Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Foundations of Education Solutions Unit 4 Method of Teaching History Questions and Answers.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Foundations of Education Unit 4 Method of Teaching History Questions and Answers
Short Type Questions With Answers
What advantages of the Dramatisation method?
In the dramatization method, the students leam by doing. So their experiences are strengthened through mental and physical activity. It provides them an opportunity to acquire knowledge of historical happening through activity. It helps the students to develop their power of thinking and reasoning. It presents historical facts and events with human feelings and ideas. This method develops the art of speaking and self-confidence.
What advantages of the storytelling method?
The storytelling makes the subject of history full of interest for the pupils. This method is useful for the lower classes as small children are interested in the stories. This method helps to develop the historical imagination of the students. Students are likely to imbibe good qualities of character.
Long Type Questions With Answers
Explain the aims and objectives of teaching, history?
The term history is derived from the Greek word “Historia” which means information or inquiry conducted into the account past conditions, occurrences, and events and the knowledge so obtained was called history. History is nothing but a continuous record of events of the past. History is the study of society as a whole in all its aspects changes and growth. History deals with the social development of man. Man’s growth from barbarism to a civilized state is the theme of history.
Aims and objectives of teaching history :
It provides knowledge about the social evaluation of man:
History is not a story of kings and queens but it is the story of a man and his development in society. The story of man’s progress from the beginning to the splendor of his present position is highly educative and satisfying.
To provide knowledge of social institutions:
It is not enough for a cultured or educated man to know the institutions by which he is surrounded and the conditions under which he lives, he must also have a knowledge of how they come to be what they are if he wants to understand them properly and to improve them in the future. In this connection, it should be made clear that our interest in the past is not for its own sake because it helps to explain the countless forms and forces of social life with the present and mold the future.
Cultivation of forward work:
The great aim in teaching history, the lack of which consists of the main defect in our .current educational practice is the cultivation of the forward look, which is encouraging the student to have a vision of the future with the idea of transforming and modifying. If you study history, you study the future, it is the welfare of our country.
To widen the mental horizon of students:
History helps to widen one’s mental horizons and develop a cosmopolitan outlook. The consciousness develops with mental development.
To develop patriotism:
History insists patriotism into the heart of the child and gives the knowledge, of the administration of his country. They become good citizens of the country.
To provide a conception of time and space:
History best reveals to the child the concept of time, space, and society and the link between the past and present. The current state of things has been produced by the events, of the past. History can serve as a compass to guide man into the future.
Intellectual development :
History is the vast state of knowledge that is accumulated through the centuries of the evolution of man. The study and the acquisition of knowledge help to bring about the intellectual development of the students. There is a controversial topic in history that leads to intellectual development.
To teach ethics and morality:
History describes vice it unmakes false virtue and exposes it. errors and prejudices It provides moral training Historical knowledge is practical knowledge History is the lamp of experience which shows a thousand examples of ethics and morality. The present curriculum is designed on ethical, moral, cultural, utilization, and intellectual grounds.
How History is related to other schools/subjects. Discuss, in brief?
History is a subject that is related to almost all other subjects, In this connection history is not a subject at all but a house in which all subjects dwell. Here we will discuss the relationship of history with some other important school subjects:
History and literature:
Every branch of literature is the product of historical situations. History is the record of man’s deeds whereas literature is the product of historical situations. Literature is the record of man’s feelings, emotions, and imagination. Historical facts need languages for their expression. Many literary works provide a lot of historical facts. So history is related to literature.
History and Geography:
History, Geography, and Civics are included in social science. History stresses time whereas geography stresses space. Sometimes geography offers an explanation for people or countries that would be complete without some reference to the geographical account of that place.
History and Political Science:
Political science and history are closely related. Political science as a subject deals With the branch of historical studies which mainly gives an account of the growth and development of the administrative setup of different countries. Political science is the science of citizenship and such citizenship refers to good knowledge of history. History gives information about revolutions and political movements which helps political scientists in their study. History without the proper analysis of political events of the time is nothing but simple fiction.
History and Economics:
History describes the story of a man of different ages, which also includes the economic conditions of the people; Analysis of the growth of economic institutions is an important part of history. The history of past economic events throws an important light on the present economic policies and helps the formulation and verification of different economic laws and theories.
History and Science:
History is man’s story on earth. This includes the long chain of discoveries, explorations, and inventions that man has achieved through the ages. Science has its own history. Subjects like Anthropology include both history and science. Besides, those subjects of history is also related to music art, handy work, etc. which are taught in the class.
Write a note on the story-telling method in teaching history?
Children arc wry fond of learning stories. That’s why the storytelling method has taken a special place in teaching history. Children derive pleasure in listening story and history taught in storytelling to become effective and easily understood the subject matter. It is suggested that for the age group of 8 to 10 history should mainly be carefully chosen graded series of written with attractive descriptive details.
This would arouse the interest of pupils and provide scope for imaginative understanding and enjoyment. For primary classes in teaching history, the teacher follows that method. He uses necessary aids to make teaching effective so the children feel easy to understand the subject matter and keep the man’s memory easily.
