method :
The direct method emphasizes only the teaching procedure: The language materials are to be controlled and graded. Skills of reading and writing are neglected. Only listening and speaking have a dominant role. The banishment of the mother tongue together makes teaching difficult in many situations. Efficient teachers are not available to teach the indirect methods.
What is the structural approach? Give its principles characteristics and advantages/ disadvantages?
In order to learn a language effectively, one has to master the tools of language. These tools are sounds, words, and structures. Working with these tools and teacher has to develop the foretold skills of language-skill in reading skill in writing. Structures are important tools of language, words are put and arranged in a particular order to make their structure.
Hence, we should approach the problem of its learning through structures. In the structural approach to the teaching of English, the learner will learn some of the structures of their preliminary stage some at their later stage. This requires the selection and gradation of structures. The advocates of the structural approach say that in the learning of a foreign language mastery of structure is more important than the acquisition of vocabulary.
Characteristics of structural approach:
Every structure embodies an important grammatical point. The structures are carefully graded to give the young learner a working command of spoken and written English. In grading structures, attention is paid to both meaning and form. Only one meaning of a word is taught at a time and is established by practice before another meaning is taught.
Principles of structural approach:
The importance of forming language habits, the habit of arranging words, in English standard pattern. The importance of speech as the necessary means of fixing firmly all groundwork. The importance of pupils, activity rather than the activity of the teacher.
The method facilitates the learning of English by imparting a language of its structures. Promotes the use of everyday English as such stimulates the activity and interest of the pupils. So it is called English through play way. In this method, oral practice is done. It helps the students to acquire the habits of language and helps to communicate language. In this method language, learning becomes stable.
In this method, the selection and gradation of structures do not solve the problem of teaching English. It only helps the teacher to know what he has taught and what he should teach next. The method is suitable for students of lower classes. It is not applicable to higher classes where many branches of the English language are taught. We cannot successfully apply the method in overcrowded Classes. It does not help that the teacher how should present a new teaching point or give drills for assimilating it.
Discuss different types of Evaluation. Explain the need for objective-based test items with examples?
The examination is one of the evaluations of English language teaching. It is used for testing the objectives of language learning i.e. knowledge skill and attitude.
There are mainly 3 kinds of examinations such as:
In the oral examination, the teacher makes some questions and the children answer them orally.
ln practical examination child is given some task to perform such as preparation of flash, cards or cutting the letters from newspapers etc.
In written examinations, the students give written answers of 3 kinds such as:
- long answer type,
- short answer type and
- objective tests.
Different types of questions:
There are three kinds of questions as there are three kinds of written examinations, such as
Long answer type or essay type questions:
This type of question requires some descriptions etc. Example: What do you do on Children’s Day?
Short answer type questions:
These questions are answered with one word or so. There are two types of questions objective-based oral and written, English vocabulary is tested through objective tests.
Objective type written test in English is designed to test the different linguistic abilities of the specimen of some questions are given below.
This type consists of a sentence or paragraph from which some words and phrases are omitted. The pupil is to fill in the blanks with suitable words or phrases. Correct use of prepositions and vocabulary can be tested with the type.