Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Solutions Unit 3 Social Institutions Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Sociology Unit 3 Social Institutions Long Answer Questions
Long Questions With Answers
Describe the general characteristics of a family.
A mating relationship :
A family comes into existence when a man and woman establish mating relations between them. This relation may be of a shorter duration of life long.
A form of marriage :
The mating relationship is established through the institution of marriage. Marriage may be solemnized in a simple way or in a grand manner as in India.
A system of nomenclature :
Every family is known by a name and has its own system of reckoning descent through the male line or female line. Usually, the wife goes and joins her husband’s relatives.
An economic provision:
Every family needs an economic provision to satisfy their economic needs. The head of the family carries on certain profession and earn money to maintain the family.
A common habitation :
A family respires a home or household for its living. Without a dwelling place, the task of childbearing and child-rearing cannot be adequately performed.
Distinctive characteristics of the family:
Family is the most universal group. It is the first institution in the history of men. It has existed in every society and is found in all parts of the world. No culture or society has ever existed without some form of family organization. No other group is so universal as the family is.
Emotional basis :
A family is a fundamental unit of human society. It is based on our impulses of mating, procreation, and parental care. It is a close-knit group that fortifies these emotions.
The size of the family is of necessity limited for it is defined by biological conditions that it cannot transcend. Other groups may be smaller than a family but they are not so because of biological conditions.
Formative influence :
The family exercises the most profound influence over its members. It molds the character of the individuals. Its influence in infancy determines the personality structure of the individual. Psychologists have proved that a child exhibits the same character and mental tendencies in adult age that he acquires in the family.
The family is the nucleus of all other social groups. The distinctive characteristics of marriage, parental obligations, and sibling relations make the family the primary institutional cell of society. The whole social structure is built of family units.
Responsibility of the members :
In the family, the child learns the meaning of social responsibility and the necessity for cooperation. As Maclver aptly describes. “In times of crisis, men may work and fight and die for their country but they toil for their families all their lives.” In it the child develops his basic attitudes and ideals. It is a great agency for the socialization of file children.
Social Regulations :
The family is peculiarly guarded by social customs and legal regulations. It isn’t easy to violate them. Family is the group in which the consenting parties may freely enter but which they can not easily leave or dissolve. Marriage is not trivially taken.
Family as an institution is permanent and universal. While as an association it is temporary and transitional. When the son marries he goes out of the family and starts another family which again may give rise to more families.
Define family. Discuss its various types.
- M.F. Nimkoff says that “Family is a more or less durable association of husband and wife with or without a child, or of a man or woman alone, with children”.
- Maclver: “Family is a group defined by sex relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children”.
Different types of families are found in different societies. Family is a universal institution but all families are not one type. The family has been classified on the basis of authority, structure, residence, marriage, and descent.
The various types of families are discussed below.
Single or Nuclear Family :
The nuclear family tot type of family which consists of a husband and wife and their unmarried children. The size of the nuclear family is very small. Because it includes only a few members. It is autonomous until and free from the control of elders. It is regarded as the ideal form of family in the modem civilized society.
The size of the joint family is very large. It is formed by a large number of members. A joint family is composed of rather, a mother, their sons, the son’s wife, and children,’ uncles, aunts, grandfather, grandmother, and so on. The members of a joint family belong to several generations. In a joint family eldest male member is the head of the family and has supreme authority.
A patrilocal family is a type of family in which after marriage the wife goes and lives in the family, and the husband occupies a central position and plays a dominant role. Hence, the patrilocal family is regarded as an ideal family in modern society.
Matri-local family is that type of family in which after marriage. The husband goes and lives in the family of his wife. Therefore it is generally known are a wife-dominated family. In this family, the husband occupies a secondary position. The matrilocal family as only found among the Khasi tribes of Assam.
Monogamous Family :
A monogamous family is composed of one man and one woman. In this family, one man marries a woman only one. Under the monogamous family system, a man can not have more than one wife.
Polygynous family one man marries more than one woman at a time and lives with more than three children in the same house. This type of family is found among the Eskimo tribes, African Nigros and Muslims. The short polygynous family is constituted by one man and several women.
