Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Solutions Unit 3 Social Institutions Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Sociology Unit 3 Social Institutions Short Answer Questions
Very Short-Answer Type Questions
What is family?
The family is the most important primary group in society. It is the most simplest and elementary form of society. It is the first and the most immediate social environment to which a child is exposed.
Give one definition of family.
Ogburn and Ninkoff say that “Family is a mere or less a durable association of husband and wife with or without a child or of man or a woman alone with children.
What is the meaning of family and from which is it is derived?
The term family has been derived from the Roman word Famulus which means servant. The servants enjoyed the status of members of the household in ancient times. Thus originally family consisted of a man and a woman with a child or child servant.
Mention the main characteristic of the family.
As a social unit family has the following characteristics such as:
- Limited size
- Social Control
- Formative influence
- Responsibility of member
What is a matriarchal family?
A matriarchal family is also known as mother centered family. Her mother or woman is the head of the family who exercises her authority. She is the owner of the property and the manager of the household. All the other members are subordinate to her.
What is a patriarchal family?
The patriarchal family is also known as father dominant family. Here the father or the eldest man is the head of the family and we exercise authority. He is the owner and the administrator ofthe family property. On all family matters, he is the final voice and opinion.
What is a single-family or nuclear family?
The nuclear family is one that consists ofthe husband, wife, and their unmarried children. It is an autonomous unit and frees all control of elders. The Anevecian family is a typical example of a modern-independent nuclear family. The size of the nuclear family is very small.
What is a joint family?
The joint family is also known as an undivided family and sometimes as an extended family. It consists of the husband, wife, their married and unmarried children uncles, aunts, grandfather, grandmother, etc. The members of a joint family belong to several generations. The eldest member is the head of a joint family. In India, this family system is prevailing among the Hindus.
What is a patrilocal family?
A patrilocal family is a type of family in which after marriage the wife goes and lives in the family of her husband.
What do you mean by matrilocal family?
A matrilocal family is such type of family in which after marriage the husband goes and lives in the family of his wife. In this family, the husband occupies the secondary position. This type of family is only found among the Khasi tribes of Assam.
What is a monogamous family?
A Monogamous family is composed of one man and one woman. In this family, one man marries one woman. Both spouses can’t marry for a second time. This type of family is regarded as an ideal family.
What is a polygynous family?
In a polygynous family, one man marries more than one woman at a time and lives with them and their children in the same house. This type of family is found among the Eskimo tribes, African Negroes, and Muslims.
What is a polyandrous family?
A polyandrous family is composed of one woman and many men. In this type of family one woman marries many men and lives with all of them alternatively. The Pandav family is a polyandrous family.
What is a patrilineal family?
In the patrilineal family, the descent is traced through the father. An entry also continues through the male members or father. Father is the center of authority patrilineal family – is regarded as the best type of family in modem India.
What do you mean by matrilineal family?
In a matrilineal family, the descent is traced through the matter. An entry also continues to female members throughout the family. Here female members enjoyed all rights and privileges including the right of property and inheritance.
Man is social. He doesn’t live alone in society. From birth till death he is surrounded which a number of persons. They are relatives, friends, neighbors, and strangers. Some are known while others were unknown persons the lie is bound to all those persons who are related to him in one way or the other. This relationship is based on blood and married. The bond of blood or marriage which binds people together in a group is called kinship.
How many types of kinship?
Kinship is two types.
- Affinal kinship.
- Consanguineous kinship.
What is Affinal kinship?
The bond of marriage is called affinal kinship when a person marries he establishes a relationship not only with the girl whom he marries but also with a number of persons in the girl’s family.
What is consanguineous kinship?
The bond of blood is called consanguineous kinship. The consanguineous kin is related through blood whereas in affinal kin are related through marriage.
What is sarhaj?
The wife of the brother-in-law (sala) is called sarhaj.
Two examples of primary kinship.
Give two examples of secondary kinship.
Father, Brother, Sister’s husband.
What is Education?
Education is that which makes one’s life harmonious with all existence and thus enables the mind to realize the ultimate truth which gives us a wealth of inner light and love and gives significance to life.
What is economics according to Marx?
The economy is at the center of Marx’s sociological theories, he considered society to be the result of an economic base and a social superstructure. It is the economic base that determines all other social structures including ideology, politics, and religion.
What is the role of the economy as a social institution?
The economy is a fundamental part of contemporary society. It contributes to the administrative, educational, ethical, legal, and religious organization of society. It is a social superstructure.
What does Marx claim about the forms of the state’s interest?
Marx claim that the modern form of the state serves the interest of the ruling economic class by oppressing the collective interest of the proletariat.
What is class according to Weber?
Class is defined in terms of market situation a class exists when a number of people have in common economic interest in the possession of goods and opportunity for income in commodity or labor markets.
What is your view of Weber on the economy?
Economies result from communities that are arranged in such a way that goods, tangible and intangible, symbolic and material are distributed.
