CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Solutions Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions

Long Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
What do you understand by the term Social Stratification? What are its different forms? What is its social functional utility? Or, Write a short note on Social Stratification?
In every society, there is caste and class difference. In some cases, these are more rigid as compared with others. But the ‘class’ and ‘caste’ systems are everywhere deep-rooted. It is usually difficult to get rid of this system whether these are individually or collectively liked or disliked.

What is Stratification:
Gilbert has given a very simple definition of the term social stratification when he says that social stratification is the division of society into permanent groups or categories liked with each other by the relationship of superiority and subordination. Thus it is based on the superiority and subordination relationship i.e. on the concept of inequality. Thus as long as social inequality continues to exist, there will be social stratification.

Moreover, even among the castes, and classes there are differences. Some people in the same caste and class consider themselves more prestigious than others. Since a classless and casteless society is merely a dream the castes and classes are bound to remain divided on the basis of prestige, social stratification is bound to continue.

Origin of Social Stratification :
How and when social stratification began or originated is a very important problem. Some think that stratification started when people began to amass wealth. Economically better people became a class among themselves and the poor formed a separate class. Some others believe that stratification started when the nation of victor and defeated came into being. The former formed a separate and later another separate class.

Some even say that stratification came with the coming of occupations. Those who were engaged in good and rewarding professions formed a separate class compared with those who were engaged in dirty and unrewarding vocations. But so far nothing can be said about the exact origin of social stratification. All that can be said is that all these factors at different stages and with the passage of time brought stratification in the society, till the present stage came.

Forms of Stratification:
In societies, stratification can be economic, political, religious and social. Economically stratified groups can be the owners and the workers i.e, the rich and the poor. Then political stratification can be on the basis of the rulers and the ruled or those who are governors on the one hand and governed on the other. In feudal society, stratification was on the basis of property. On the one hand. were feudal lords whereas the others were the slaves who served them.

The stratification was on the basis of estates as well. Those who owned estate formed a separate class from those who did not own it. Caste also became a form of stratification. The people belonging to a higher caste considered themselves a separate class as compared with those who did not belong to that caste. Religion was also responsible for the bringing of social stratification. The orthodox formed a separate class against the unorthodox. Thus stratification is of different forms and kinds.

The necessity of Social Stratification :
Social stratification has its own advantages some such beings :
Stratification provides a sense of competition and thus all try to go up and find a higher place in society. It makes people responsible for the nature of the work that they are doing. It is also essential] for locating the status of a person in society.

Without stratification, it will be difficult to locate people with the degree of their wisdom, initiative and knowledge. It needed to give recognition to those who are able and capable so that the ability is not clubbed together with the inefficient. It helps in deciding the roles and functions of each category of person lowing in society.

Social Stratification in India:
In India, there is social, economic and political stratification. In the social field, India is both class and caste-ridden. The country’s caste system is known all over the world over various classes. Similarly, in India, there is economic stratification. Society is divided between the rich and the poor and the distinction as well as the gap between the two is very wide.

It is also increasing and day by day the rich are growing richer and the poor poorer. In the political field also there is wide stratification. Since independence practically only one family is ruling over India. A class of people is politically more conscious than the rest of the nation. Only those who can afford election expenses can contest the elections whereas the others are destined to be ruled.

Social Stratification and Social Differentiation:
Social stratification is however different from social differentiation. In social stratification, there is a hierarchy in which one class is above the other. On the other hand, in social differentiation, there is no hierarchy e.g. male and female. In stratification organised group division is needed whereas in differentiation there is no such division of society.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions

Question 2.
Briefly discuss some of the important characteristics of Social Stratification. Or, Explain the basic principle of Social Stratification. Can industrialisation replace the caste system with a class system in India?
There is no society without social stratification, only the degree varies. Some of the important characteristics of social stratification are:
It is not Uniform:
Social stratification is not uniform in all societies. It varies from one society to the other. In fact, it cannot be uniform because social problems and institutions are not the same all over. As long as social problems will continue to vary stratification will not be uniform.

It helps in the valuation, of social structure :
Each society has some social structure. Whether such a structure is good or bad can be evaluated by knowing the number of classes and sub-classes in the society, occupation prestige and income of each class, gap in the thinking mixing and income of each class etc.

It is influenced by Technology :
In every society rigidity or flexibility of the system is influenced by organisation and industrialisation. Social stratification in India considerably been influenced by both those factors which are gradually but steadily sweeping India.