The storytelling method has become effective and fruitful in learning for lower-grade children. While telling the story the teacher makes movements of his body and followed them with actions. It has certain advantages. Enhancement of interest Storytelling can give life to the dead facts. It is a more effective way of bringing out all the aspects- cultural, economic, and social of this ancient society. Development of imagination Stories develops the imagination of people.
They take the pupils far away from this material world and offer ample scope for the play of their imagination. The teaching of creative faculties Stories in historical happenings and materials provide any scope for the children to utilize their creative ability in various ways. Inculcation of virtues The teacher through storytelling can include in the children virtues like pity, truthfulness, charity, etc.
Selection of stories:
The following principles should be taken into consideration for selecting stories. The story should be fully known to the teacher himself. The story should be selected to suit the mental age of the pupils. The teacher may take the stories from any source he thinks suitable, local or world history, cave life, hunting life, etc. but must take the necessary continuity into consideration. The story should be full of action and details.
role of the teacher:
Storytelling is an art and the story teacher should know this art, the teacher should possess the ability such as historical personages when he narrates stories. He should be equipped with a rich imagination. power, accurate, varied, and wide knowledge of the past.
What is narration-cum-discussion method? Discuss the advantages of teaching history in the classroom?
Narration-cum-discussion method is useful both for juniors and seniors. In this method, there is scope for both teachers and pupils for exchanges their opinions. Method, while presenting the subject matter the teachers ask for some anticipation and discussion with the students. Teachers put these questions in such a manner that their answers lead to the development of both discussion and narration methods.
When the teacher was narrating the subject matter, he takes the help of different audio-visual aids for making the teaching attractive and effective in die formation to the students about different events and trends. In order to motivate the pupils to study a new topic the teacher takes the help of narration, a technique for presenting the topic while narrating the teacher can indicate by modulating his voice through gestures and facial expressions, the exact meaning that he wants to convey to the pupils.
In order to aid the memories of children in the primary levels narration work is desirable to give through black-board summary. The children should be asked to take down the blackboard summary in the notebooks Advantages of the method. The method develops the imagination and insight of the pupils. It enables them to apply their learning in new situations. In this method, students do not become passive listeners. They take an active part in discussion and narration.
So the teaching becomes lively and effective. This method clarifies all doubts of the students. He gets a chance to discover what he did not know and what he has overlooked. Genuine potential students are judged by the teacher in this method. The method activates the learners of self-evaluation. It is also helpful in establishing an attitude of looking forward to progress and growth.
How the demonstration method is employed in teaching history. Explain?
The demonstration is an important method for making the teaching of history interesting, effective, real, and lively. All children are acting and dramatic instinct young children, often do something quite spontaneously in imitation of others’ actions. By the technique, the natural tendency of the young mind is harassed from the educational end.
Thus historical dramatization is an attempt at presenting historical events with the help of the students. Hence, through role-playing, the students develop insight into the historical scene and actions. On the other hand history a subject for study offers great scope dramatization. So the history teacher should fully utilize this method for making the study of history interesting and real.
The technique of demonstration:
Demonstration of historical events can be of two kinds such as extempore dramatization and prepared dramatization.
In this type of dramatization, the whole lesson may be presented in a dramatic fashion. It does not require any previous preparation fashion. It does not require any previous preparation on the part of the students no customer or stage effects are required. The presentation can be done in different ways.
The teacher himself may present the whole lesson in a dramatic style. The teacher may ask a few selected students to come to the front and act out the dialogues and monologues in a dramatic fashion. The teacher may write out home what has to be read by the students in the class.
In this kind of dramatization, preparation is made in advance. Students are taught to speak out dialogues and act accordingly. When the scene and action have been selected the teacher must help each with the appreciation of his part by rapidly reviewing the main points of the story.
Advantages of this method:
In the dramatization method, the students learn by doing. So their experiences are strengthened through mental and physical activity. It provides them an opportunity to acquire knowledge of historical happening through activity. It helps the students to develop their power of thinking and reasoning. It presents the historical event with human feelings and ideas.
The students find themselves involved in the activities of the past. It thus enables them to understand the persons and events in a historical perceptive. The device makes history teaching real. It makes the dead positive, interesting, and enjoyable for the students. The method helps the students to develop the art of speaking and self-confidence.
Discuss the project method in teaching History. Give its advantages?
According to Kilpatrick “A project is a wholehearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment. A project is a unity of activity in which pupils are made responsible, for planning and purposing. So educational projects must be purposeful, life-oriented, and society-based activities that may be problematic and realistic.
Characteristics of project method:
The project method aims at preparing students for life. It is related to day, today life and its problems. So the method is life centred.
A project seeks to bring out what is in the child and develop his innate potential. It gives an opportunity for self-expression and the school environment provides adequate scope for self-development.
The project is implemented through activities, It is a method of working out the practical Solution to the problem.
Motor Activity in Nature:
A project must use manual or motor activities. The activities need skills and technical knowledge. The activities not only help in executing the project but also develop the personality of the children.
Play way Activities:
Children when engaged in physical activities get immense joy and contribute the most towards productivity. Any kind of imposed activities is uninteresting. In play way activities the monotony is removed and joy is enhanced.