A polyandrous family is composed of one woman and many men. In this type of family one woman marries many men and lives with of them or reaches them alternatively. The Pandava family is a bright example of a polyandrous family.
Patriarchal Family :
A patriarchal family is a joint family is directly led by the eldest married male member on the father. In this family the father head authority and possesses all intensive powers. All the family members are under the direct control of the father. The children are known by the name of the family of their father. The property is transferred patriarchal family is a joint family that is composed of a father, mother, younger brother, married sons, their wives, children, unmarried sons, and daughters. This type of family was found among the Romans and Aryans of India.
In the matriarchal family, the mother is the head of authority and possesses all powers. Mother is the owner of the property and rules over the family. In this family, the name, status, and experience of property are transferred through the name of the mother. The female members alone have the right to succeed property in a matriarchal family. In this family, the position of the husband is secondary. This family is found among the Nayar and Tiya caste of Kerala. This type of family is a mother or wife-dominated family.
In the patrilineal family, the descent is traced through the father. In this family, ancestry continues through the male members or father. In other words, a family where the father is the center of authority is considered as a patrilineal family. This is regarded as the best type of family in the modem times.
In a matrilineal family, the descent is traced through the mother. Mother is the center of power is called a matrilineal family. In this family female members enjoy all the rights and privileges including the rights of property and inheritance. The rights and privileges are handed down by the mother to her daughter.
Define family and discuss its functions.
- According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “Family is a more or less durable association of husband and wife with or without children or a man or woman alone with children”.
- According to Maclver, “Family is a group defined by sex relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children”.
The function of the family – Different sociologists have classified the functions of the family differently. But Maclver and Page made only two divisions of family functions namely Essential and Non-essential.
Satisfaction of Sex needs:
This is an essential function which the family functions which the family performs. The satisfaction of sex instinct brings the desire for lifelong partnership among males and females. The modem family satisfies the instinct to a greater, degree than the Traditional Family. It is generally found that many problems arise in the family owing to be non-fulfillment of the sex needs of the husband and wife.
The inevitable result of sexual satisfaction is procreation Every married couple desires to have their own children to continue the ‘Kula’, some Hindu thinkers say that reproduction or, procreation or a child, preferably a son is the sole aim of marriage procreation perpetuates the family and helps increase the Population of the country and ultimately perpetuates the human nature as a whole.
Protection and care of young :
The family acts as a protective should for an individual. It safeguards him against the odds at different stages of life. When a child is in the mother’s womb, the family serves him by taking proper care of the expectant mother. Soon after the child is bom family brings him up with utmost care and love.
Provision as homes:
The home in which both husband and wife live together after the marriage is regarded as an important institution for procreation, protection, and care of the children. Man after the hard toil of the day returns home and forgets his worries. Home is like a heaven and sanctuary where its members find comfort and affection.
Family services as an economic unit. It fulfills the economic needs of its members such as food, clothing housing, etc. It is regarded as a production as well as a consumption unit. The women engage themselves in all domestic work and the men generally work outside for the economic welfare of the family. Besides these, the family also looks after the family properties social housing farm money, etc.
The family is an important educational agency. The child leams first letters under the guidance of parents. The child receives the qualities of love, affection, and sympathy from the family. For the child, the mother happens to be the best teacher. She would the character and career of the child. The three ‘RS’ Reading writing and arithmetic were taught to children by holder family members. It also provides vocational training to children.
Family is a center for the religious training of the children. It lays the foundation for the moral standards ofthe child. The family observes different religious ceremonies, out of which children develop good qualities and learn various religious virtues.
Recreational functions :
The family serve as a center of recreational activity, on festive occasions all the member sing, dance, and play together. They play visits to their near and dear ones for the sake of change. Usually, a man returns home for relaxation after his day’s work. The family thus provides recreation to all of the members.
The function relating to health :
The family looks after the health condition of its member. It takes care of sick old and expectant mothers.
