CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching General Science Questions and Answers

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 4 Method of Teaching General Science Questions and Answers.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching General Science Questions and Answers

Short Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What advantage of demonstration-cum- discussion method?
This method is economic from the point of view of money and time. This method obeys the rule of learning by doing. It is useful When the apparatus required for practical work is costly. There the teacher can improve the apparatus and demonstrate it. Through this method, free discipline is seen. The method develops skills in handling apparatus free thinking and cooperative spirit among students.

Question 2.
Main features of the demonstration method?
Demonstration-cum-discussion method is not a single method, It is a combination of two methods, This method involves active participation of teachers and students. It encourages a maximum amount of participation among students than other methods. Through the group, participation develops observation and scientific reasoning in students which is not possible either in lecture or the Heuristic method. Demonstration-cum-discussion method is the only method in which the interest of students is mentioned. It develops skill in scientific thinking.

Question 3.
Aids used in science teaching?
Audio Aids:
Audio aids include the radio, tape recorder, gramophone, and speeches. Through the radio, scientific facts, news, inventions, etc.

Visual Aids:
The visual aids include samples model, pictures, graphs, etc. The samples give the real thing. Pictures, charts, diagrams and graphs and maps give clear knowledge.

Audio-visual aids:
Through T.V science films are seen. Scientific facts are known.

Magic lantern and epidiascope:
Through these arts valuable things and distance, things are seen in a real manner and in big size.

Activity Aids:
Science fairs and exhibitions are arranged with seminars, discussions, and debates. Through traveling industries. agricultural fields, radio centers, T.V centers, and mine, the children can leam better.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching General Science Questions and Answers

Long Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What are the aims and objectives of teaching general science?
Science has occupied a valid place in the school curriculum. Education of science which emphasized physical law and properties of matter and the application of scientific principles met in our daily life is an essential supplementary to general education. Science should be taught not with a view to making each pupil a future specialist but make him a useful citizen.

Thus, the school science course should form part of a sound general education. It should train the mind of students to reason about things he has observed and develop their power of weighing and interpreting evidence. It should also make him acquainted with the broad outlines of great scientific principles with the ways these are exemplified in familiar phenomenons and with their application to the service of man.

The objectives of science teaching may be classified into some categories. The first aim of science teaching is that students shall demonstrate a knowledge of the fundamental of science that may be brought into use in daily life. The knowledge will bring positive change in students, behavior. The second objective of science is that students should demonstrate abilities that are the by-product of knowledge.

These abilities will be exhibited in their behavior scientifically. The third most important aim of science teaching in high school is to make the students into more citizens and better equipped to improve community life. In order to achieve this aim, the course content in science should have practical applications to daily life. The fourth aim of science teaching is that the students shall demonstrate knowledge of the contributions made by our Indian scientists, in the science world.

The science teacher must stress their achievement science in class to that students must develop pride in their scientifically rich heritage. Thus, the science program should be aimed at causing the level of scientific knowledge, skill, and attitudes of the students to make them more productive in their home environment.

The other objectives of science learning are as follows:
This means pupils should acquire knowledge of scientific terms and concepts, natural phenomena, modem inventions of science animal life and plant life human-machine and functioning, and so on. The knowledge is realized if the pupils recall and recognize scientific terms, facts, concepts, and symbols.

This means the pupils can explain and discriminate between facts, concepts, and data, illustrate specific terms, and concepts phenomena, locate errors in faulty statements, and so on.

Having realized this aim a pupil can give reasons for scientific conclusions, analyze the given data, formulate and test hypotheses, and predict new happenings and soon.

Having realized this aim the pupils are expected to develop three types of skills.

  • drawing skills
  • manipulative skills
  • observational and recording skills.

It creates interest to read scientific literature, collect specimens, take scientific hobbies, visit places of scientific interest, and participate in science clubs and science fairs.

This activity of the pupil’s ability to use scientific terminology, improvise and manipulate the scientific instruments, collect suitable data from relevant sources, interest in the given data, and so on.

Having developed a scientific attitude the pupils will become free from bias and prejudices and they will become honest and truthful in recording and collecting scientific data.

This means the pupils will be able to realize the importance of science in human progress appreciation. The contribution made by scientists to human progress and appreciation of the history of scientific development through the ages.

Utilization of leisure:
Having developed manipulative skills the pupils will be able to engage themselves in useful leisure time activities as making things of daily use such as ink, soap, candles, cosmetics, boots Polish, etc.