Short-Answer Type Questions
Family is a unique and universal social institution. The word Family has come from the Roman word Famulus which means servant. Because in those days family consisted of a man and a woman with her children and servants. According to Maclver, a Family is a group defined by a sex relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children.
Explain any three general characteristics of a family.
A mating relationship :
Family is the outcome of the mating relationship between a man and a woman. Man and woman’s sexual desire is satisfied through this.
Forms of marriage :
The mating relationship is established through different forms of marriage like monogamy, polygamy, etc.
An Economic Provision :
Family provides for some sort of economic provision by which different economic needs of its members are met.
Explain any three distinctive features of the family.
As a social organization par- excellence family has the following distinctive features as
Universal nature :
Family is a universal social institution that is found all over the world and at all stages of development.
Nucleus position :
Family is the nucleus, of all other social organizations and the whole social structure is built around it.
Emotional basis :
Family is grounded on human emotions. In other words, family is built upon love affection, sympathy, cooperation, and sentiments.
Explain Monogamous family.
A monogamous family is based on a monogamous marriage system. It consists of a husband, a wife, and their children. Both husband and wife are prohibited to have an extramarital relationship. It is regarded as an ideal form of family.
Explain the Polygynous family.
A Polygynous family is based on a polygyny system of marriage. In this family, a man has more than one wife at the same time. And all the wives may stay under one roof along with their children or each wife may have a separate house.
Explain the Polyandrous family.
A polyandrous family is based on a polyandry system of marriage. In this family, a woman marries more than one husband at a time. Here the wife lives with her husband during the term. It is found among the Todas and Kuta Tribes.
Explain the Patrilineal family.
The family in which the ancestry family name and property are determined on the basis of the male line or father’s called a patrilineal family. The family name as well as the right to property is handed over from father to son.
Explain the Matrilincal family.
On the basis of rules of descent or ancestry, the family may be divided into matrilineal or patrilineal. In this family system ancestry or descent is traced through the mother. The family name, as well as the right to property, is handed over from mother to daughter. Here, female members enjoy all rights and privileges.
Distinguish between Primary and Secondary kins.
- The relatives which are very close, direct, near, and are related through blood are called primary kins whereas the primary kins of a primary kins are called secondary kins.
- Father, son, and brother are called primary kins whereas father’s brother or father’s sister are examples of second kin.
- Primary kins are close blood relatives but secondary kins are related through primary kins.
Distinguish between Affinal kinship and Consanguineous kinship.
- The relations created through marriage are known as affinal kins but kins related through blood are known as Consanguineous kins.
- Wife and sister-in-law are examples of affinal kins whereas parent’s sons and daughters are examples of consanguineous kins.
The bond of blood or marriage which binds people together in groups is called kinship. Kinship includes socially recognized relationships. Kinships are of two types Affinal kinship and Consanguineous kinship. Kinship is based on both blood relationships and marital relationships.
Religion refers to a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers which express themselves in overt activities. It is a unified system of beliefs and practices relating to sacred things. It establishes a unit in society.
Explain the functions of the family.
As a universal social institution family performs several functions on the basis of important functions of the family are divided into essential and non-essential functions. Satisfaction of sex needs reproduction protection provision of home care of the young are the essential functions of the family. Non-essential functions of the family are economic, educative, religious, and recreational in nature.
Explain affinal Kinship.
The bond- of blood or kinship that kinds people together in a group is called kinship. It includes socially recognized relationships. The relations created through marriage are called affinal kinship.
Explain Consanguineous Kinship.
Kinship includes socially recognized relationships. It kinds people together in a group. Kinship may be divided on the basis of blood or marriage. The bond of blood is called consanguineous kinship. These kins are related to each other through blood.
Explain the social roles of Religion.
Religion refers to that institutionalized system of beliefs symbols, values, and practices that provide group of men with solutions to their questions of ultimate being. Religion acts as a source of social cohesion and brings social welfare. Religion acts as an agency of social control and enhances self-importance.
Explain the Patriarchal family.
On the basis of authority, the family may be divided into patriarchal and matriarchal types. When all the authority is vested in the oldest male member calls outs the patriarchal family.
Write a short note on the social role played by religion.
Religion explains and rationalizes individual suffering and makes it bearable. Religion acts as the most important source of social cohesion. Religion brings social welfare to society. Religion acts as an important agency of social control and exercises control both over individuals and society.
Write short notes on the functions of the family.
As an important social institution family performs several functions. Kins Davis has divided functions into four heads such as reproduction, maintenance, placement, and socialization. Similarly, OgbumandNimkoff mentioned six functions of the family such as affectionate, economic recreational protective, religious and educational.
But Maclverhas made only two divisions of functions, such as essential and non-essential functions. Essential functions include stable satisfaction of sex needs production and rearing of children. Under non-essential functions, they include educational, economic, recreational, religious, and others.