Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Psychology Solutions Unit 4 Process of Thinking Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Psychology Unit 4 Process of Thinking Short Answer Questions
Short Type Questions With Answers
Tools of thinking.
Percept: The object or stimulus which is perceived is called the percept.
Images: Images are mental pictures of actual sensory experiences.
Creative thinking refers to the ability for original thinking. Cognitive activity directed towards some creative work refer to creative thinking.
Stages of creative thinking.
The common stage of creative thinking. They are:
(c) inspiration or illumination
(e) verification or revision.
Trench experienced these stages of thinking.
In this stage of creative thinking, there is almost a complete absence of overt activity. The unconscious process may be at work during incubation.
Language is the best medium of thinking. Language provides the most useful and common kinds of symbols in human behavior.
Rigidity cements new ideas and thoughts helpful for problem-solving. Lyman and Anderson have suggested the following eight rules to prevent rigidity in thinking.
Images are mental pictures of actual sensory experiences. It represents the percept in its absence.
Sensory motor period.
The sensory-motor period is the period that starts before the language development of the child. Piaget distinguished between two major stages in cognitive development.
When the ‘O’ has to choose between two equally attractive goals, he faces the problem of conflict the lie is in conflict as he is unable to decide which goal to pursue both have equal attraction.
Need for power.
Some people are heard saying, “I don’t need any power.” Though, power by itself is a motive. It may help in achieving other motives easily.
Need for achievement.
Achievement motivation is the need or desire to achieve something. It is a strong motive.
Need for approval.
Man is a social animal. For any social organism need for approval is a must.
In this method, the activity of the ‘O’ is observed by introducing a drive. It is two types:
- field observation
- laboratory observation
Need for aggression.
Aggression is a hostile response to any stimulus. The motive of aggression may be expressed due to the imitation of aggressive models.
Need for recognition.
The urge to process status in society is a commonly observed need found by human beings. Every human being wants his merit abilities to be recognized in society.
Hunger occupies the most prominent position among all the biological drives and obviously, most of the studies have been done on hunger drive. Hunger is concluded by Ruch.
Thirst is also a periodic drive. The strength of thirst is also greater than hunger drive.
Organic drives are known as physiological or biological drives as the physiological state of the organism drives him to action. The biological drive is innate.
Jealousy is an outgrowth of anger. It is an attitude of resentment directed towards other people only. It is a negative motion.
Causes of anger
The cause of anger is interference or restriction of any type or it may be due to frustration. This frustration may be due to personal, physical, or social causes.
Joy, pleasure, delight.
All these are positive emotions and they generally belong to joy. Such emotions always give pleasure to the individual.
The preparational period extends from two to seven years. The first part of this stage is also known as the pre-conceptual period. It is characterized by the use of language and symbolic function. Pre-conceptual refers to the beginning of symbolization in thinking. It is the period prior to the use of symbols in thinking or the preparatory stage for the same.
Language is the best medium of thinking. Language provides the most useful and common kind of symbols in human behavior. Most of the thinking is the modem age is done by verbal symbols, which are expressed through language. Though in thinking some amount of language is involved a certain amount of thinking. It serves to communicate ideas from one person to another.
Creative thinking refers to the ability for original thinking. In other words, cognitive activity directed towards some creative work refers to creative thinking. Creative thinkers are great boons to society. Creative thinking is a must for the progress and prosperity of any country. In creative thinking, there is general freedom from rigid thought patterns.
The positive transfer effect facilitates problem-solving a great deal. Acquisitions of the past in similar situations are generalized in the present situation. This makes it easier to solve the problem. Certain problems do require finding new strategies and new concepts for solutions. It has been found that new problems can be solved completely by past learning.
Frustration and stress.
Several studies have been conducted on the adverse effect of frustration and stress on problem-solving behavior. A study by Monson (1954) indicates that initially, the frustrated group showed a greater gain them control, apparently being highly motivated to succeed this time having failed the block tapping test. Cowen( 1959) has found that when people don’t feel that. Subjects who had shown the most frustration in the block tapping test did most poorly on the difficult problem. Reynolds shows that stress operates as a hindrance to problem-solving.
