Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Solutions Unit 3 Learning Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Psychology Unit 3 Learning Short Answer Questions
Short Type Questions and Answers
According to Baron Encoding is a process through which information is converted to a form that can be entered into memory. Encoding means putting material into a form.
Ret rival Failure?
One fails to recall information because of failure to retrieve information from storage due to inadequate memory loss. Retrieve information was for retrieval.
When by using an artificial grouping technique one learns to retain information where grouping is not provided, it is called chunking. Decided his strategy by grouping refers to each trial.
It is a non-conscious memory developed by Atkinson and Shifrmn which is also called a sensory register. Sensory memory is an impression formed from the input of any of the senses.
Storage refers to a process by which the encoded information is retained in the memory. Storage retains the encoded information for some time.
Otherwise called number and letter peg. Numerical pegs serve as a good memory aid.
Ruch (1970) defines reminiscence as “a continuous increase in skill after practice ceases.” In the usual pattern of forgetting cases.
Forgetting has positive and negative values in life. Forgetting is a great blessing to mankind.
The recall was made by the famous Ebbchghaus. In recall, the previously learned material is brought to the present consciousness in their absence, it is called recall.
Long-term memory constitutes each person’s knowledge of the word and knowledge of himself. Long-term organizations help in storing the memory in the C.T.M. for a long period.
It refers to abstract knowledge. It is organized knowledge about the world including the verbal world of words. The information associated with a particular time or place is contained in semantic memory. When we gorget an incident but the knowledge or importance of it is remembered it is called semantic memory. Semantic memory is a memory of meaningful information which can be stored in L.T.M.
Critics argued that lack of recall need not necessarily mean forgetting. This has been experimentally demonstrated in the laboratory and observed in practice. Soldiers on the battlefield after some shock forget the incidents experienced just before the shock. Lack of recall may also be due to associative interference. In spite of this criticism, the recall method is very much in use for the measurement of memory.
Recognition according to Guilford(1917) literally means ‘knowing again’. Recognition simply means to identify. Recognition is the easiest method of measuring retention. It is easier to recognize a name or face than to recall it. The process of recognition is influenced by one’s attitudes, prejudices, values, and other
According to Stevens “As against the curve of Ebbinghaus, sometimes retention curves show a period. In the usual pattern of the forgetting curve initially, there is a stiff decline. the phenomenon of initial rise is leveled as reminiscence. such (1970) defines reminiscence as a continuous increase in skill after practice ceases. Ballard, an English School teacher first studies the problem of reminiscence.
The Method of LOCI?
LOCI is the plural of the Latin word Locus which means ‘place’. Through the method of LOCI, šinoncidcs could find out in his mind’s eye the seating arrangement of guests at a banquet hail. The method of LOCI is by having mental images of the spatial position of the stimuli. The method of LOC1 requires the person to place each item to be remembered at some definite location. Several experimental results indicate the effectiveness of methods of lock, particularly for visual memory.
Gestalt factor of forgetting?
Gestalt psychologists have approached the causes of forgetting from the side of perception. According to the memory traces of particular learning are molded by the observers. Perception of the whole dominates over the perception of the part. Slight irregularities are overlooked which means a certain extent of forgetting. According to Kofika and others from the Gestalt school.
Recall means Made famous through Ebbinghaus’s experiments on memory and he used the recall method. This is required to make the response that he has learned previously. In recalling, the previously learned materials are brought to the present consciousness in their absence. This is called recall. When the recall is made immediately after learning it is called immediate recall. When the recall is made after an interval it is called delayed recall.
Storage refers to a process by which the encoded information is retained in the memory. storage retains the encoded information for some time. Those memories which are associated with some other memory are more often used and better stored or retained than isolated memory having no link with any other memory. The storage therefore can be short-term or long-term depending upon the degree of learning. Rehearsal or repetition is one of the means through which the encoded materials are stored in the memory.
Otherwise known as implicit memory procedural memory. Procedural memory is used to acquire retain and employ perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills. so procedural memory deals with the how of work or how of a procedure. Then the how of the memory remains within and comes without our knowledge. it is easier to perform the task than describe how to do it.
Law of Readiness?
This principle refers to the preparatory set on the part of the organism to learn. The law emphasizes the fact that one learns only when he is physically and mentally.
The reinforcement schedule refers to the arrangement of the delivery of reinforcement during conditioning trials. For example, receive a salary every month.
The process of acquiring knowledge about the environment which has an internal mental representation is called cognition. The two terms are put together to generate the term cognitive learning.
When the solution to the problem comes at once in the first attempt without actually trying the situation it is called foresight. When a person solves a mathematical problem suddenly without using trial and method error it is a case of foresight.
Law of Exercise?
reveals that the strength with which a response will be connected with a situation depends upon the number of times the response has occurred in the situation. The Law of exercise does not operate in isolation.
Classical conditioning is otherwise known as instrumental. This conditioning was first investigated by B.F. Skinner.
The primary reinforcers satisfy our innate biological needs. The organism does not require any training to respond to primary reinforcement.
Feature of Insightful Learning?
The experimental situation is very important in insightful learning. In this type of learning, the organism reacts to the whole situation, not to its component parts.
The conditioning technique developed by Pavlov. The following experiment conducted by Pavlov on a dog is known as the classical conditioning experiment. To start with the experiment, when food was placed in the month of the dog a brought saliva. Classical conditioning experiment on the C.S.U.C.Y.
Trial and Error Learning?
Animals go on hitting the target by impulse or learn out of blunder or ‘hit and miss. This is called trial and error learning. Trial and error is the simplest form of learning. American psychologist E.L. Thorndike (1874-1949) for his first scientific study of leaming. It is also interesting to note that Thorndike has many followers as well as haters and rivals. He conducted a large number of experiments on animal learning.
Characteristics of Insightful learning?
Insightful learning the ‘ O ’ reacts to the whole situation and not to some details only. The ‘O’ find out the relationship between the various stimuli within the situation as a whole. The relationship that the ‘ O ’ perceives is mostly between a means and the end or goal. While learning by the insight the ‘O ’ modifies and restructures the perceptual field. The solution of insightful learning can be readily repeated.
Maturation simply refers to growth both physical and mental. Munn opines that maturation. Maturation greatly depends upon heredity. A lot of research on maturation has been conducted on animals and some on human infants. Arnold Gesell conducted a study to examine the importance of maturation.