Socialization of the young:
Family is the primary socializer of the child. It molds the original nature of man into social nature. The habits and attitudes of the parents are transmitted to the children through the process of socialization the virtues of love, cooperation, tolerance, sacrifice, obedience, and discipline are fixed and learned by the child in the family. These qualities enable him to grow into a good citizen.
Explain the changing functions of the family in India.
The family as a basic social institution has been undergoing change. The modem family radically differs from that of the traditional one. The family has never been at rest. Both in its structure and functions changes take place. Some of these changes may be examined here. The first and foremost changing function is that the modern family has lost its educational functions.
It does not import education to children. Nowadays children do not receive vocational training from families. They get education from different educational institutions. Schools, colleges, and various technical institutes provide educational and vocational training to the children which the family could not furnish adequately in the past.
In the education of children, teachers play a more vital role than parents in the present time. In the past, the family was taking care of the health of its members and was providing all medical facilities. But nowadays health is no longer a worry of the family. The family does not perform the functions relating to health. Hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, etc. are taking care of the health of an individual.
Diseases persons are admitted to hospitals and are treated by medical practitioners such as doctors, nurses, midwives, etc. Similarly, in the past. The child was bom in the family and was nurtured under the care of kinsmen. But now children get birth in various delivery centers like women’s hospitals. Clinics and soon. Pregnant women are properly treated by gynecologists.
All kinds of diseases are treated by medical experts in the hospitals scientifically, and various medical centers such, as maternity hospitals, women’s hospitals, baby clinics, etc. provide adequate medical treatment to different categories of patients Thus all the functions of families related to health has undergone considerable changes in modem times.
The ancient family was regarded as the center of production, consumption, and distribution of goods. All types of economic goods required by the members for the purpose of consumption were produced by the family. But now family only acts as a consumption unit. The members of the family consume goods that are produced in mills and factories and sold in the marketplace.
In the past, agriculture was the main economic basis of the family. All economic needs of the members were fulfilled only by agricultural profession and they followed their family occupation compulsorily. But today the members of families avoid their hereditary agricultural occupation and engage in various offices, industries, factories, public sectors, and so on.
There are many families that today avoid the task of preparing food for their family members and depend upon hotels and restaurants. As a result of which the responsibilities of the members of the family decrease considerably in the present time. They do not work at home collectively and are scattered over a wide area where each of them works independently.
Thus external agencies such as mills. Factories, officers, hotels, and restaurants are performing the economic functions that families had to perform in the past. In the past socialization was one of the main functions of family Children were living under the care of their parents in the family. The socialization process of a child begins in the family.
But the socialization function of the family in respect of child care seems to have declined to a considerable extent in modem progressive countries. Due to the tire impact of rapid industrialization and urbanization, a number of working places come into existence and the social status of women has undergone considerable change.
Women are self-dependent due to their engagement in various servicing centers. In the modem civilized countries, women usually go to work leaving their small children under the care and guidance of educated women. Various outside institutions such as nursery schools, Kindergarten schools, and Montessori schools provide care and education to the children.
Thus in modem times, various outside agencies play more important roles than family in the socialization process of the child. Now the family is not following the religious practices which it was performing in the past. Religious dogmas or rituals were the fundamental basis of home organization in the ancient family system.
The ancient families had been performing certain religious practices like idol worship, prayer, idolatry, religious discourses, etc. But now modem family unlike the old or traditional family has become secular in its outlook. Religious practices have lost their significance and become outdated in modem times.
Thus, the importance of religion in the twentieth century has considerably decreased, modem people do not believe in religious practices due to the impact of industrialization, urbanization, modernization, sanslcritization, westernization, democratization, and so on. Traditionally, the family provided all kinds of recreation and entertainment to its members, But in modern, times family does not provide the kind of recreation that its members want.
They seek entertainment outside their families. Various outside recreational centers such as clubs, cinema halls, hotels, parks, gymnasiums, and so on provide recreational functions for the traditional family but have declined in modem times. In the past one of the fundamental functions of the family was caring for and assistance to old, invalid, and unemployed members.
But nowadays the government and a number of specialized agencies have come forward to perform this particular function of old and traditional families. The government provides houses, pensions, and other allowances to these helpless people.