Types of Educational Projects:
Projects when are related to production. Construction of a house, a road, a, garden or a factory, a picnic, or staging a drama are called consumer type of projects.
Projects which are related to a particular burning problem of the life or society are called problem types. Students take up projects to bring peace and harmony among the people.
Advantages of the project method:
Freedom The project method encourages adequate freedom essential for school life, and for the effective teaching-learning process. It gives self-direction, leading to successful learning experiences. Students develop creativity and productivity attitudes.
Learning through problem-solving:
In the project, method emphasis is given on practical life situations and their problems and students are unexposed to day, today life with adequate preparedness knowledge, interests, and attitude for learning from their experiences.
Training in citizenship:
Projects are planned and implemented dramatically. The project, method encourages students to cooperate, think, and act together for achieving common objectives. It provides them with training and democratic living sharing responsibility giving leadership, showing respect to individuals, and exercising citizens’ rights and duties properly. Such a program school may work as a kind of preliminary training for citizenship.
Organization of a project in school to the natural needs- and conditions promote learning outcomes. This is psychologically sound. The three important laws of learning the law of readiness, the law of exercise, and the law of effect are very well taken care of. In the implementation of the project, students get joy and motivation towards learning.
Social values emphasized:
The school as a society the project work develops social skills, social efficiency, and social cohesion. Through the organization of educational projects students jointly plan and execute the project and less front of each other at various phases of implementing a project.
Discuss the dramatization method in Teaching History?
It is a common experience that history does not only deal with material objects but also with events, human ideas, and sentiments happening in time, which have been preserved through verbal symbols. It is impossible to transfer them into audio-visual symbols through models and even through puppets Moreover, historical happenings are not isolated events, but are sequences of happenings one having a connection with the other.
These concepts of casual sequences and movement cannot be represented by models of any kind. Hence, dramatization seems to be the most powerful audio-visual aid in history teaching. In dramatization, an individual acts as somebody had acted in the past. As a result of which the events become quite natural and lively.
In history demonstration means the reconstructing of an experience in the past that is of historical significance, It is the attempt to transcend the barrier of time and place and relieve the experience concerned. A child dramatizing a character has to feel like the character and to a degree must become the character. There is a better way at making historical experience real than through dramatization.
This is the only way of learning by doing in history. The pupils assimilate the essential facts of history by playing the different historical events in the connection. Those who do not directly participate in dramatization but witness it, also get in the way of the character. Their experience becomes almost as real to them as the action.
Kinds of dramatization:
Dramatization is of many kinds. They are as follows:
It is a vivid, realistic, and full representation of the whole scheme, an idea emotion, a happening, or a situation. It takes hours in performance, and success in it requires one to come up almost to professional standards. Any way it requires detailed preparation and educational implication should be subservient to its beauty as a drama.
dramatization The teacher may undertake still more informal dramatization within the history class itself. It may not occupy the whole period and may be made to illuminate part of the lesson. To give the teacher a concrete idea of how this class dramatization could be done about half a dozen examples of each type from Indian history are given below. An attempt has been made to Include as many varieties as possible in the selection of topics for dramatization.
A pageant is an attempt to depict an idea or a feeling by arranging a spectacle. The appeal is solely visual, presenting a long and complicated event very effectively within a short compass forcing attention on key points.
Tableau is a picture like some composed of human characters against a background there may be a basic expression but no speaking.
It is another technique for dramatization. In this technique, there is a thin screen between the actors and the audience.
Puppet enjoys a distinguished position as a dramatic art. There are many kinds of puppets.
Describe the different steps of the history lesson plan for class (VIII)?
Like all other subjects, a history lesson plan has three steps:
- Evaluation Application
Before starting the introduction it is essential to mention general as well as specific objects, materials or instructional aids to be used and previous knowledge of pupils assumed by the teacher.
The teacher has to introduce the topic in the class. The introduction serves two main purposes. To enable the teacher to know the background knowledge of pupils and to arouse an interest in the children to learn the topic. A topic can be introduced in many ways. The teacher can ask, recite some, or the like to introduce a topic. At the end of the introduction step, the teacher announces the topic of the class.
It is the most important step in teaching history. The new knowledge is presented in the step. In the storytelling method, the teacher tells the story and asks a few thought-provoking questions in the middle of the story. In the narration method, the teacher goes on narrating appropriate points and asks some thought-provoking and anticipation questions to the students. During the narration, the teacher makes use of various teacher skills like narration, questioning, and using audiovisual aids.
using blackboard and the like Thought Provoking Questions:
Few thought-provoking or anticipatory questions are asked during narration. These questions are asked during narration. These questions are put usually when the teacher feels that pupils can anticipate the effect of a cause. These questions are generally indirect involving the insight and foresight of the pupils.
A sufficient number of comprehensive questions are asked after the narration is over. These are small and direct questions. These questions are asked to, know the extent to which pupils comprehend the topic.
A few summary-type questions are asked at the end of the presentation step in step to draw the summary of the topic.
In a third of the plan, a few objectives based objective type questions are asked to evaluate the extent to which the specific objectives of the lesson have been achieved.