It is influenced by Governmental policies:
It is usually believed that the government should not interfere in the social structure of a society and as such social stratification should not be influenced by governmental actions. But in actual practice, social stratification is deeply influenced by the government’s economic, political and social policies and programmes. The present policies of the government of India e.g. in respect of backwards classes, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are bound to influence social stratification in India.

The struggle is its inherent characteristic :
Social stratification means that society is divided into various classes and as the such struggle is its inherent characteristic. It implies that the people belonging to lower classes try to come up whereas those belonging to higher classes do not allow the lower classes to join the upper classes. Similarly, people belonging to low classes try to improve their economic social and political conditions.

Implies division of labour :
Social stratification also implies the division of labour each class is expected to perform a particular type of work and accomplish that to the entire stratification of the society. Thus the division of labour is another important characteristic of society. How far the people are in a position to leave their occupation i.e. what is the extent of occupational mobility indicates the rigidity of the system.

Replacement case by class :
Now a very important question which arises is whether the caste system can be replaced by the class system due to industrialisation. In Indian society, industrialisation has no doubt given a great setback to the caste system. In the factories, industrial areas and townships, it is impossible to maintain caste rigidity. The people of different castes mix freely with each other. Not only this; but they also eat drink and play together children of different castes play in the same parks and study in the same school.

Upper caste people work under the so-called low caste people and feel proud in inviting them to their marriage and other ceremonies. In fact, there is hardly an occasion when caste is a distinction that can be maintained. But in India caste system is very much deep-rooted. It is an age-old institution. The people particularly the orthodox and those living in the rural areas. Can hardly think of Indian society without a caste system. In fact, in some cases, the caste system is becoming more deep-rooted.

It is a well-known fact that in India at the time of elections caste plays a very big, if not decisive role. Therefore, it is really difficult to think that in India class is likely to replace caste in spite of the fact that the country is being industrialised. It is only wishful thinking that in the distant future when the country gets industrialised class system will replace the caste system. But so far there is no such hope.

Question 3.
What is the social process? Explain the associative in details?
Man lives in a society which is based on dynamic relationships. This relationship is constantly changing. Man tries to establish contacts and makes adjustments and co-operates with other members of society. All these things result in social interaction. Two forces always working in society and these forces bring about organization and disorganization of society.

All these factors are responsible for various types of processes, known as social processes or social interactions. According to Dawson and Getty, “Social interaction is a process whereby men inter-penetrate the mind of each other”.

Associative Processes :
The associative processes of social interaction are a positive type of interaction. They are also called as ‘integrative interactions’ and always work for the integration and benefit of society. This type of interaction brings progress and stability to society. These include cooperation, accommodation and assimilation. Therefore, cooperation, accommodation and assimilation are principally known as the associative processes of social interaction.

which are elaborately discussed below:
Co-operation is the first fundamental and associative posses of social interaction. The word co-operation has been derived from the two Latin words ‘Co’ means ‘together’ and operate meaning ‘to work’. Hence cooperation means working together for the achievement of a common goal to goals.

Definition of Co-operation:
According to Fairchild, “Co-operation is the process by which individuals or groups combine their efforts, in a more or less organised way, for the attainment of common objectives”. A. W. Green says “Co-operation is the continuous and common endeavour of two or more persons to perform a task of reach a goal that is commonly cherished”.

Characteristics of Co-operation:

  • Co-operation is one type of social interaction which takes place between two or more individuals.
  • Cooperation is a conscious process.
  • Cooperation is an associative process.
  • Co-operation is a personal process.
  • Cooperation is a continuous process.
  • Cooperation is a universal process.

Role and Importance of Co-operation :
Cooperation is indispensable for both society and individuals. It creates a direct relationship between individual and individual, group and group and individual. It contracts the behaviour of individuals, it maintains balance in society through the checking of the disassociative process. Co-operation is essential for the socialization process of individuals it fulfils all the fundamental needs of human beings it brings social, cultural, political and economic development in society.

Assimilation :
Assimilation is the third associative process of social interaction. It occurs at the end of the accommodation process. An assimilation is a form of social adjustment. The process by which individuals or groups to came to share the same sentiment and goals is known as assimilation.

Definition of Assimilation:
According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “Assimilation is the social process whereby individuals and groups come to share the same sentiments, feelings and goals”. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff say “Assimilation is the process whereby individuals or groups once dis-similar become, similar and identified in their interest and outlook”.