Mention the types of kinship with suitable examples.
Man is a social animal. He does not live alone in society. From birth to death, he is surrounded by a number of persons. They are his relatives, friends, neighbors, and strangers. Some are known while others are unknown persons. He is bound to all those persons who are related to him in one way or the other. These relations are based on blood and marriage.
The bond of blood or marriage which binds people together in a group is called kinship means society recognized relationships based on supposed as well as actual genealogical ties. These relationships are the result of social interaction and are recognized by society types of kinship. Kinship is of two types:
- Affinal kinship, and
- Consanguineous kinship
Affinal Kinship :
The bond of marriage is called affinal kinship when a person marries, he establishes a relationship not only with the girl whom he marries but also with a number of persons in the girl’s family. It is not only the person marrying, who gets bound to the family members of the girl but his family members also get bound to the family members of the girl. Thus a host of relations are created as soon as a marriage takes place. After marriage, a person becomes not only a husband but also becomes brother-in-law and son-in-law.
Here it may be noted that in the English language a number of relations created by marriage are referred to by some terms. Thus the same term brother-in-law is used for bahnoi, sale jija, and Saddhu.” On marriage, a person also becomes Foofa, nandoi, and mausa. Likewise a girl marriage becomes ‘Chachi, bhabhi, during, jethani, mausi” etc. Thus marriage creates a host of relationships which are called affinal.
Consanguineous Kinship :
The bond of blood is called consanguineous kinship. The Consanguineous kin is related through blood whereas the affinal kin are related through marriage. The bond between parents and children and that between siblings is consanguineous kinship. Siblings are the children of the same parents.
Thus son, brother, sister, uncle (chacha), elder uncle (tau) nephew, and cousin are consanguineous kin i.e., related through blood. In this connection, it may be pointed out that blood relationships may be actual as well as supposed. Among polyandrous tribes the actual father of a child is unknown. An adopted child is treated as if it were one own biologically produced child. Thus blood relationships may be established not only on a biological basis but also on the basis of social recognition.
Degree of Kinship:-
On the basis of the nearness of distance, relatives can be classified into several categories. Some relatives are very close, direct, and near, for example, father, son, sister, brother, husband, and wife. They are called primary kin. According to Dr. Dubey, there is eight such primary kin. They are husband, wife, father, son, mother, daughter, father, daughter, mother, son, younger elder brothers, younger elder sisters, and sister brothers.
Secondly, there are secondary kins. They are primary kin of primary kin. In other words, they are related through primary kin. They are not our primary kin but are the primary kin of our primary kin hence, our secondary kin. For example, the father’s brother (chacha) and sister’s husband (bahnoi) are secondary kin.
The father is my primary kin and his brother is the primary kin of my father. Therefore father’s brother is my secondary kin, the primary kin of primary kin. Similarly, my sister is my primary kin but her husband is my secondary kin. Thirdly, there are tertiary kins. They are the secondary kin of the primary kin of our secondary kin.
Thus the wife of the brother-in-law (sala) called (sarhaj) in Hindi is tertiary kin because the brother-in-law is secondary kin and his wife is the primary kin brother-in-law. Similarly, the brother-in-law of my brother is my tertiary kin because the brother is my primary kin and his brother-in-law is the secondary kin of my brother According to Mindock, “there are 33 secondary and 151 tertiary kinds of a person”.
Kinship is a universal institution. There is no society in the world that does not recognize kinship. Though the nomenclature might be different yet the relationship does exist and is deep-rooted. All kinship can be traced from some sort of sexual relationship or descent near or remote.
What is the broader meaning of education? Give at least three definitions and explain them.
The meaning of education is complex in nature. It may refer to formal schooling or to life-long education. Each person who reads or hears the word interprets it is terms of his personal interest in and expectations of it. For example, a parent considers education as a positive force to enable the child to prosper in life or to earn a name and fame in society.
A teacher may interpret education as a means for the creation of a new man as well as a new society and a new nation. To a student education is nothing but the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes, and skills passing examinations and receiving degrees and diplomas. An educational administrator believes that education is a source of assistance and support to pass examinations.