Vocational opportunities:
Vocational preparation is an important aim of science education. Science will open up career opportunities in such professions engineering, medicine, agriculture, and so on.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching General Science Questions and Answers

Question 2.
Write a note on the use of lecture methods in the teaching of science in schools. Give its merits and limitations?
The lecture method involves teaching by means of spoken word, a format talk by the teacher. The method may profitably be used at a higher level and also at a lower level and its success will depend on individual teachers. This method is also known as the storytelling or conversational method. The teacher is well prepared and will present lectures that will stimulate better learning. In the lecture method, the lecture is taken as a technique of description, explanation, and clarification. This method is useful and effective with young and college students.

The lecture method has the following merits:
It develops the power of concentration in the students, and also their power of experience, expression, thinking, and reasoning. economical and time-saving. It keeps both the teacher as well as the students active. Through this method, it is possible to establish direct contact knowledge between the teacher and the taught. Through this method, it is possible to elucidate difficult and complicated thoughts and ideas. This method is very useful in introducing a lesson. It also threw light on the practical aspects of education.

Demerits of lecture method:
The method kills the liveliness of the class. It is the teacher who reigns supreme and the students remain passive partners. This method is not useful for the students of the lower class In this method it is the teacher who remains active and the students remain passive. This method is not psychological and scientific. The knowledge that is required through ‘this method is neither complete nor perfect nor stable.

Through this method it. is not possible to provide practical education to the students because there is little creativity or activity in this method. This method has very little scope for evaluation and examination of the students by the teacher while he is teaching them. It strikes a severe blow to the originality of the students. Their curiosity remains unsatisfied and the thirst for knowledge continues:

Question 3.
What are the main features of the demonstration cum discussion method in teaching science? What are the advantages and disadvantages?
The main features of the demonstration and discussion method are as follows:
Demonstration-cum-discussion method is not a single method. It is a combination of two methods, more clearly a result and method resulting from the combination of discussion method as well as demonstration method. This method involves the active participation of the teacher and students at the same time which is unlikely in other methods say, the lecture method. The teacher is in active the laboratory work and heuristic methods are active and so on.

Demonstration-cum-discussion method through group participation develops keen observation power and scientific reasoning in students which is. not possible either ill the lecture method or in the Heuristic method. Demonstration-cum-discussion method ‘ of teaching science encourages a maximum amount of participation among students than other methods.

The demonstration-cum-discussion method through group participation develops keen observation power and scientific reasoning in students which is hot possible either in the lecture method or in the Heuristic method. Demonstration-cum-discussion method is the only method in which the interest of the students is measured. Through this method force, and discipline is maintained. This method develops skills in handling apparatus, free-thinking, and cooperative spirit among students.

If deconstruction-cum-discussion method is not properly used then all students get a chance to take part neither in a discussion nor in experimentation: Thus, the principle of learning by doing is not aided by the method. The student’s donor gets the direct experience of doing experiments. So their skill in apparatus handling is not properly developed. If the teacher does not take care of students to become undisciplined. through this method.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching General Science Questions and Answers

Question 4.
What do you mean by laboratory method in teaching science? How can you make use of this method? What are the merits and demerits?
The laboratory method is one of the best methods of teaching science. In this method teaching the subject is done in a laboratory. The students are given an opportunity to carry out experiments independently. The teacher observes their activities. He asks them to write out their observations. Theoretical studies get verified through laboratory work and thus learning experiences are gained.

In the laboratory method, the student performs a particular work of the experiment. He learns to follow directions, conduct experiments are record observations to find out results. While the student performs experiments, the Demonstration-cum-discussion method develops skills in scientific thinking. These are some of the main features of demonstration-cum-discussion method.

This method is economic from the point of view of money and time. The method obeys the rule of learning by doing what the students do or see they learn. So this method is very much psychological. It is useful when the apparatus required for practical work is costly. There the teacher can improvise the apparatus and demonstrate it.

If the teacher wants to revise some of the principles of science subject, he can do it by demonstration-cum-discussion method. the teacher is free to help students to perform experiments. The teacher is free to help the students having difficulties in their work. The teacher acts as a friend, philosopher, and guide in laboratory work.

How to use it effectively:
Laboratory methods should be used when a class can be divided into small groups. A good laboratory method is guided by a heuristic approach; The teacher should take the help of students in showing up for laboratory demonstrations. The students should be trained in the art of observing and recording reporting. The reporting of the laboratory, work includes areas like a statement of the problem procedures used observations made and conclusions drawn, etc.

It is based on the principle of learning by doing. It is interesting and joyful for students. It develops skill and efficiency as the students do experiments by themselves. An activity when performed is remembered for a longer time. Team teaching can be possible with this method.

It is not economical. It requires resources like a laboratory, equipment, furniture, etc. which, can not be made available in each school. It requires a small teacher-pupil ratio. It has been criticized as wasteful because of students in the high school stage. Sometimes this method does not develop the heuristic talents of students.