Characteristics of Assimilation:

  • Assimilation is an associative process of social interaction.
  • Assimilation is closely related to accommodation.
  • Assimilation is a universal process.
  • Assimilation is a slow and gradual process.
  • Assimilation is a conscious process.
  • Assimilation- is a cultural and physiological process.

Role and Importance of Assimilation:
Assimilation creates friendly and cordial relationships between individuals and groups. It maintains unity and integrity in society. It plays a very important role in the development of human personality. Assimilation brings fundamental changes in the ancient culture, customs and traditions. It helps individuals and groups to adjust to new situations.

Accommodation is another associative process of social interaction. Sometimes new conditions and circumstances arise in society. These conflicts are called accommodation, in other words, accommodation is a social adjustment. Definitions of Accommodation According to Maclver and Page “The term accommodation refers particularly to the process.

which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment”. Gillin and Gillin have defined accommodation as given below. “Accommodation is the process by which competing and conflicting individuals and groups adjust their relationship to each other in order to overcome the difficulties generally, arise in competition, contravention or conflict”.

Characteristics of Accommodation:

  • Accommodation is an associative process of social interaction.
  • It is a conscious activity.
  • Accommodation is a universal process.
  • Accommodation is a continuous process.
  • Accommodation is a mixture of love and hatred.

Role and Importance of Accommodation:
Accommodation maintains peace and security the society. Accommodation checks conflicts, competition and contradiction. Accommodation helps people to adjust to the new condition of society. Accommodation prepares the way for assimilation. Accommodation resolves conflicts. Accommodation brings unity and integrity to society.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions

Question 4.
Discuss the dissociative social processes with suitable examples. Or, Describe the dissociative processes of social interaction?
The dissociative processes of social interaction are a negative type of interaction. It is also known as a disintegrative interaction and always works for the disintegration of society. This type of interaction hinders the whole progress and development of society. Competition and conflict come under this category. Hence, competition and conflict are basically known as the two dissociative processes of social interaction.

Competition is the most fundamental form of social struggle.

Definition of Competition:
According to Sutherland, Woodward and Maxwell, “Competition is an impersonal, unconscious, continuous struggle between individuals or groups for satisfaction which because of their limited supply all may not have Maclver has defined it by saying that “Competition is the simultaneous offer of like or of alternative economic sources to the same potential purchaser”. Competition is a contest to obtain something which does not exist in a quantity sufficient to meet the demand.

Characteristics of Competition:
Competition is an impersonal activity. It is not directed against any individual or group in particular. Competition is an unconscious struggle. In competition, the competitors do not know each other. Competition continuous process. It never comes to an end. Competition most universal process. It is found in every place and at all times. Competition is a means so filling one desire and aspirations. Competition is different from rivalry.

Forms of Competition:
The competition takes four main forms – economic, cultural, social and racial and political competition

Economic Competition:
It is found in production exchange and distribution as well as consumption in the field of economic activities.

Cultural Competition :
Taking the history, of any country, it can be seen that there was a great difference in the cultures of the natives and the invaders.

Social Competition:
To get high status in society everybody seems to engage in competitive activity.

Racily Competition :
In South Africa, there is intense competition between the black and the white races.

Political Competition:
In all countries, competition is obvious between the various political parties and even between the different members of the same political party to obtain political power. In the international circle, there is always diplomatic competition between different nations.

Importance of Competitions:
Competition plays an important role in the life of people, society and groups. It increases efficiency. In all cases competition for status and rise in the ladder of social importance, there is amazing progress and development of individuals and social competition between individuals and groups aims largely towards the objective of preserving or improving their respective status rather than survival.

However advantageous the competition may be it should not be left uncontrolled because then its disadvantages will overcome advantages and the result will be harmful to society Bogards is correct in saying that competition logically develops into conflict.

Competition gradually changes into rivalry which in turn, changes into conflict. Definition of Conflict:
Kingsley Davis observes “It is thus a modified form of struggle. According to Gillin and Gillin, ‘ ‘Conflict is the social process which individuals or groups seek their ends. by directly challenging the antagonist by violence or threat or violence”.

Characteristics of Conflict:

  • Conflict is a conscious action, it is deliberate Intex to oppose.
  • Conflict is a personal activity.
  • Conflict lack continuity.
  • Conflict is universal.
  • Conflict is an emotional process.