An artist looks upon education as a way to love and enjoy the beauty. An artisan may think of it is a means to master a skill. To a religious preacher, education is a device to abolish material barbarism and to impart spiritual values in the minds of the people. A statesman may claim that it is a means to train ideal citizens. Thus, there is an almost universal interest in education.
Since it does not have a simply unitary meaning, the parents, teachers, housewives, administrators, farmers, religious, preachers, military men, politicians, artists, and artisans interpret the term ‘education’ in their own ways. Education may include all learning processes. Since we learn many tilings in many ways and on manifold occasions this definition is too broad to be distinctive and useful.
Another definition would describe education only as the learning of socially approved behavior. Finally, the narrowest definition which we shall adopt for our present purposes identifies education with schooling, the transmission of culture. Particularly knowledge from generation to generation with a specialized organization in the school.
Since education is a dynamic concept its meaning differs from place to place, from time to time, and from person to person. It has passed through many ages and stages in the process of evolution and at every stage, it has/had a different meaning according to the then-existing social conditions.
Education is a complex idea. It is not at all possible to express the scope of education through a single term. Though a biologist, a priest, a psychologist, a philosopher, a teacher, a statesman, a merchant, or a shopkeeper gives different definitions of education according to their own outlook, it is very difficult to explain in definite terms.
Hence, there are variations in the meaning of education. Definition of Education Gandhi says that “By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man body, mind, and spirit”. John Dewey says that “Education is the process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences.
It is the development of all these capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities”. Rigveda says, “Education is something which makes man self-reliant and selfless”.Education may be considered a life-long process. It begins at birth and continues throughout life till death.
The child learns through its experience. He gains experience when he comes in contact with different social institutions, persons, places, and things. There is no end to this experience. It goes on forever without any breaks or barriers. Thus, education becomes an active and dynamic process.
Discuss critical functions towards society.
Education can be has been and is used for many different purposes. We call these purposes the function of education. In other words, functions refer to what education actually does. Thus, the function of education is multi-dimensional within the school system and outside it. Therefore, scholars thinkers and educationists differ about the nature of these functions. Thus, education performs various functions towards the society given below.
- Society and Education.
- Education is a social process.
- School as a society – in miniature.
- Social Conservation.
- Education as continuous Reconstruction and Integration of Activities and experiences.
Society and Education:
Education is an integral part of the total social pattern. It takes place in the interaction of individual groups and the entire cultures. It is the process of interaction resulting in charges in the behavior of both the individual and the society. Education through its various processes of instruction tied to modifying society and the behavior of the individual. Thus education and society are closely related. Education functions as the chief agency for the society of socializing the human beings living in it.
Education is a social process :
Man is essentially a social being a citizen growing and thinking in a vast complex of interactions and relations. The term complex interaction refers to the democratic scientific and industrial movement of society. Right education helps the child to adjust himself to the social environment.
He can also change them according to his own needs. Education thus is the fundamental method of social progress and individual upliftment. Social reconstruction takes place in the adjustment through education of individual action on the basis of social consciousness.
School as a society-in- miniature :
The school is to be considered a society in miniature. The school must be vitally interlinked with the society outside. Varied experiences are to be provided to the child so that in his own way he is prepared to shoulder the responsibilities of after-school life. Let the school engage the child as a whole enabling him to participate in as many activities as he likes.
Life without society is uncertain, incomplete, and meaningless. Social education is necessary for a man so that he can mix with other members of society and get the inspiration to move at the same pace as them. Society guarantees the safety of man’s life and prosperity. Man leams the value of cooperation in social life by means of education. The social experience of one generation is preserved for generations to come through the medium of education and in this way, the process of social preservation remains dynamic.
Education as continuous, Reconstruction and Integration of Activities and experiences :
Education is the process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities. We help him to grow and while growing he comes across various experiences and each experience leaves a mark on him.
Education is a reconstruction of experience: “Experience is off as well as in nature. It is not experience which is experienced, but nature stones, plants, animals diseases, health temperature, electricity and soon. Things interacting in certain other ways with another natural object – the human organism are how things are experienced as well.