Question 5.
What are the main features of the problem-solving method? Discuss the merits and demerits of this method?
Problem-solving approach presupposes the existence of a problem in the teaching-learning situation. A problem is a difficulty or obstruction which has to be overcome to reach, the goal. A human child has to meet and solve problems as he grows older and older. the problem-solving method aims at presenting the knowledge to be learned in the form of a problem. It begins with a problematic situation and consists of continuous, meaningful, and well-integrated activity. The problems are set to the students in a natural way and it is ensured that the students are genuinely interested to solve them.

Main features of the problem-solving approach:
It is a research-like method lt involves scientific thinking as a process of learning the essential features are as follows Formulation and appreciation of a problem or the emergence of a problem or selection of a problem. Collection of data or information to solve the problem. Analysis of the data. Formulation of hypothesis Conclusion. Applying the idea to a new situation.

The problem:
The problem arises out of the felt needs of the students. The problem must be familiar to the students. Before setting the problem the teacher should look at the following things. The problem should be suitable to the maturity level of the students. The problem should be easily solved. The problem should be worthwhile for the reader.

Collection of data:
After formulation of a problem, the teacher should stimulate the students to collect data in a systematic manner from various sources like textbooks reference books, magazines, newspapers, and from other sources like observation, discussion, and interviews,s, etc.

Formulation of Hypothesis:
At this stage, the students should look to the following regarding the solution to the problem. Selecting important factors related to the problems. Identifying the different relationships which may exist between the factors. Analyzing, selecting, and interpreting the relevant data. Judging the significance of data.

Testing of Hypothesis :
Checking the hypothesis which recognizes authorities Division experimental procedures suitable for testing hypothesis. Organizing data. Applying the hypothesis to the problem to determine adequacy.

Analysis of evidence and drawing inferences:
Children should be taught to the scientific and reasonable in interpreting the data. It is essential to break the large area into different segments and then to consider ways and means for analysis; the analysis of data should be accurate and to the point.

Drawing Conclusions :
The conclusion should be drawn by the pupils themselves and the teacher is to see how far it is significant relating to the solution to the problem.

Analysis of the data in a new situation:
The students should be able to recognize the common and identical elements in the principle of the problem and apply them in the new life situation.

From the standpoint of learning principle of problem-solving is very valuable since they are the result of the cumulative and generalized experience that makes up the basis of knowledge and understanding. It is much easier for members than the facts through the method. It develops reflective thinking. So. it stimulates thinking, reasoning, and critical judgment in the students.

It develops qualities of dependence on the students as they are to face the problematic situation themselves. It is a stimulating method. It acts as a great motivating force and directs students, attention, and activity. It serves individual differences. It develops desirable study habits in the students. They get engaged in the analysis of the problem, reflective thinking, and systematic.

data gathering, verification, and critical study. It is a method of experience-based learning. Problem-solving is done by self-experience. There is the possibility of close contact between the teacher and taught. The students get valuable social experiences like patience, cooperation, self-confidence, etc.

Disadvantages :
It is a time-consuming method. The progress of students is very slow. It is difficult to organize the contents according to the needs. All topics cannot-be-taught by this method. All require adequate resources. The method does not suit the students of lower classes. They do not possess enough background for a scientific approach to problems.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching General Science Questions and Answers

Question 6.
What are the different steps of the project method in teaching science? Discuss each of the steps and state the merits and limitations of the method?
The project method is a pupil-centered method carried out in school or outside the school. The essence of this method is to carry out a useful task on a ground in which all the students work co-operatively learning by doing and learning by the living are the two cardinal principles of this method. Children learn through association, cooperation, and activity.

The various steps of the method are as follows:

  • Providing a situation
  • Choosing and purposing
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Evaluation
  • Recording

Providing a situation:
The teacher should provide such a situation to the students which may create some problems for them and in which they feel interested to work.

Choosing and purposing :
The children should be tempted to choose a project. The teacher should stimulate discussion through suggestions. The project chosen should be to the need of the pupils. The purpose of the. project be clearly defined and well understood by the pupils.

The success of a project depends upon a good planning. The students should plan out the whole scheme under the guidance of the teacher. The teacher should prepare two to three plans in his mind and guide the students Every child should be encouraged to participate in the discussion and to make suggestions. All the students are taught to write the plan properly.

The teacher should assign duties and distribute work among the pupils of a group to their interests and abilities. Every child should contribute actively towards the execution of the project. The teacher should guide them.

The students review the project and find out the mistakes if any. self-criticism is an important training and should not be neglected. The teacher should see that the objective of the project has been achieved.

Recording :
The students should keep a complete record of work, how they planned, what discussions were held, how, duties were managed, etc. and finally criticism of their own work.

Merits of the project method:
The project method is based on the laws of learning, the law of readiness, law of exercise, and the law of effect. It promotes cooperative activity and group interaction.

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