Important of Conflict:

  • Conflict often brings about social unity and oneness among the people.
  • Conflict defines issues.
  • Conflict institutions social change.
  • Conflict destroys the lives and properties of individuals.
  • Conflict increases bitterness.
  • Conflict leads to destruction and bloodshed.
  • Conflict may lead to group tension.
  • Conflict disturbs the normal channels of cooperation accommodation and assimilation.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions

Question 5.
What is social interaction? Discuss Cooperation and conflict as two different forms of social interaction. Or, Show that cooperation and conflict go together?
Society is both necessary and natural for man. Man can not live in isolation. People always like to live in groups. As members of these groups, they act and behave in certain manners. The behaviour of an individual is affected by the behaviour of others. This mutual interaction or activity is the essence of social life.

Definition of social interaction:
“Social interaction consists of those mutual influences that individuals and groups have on one another in their attempts to solve problems and in their striving towards goals”. “Social interaction is a process by which men inter-penetrate the minds of each other”. Cooperation and conflict are universal elements in social life. They occur among animals as well as among human beings and they after come together.

As in the physical world where there are forces of attraction and repulsion simultaneously, operative and determinant of the position of bodies in space. So in the social world, there is a combination of cooperation and conflict revealed in the operations of men and groups. They resemble in this respect the equivalent of linked emotions of love and note. Psychologists have shown how these emotions may exist in the same individual.

A child may have his mother for the satisfaction and pleasures she provides, yet dislike her too because of the discipline, she imposes. In the same way cooperation and conflict often go together. According to Cooley, conflict and cooperation are not separable things but phases of one process which always involve something of both. Even in the most friendly relations and in the most intimate associations, there is some point where interests diverge or where attitudes are not in accord.

They can not cooperate beyond that point and conflict is inevitable. The closest cooperation”, for example, within the family does not prevent the occurrence of quarrels. Cooley writes “It seems that there. must always be an element of conflict in our relations with others as well as one of mutual aid, the whole plan of life calls for it; our very physiognomy reflects it and love and strife sit side by side upon the brow of man”. “Conflict of some sort is the life of society and progress emerges from a struggle.

In which each individual, class or institution seeks to realize its own ideal of good. The intensity of this struggle varies with the vigour of the people and its caseation if conceivable would be death”. Cooperation is a condition of conflict. Internal harmony and external conflicts are opposite sides of the same shield. It is difficult to eliminate conflict altogether from society.

Question 6.
Define social change and discuss its nature?
According to S. Koening, “Social change refers to the modifications which occur in the life patterns of the people”. According to Lundberg “Social change refers to any modifications in established patterns of inter-human relationship and standard of conduct”. According to M.D. Johnson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of people”.

Nature of Social Change:
Social change occurs in all societies. No society remains completely static. Society exists in a universe of dynamic influences. The population changes, technologies expand, material equipment changes ideologies and values change. The speed and extent of these changes may differ from society to society. Some change rapidly others change slowly. It is difficult to make any prediction about the exact forms of social change.

There is no inherent law of social change according to which it would assume definite forms. We may say that on account of the social reform movement untouchability will be abolished but we can not predict the exact form that social relationships will assume in future. A society’s pattern of living is a dynamic ‘ system of many related parts.

Therefore, change in one of these parts usually reacts on others and those on additional ones until they bring a change in the whole mode of life of many people. For example, industrialisation has destroyed the domestic system of production. The destruction of the domestic system of production brought women from their homes to the factory and offices.

The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of men. It brought a change in their attitude and ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of family life. It is thought that a factor like changes in technology economic development or climatic conditions causes social change. This is called monistic theory which seeks to interpret social change in terms of one single factor.

But the monistic theory does not provide an adequate explanation of the complex phenomena of social change. As a matter of fact, social change may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social changes may be broadly categorised as modifications or replacements. It may be a modification of physical goods or social relationships. For instance, the form of our breakfast food has changed.

Though we eat the same basic materials which we ate earlier wheat and eggs, com but their form is changed. Ready to eat come Places bread, the omelette is substituted for the form in which these same materials we consumed in yesteryear. There may also be modifications of social relationships. The old authoritarian family has become a small equalitarian family. The one-room school has become a centralised school.

Our ideas about women’s rights & joint family, religion, government and co-education stand modified today. Social change does not refer to the change in the life of an individual or the life patterns of several individuals. It is a change which occurs in the life of the entire community. Its influence can be felt in a community form.