Run over the elements of the problem in rapid succession several times until a pattern emerges which encompasses all these elements simultaneously. Suspend judgment – Don’t jump to conclusions. Produce a second solution after the first. Rigidity cements new ideas and thoughts helpful for problem-solving.
Like hunger, thirst is also a periodic drive. The strength of thirst is also greater than hunger drive. The necessity of thirst for survival is greater than food. According to Cannon’s theory, he has treated the thirst. This is highlighted.
External expressions of emotions.
- Facial expression:
The face is the most expressive organ of the human body.
- Postural reaction:
Different emotions arouse different postures.
- Vocal expressions:
Voice is a powerful organ of indicating different types of emotions experienced.
- Scholrberg found a high correlation in the judgments of different observers found that in several pictures.
- It is thus said to be the barometer of emotion.
The last form of counterbalancing motives is the obstruction method. In this method of putting on obstruction, the persistence of a particular drive is measured. The Columbia obstruction apparatus has been extensively used by the warden. He found the crossing of an electric grill. It is the strongest obstruction.
The contrast of motives.
In this method, one motive is contrasted with another at a time. Hunger-sex, sex-thirst, thirst hunger, thirst-maternity drive, and soon. In another study, Elliot noticed that motivation suddenly changed with the change in goal. Seymour and stein trained the animal to a given food. This method is used to measure mostly animal drives.
Conflict of motives.
When the ‘O’ has to choose between two equally attractive goals, he faces the problem of conflict the lie is in conflict as he is unable to decide which goal to pursue as both have equal attraction and strength in fulfilling his motive. A person who lives both fish and meat, when asked to select only one of these preparations faces conflict. In our day-to-day life, we face conflict. A dog is trained to bark in a circle.
Hunger occupies the most prominent position among all the biological drives been on hunger drive. The survival of the ‘O’ depends upon the satisfaction of hunger need. Ehrlich suggests that the most significant physiological factor is the regulation of hunger. The importance of hunger drive in human beings has been proved by many classic studies. From several studies on hunger drives, the role of environment and training is strong.
Method of preference.
The method of preference makes to choose between two or more incentives that arouse one and the same drive. Two incentives are given at a time and it is observed which one of the two is preferred by the organism. If the driver is hungry, the incentives may be different types of food. P.T. Young made an experiment by this method using rats. The motive is one but the incentives are many.
Role of motivation in learning.
The importance of motivation in learning follows from the law of effects. Thorndike has shown that there is a close relationship between learning and motivation. Motivation is indispensable for learning. Pavlov’s conditioning technique. When a student is motivated by praise and verbal reward he quickly improves in his learning.
Role of the hypothalamus in emotion.
The hypothalamus plays a significant role in emotional behavior. This is substantiated by various experimental studies on animals. Removal of the hypothalamus in cats and dogs brings a full stop to all emotional expressions. Observations show that when the hypothalamus is seriously impaired by accident or the like, occurs that is there is no emotional reaction. Drugs like sodium amytal and metrazol have a specific effect on the hypothalamus producing significant changes in the emotional behavior of human beings and arid animals.
Cannon-Bord Theory of Emotion.
Cannon formulated his own theory of emotion which is called the Thalamic or emergency theory of emotion. Modem physiological views of emotion may be said to start with Cannon. He was the first to develop a broad and integrated physiological picture of emotion. Cannons conducted a series of experiments. The Thalamic theory differs from the James Lange theory chiefly units emphasis upon the independence of emotional experiences.
Jealousy is an outgrowth of anger. It is an attitude of resentment directed towards other people only while anger can be directed toward people, self, and others. It is a negative emotion. The arousal of jealousy depends upon training and the treatment that one gets from others. Child-rearing practices have got a lot to do with the development of jealousy.