Social change is social and not individual. While social change occurs in all societies its speed is not uniform in every society. In societies, it occurs so slowly that it is not often noticed by those who live in them. Social changes in urban areas are faster than in rural areas. The speed of social changes is not uniform in each age or period in the same society.

In modem times the speed of social change is faster today than before 1947. Change is the law of nature. Social change is also natural. It may occur either in the natural course or as a result of planned efforts. Our needs keep on changing. For changing needs social change becomes a necessity.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions

Question 7.
Examines the role of cultural factors in social change?
It is not an accepted fact that cultural factors do play a vital role in social change. This can very well be studied under the following heads.

The impact of social values, norms, faiths, etc. on the social structure and social change :
Social norms, values, beliefs etc. are parts of the culture. ‘They do not only determine an influence on the behaviour of the members of the society, but they also change them according to the new developments. These cultural factors give birth to technological factors and also determine their directions.

Social factors provide direction to the technological factors:
The cultural factors study the tone of thinking in the society whatsoever the material progress is made in the society is carried out in the direction in which the thinking of the people goes.

Cultural factors create new situations and new situations result in social change:
Because of cultural factors, new situations are created. In this respect, Max Weber’s interpretation of religion or his sociology of religion presents a categorical explanation of this point. According to him, Protestantism grew out of the primary stage of capitalism and its new values and norms created a new situation and also brought about new changes.

According to Max Weber, the social structure and cultural norms or values or religious norms are very much interlinked. These religious norms are very important. In fact, they form the basic form of cultural patterns. Through this principle and interpretation of region, Max Weber has very categorically proved that cultural factors which include religious factors also play a very wide role in social change.

Question 8.
What is social change? Examine the role of technology in social change?
By social change, we mean change in the social structure of the society or in order words social change means a significant change in social relationships & Social changes include those changes in society which are sufficiently durable and which influence a majority of people.

According to Jones, “Social change is a term used to describe variations, in or modification of any aspects of social process, social patterns, interrelations or social organisations”. In According to Maclver and Page, “Our directed concern as sociologists is with social relationships. It is the change in this relationship which alone we shall regard as social change”.

The role of Technology in social change :
Technological growth and industrialisation:
The introduction of machines in the industry has resulted in some fundamental changes in the social structure of society. The invention of machines has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work performed automatically. Industrialisation and the birth of gigantic factories led to urbanisation and this city came into existence. Again the processes of urbanisation and industrialisation transformed the structure of society.

The social organisation divided itself into classes such as capitalists and labourers between which a fierce conflict raged. To promote class interests lockouts strikes processions become the stocks in trade. Industrialisation destroyed the domestic system of production bringing women from the home to the factory and the office differentiating their tasks distinguishing their earnings. The burden of work in the family which falls on the women has been decreased, by the increasing use of mechanical appliances.

Development of new agricultural techniques and social change :
An important factor in technology is the development of new techniques in agriculture. Due to the development of new techniques in agriculture muscle power has been replaced by machine power. Agricultural production is increased due to the use of new chemical manures. The quality is also improved by the use of superior seeds. Hence the increase in agricultural production also improved the standard of living of the people.

Advancement of means of communication transport and social change:
The introduction of machinery in the industry led to the development of large-scale production which necessitated communication between traders situated far apart. In this connection, many benefits were reaped through postal service, telegraph, telephone etc. Newspaper, television, radio etc. helped to bring news from the comer of the world right into the household. The development of the cycle, motor, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of communities much easier.

Technology and new values:
The new values have come up as growth of technological development as such. A new philosophy of life came into being. Technological factors change men’s values thoughts habits and finally bring change in culture as a whole success is measured in monetary terms. Quantity is preferred to quality. The desire for immediate results is intense men have come more pragmatic in their out locks. In this way, technological factor brings many changes in society.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions

Question 9.
Describe the major factors of social change with examples. Or, What is social change and discuss its factors?
Social change is the change in society. Society is a web of social relationships. Hence social change is a change in social relationships. Maclver and Page, writing in this context, have observed correctly, “It is the change in these which alone we shall regard as social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships include social processes, social patterns and social interactions.

These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of society. In the words of Johnes, “social change is a term used to describe variations or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interactions, or social organisations”. Thus social change is a change in the social organisation. It is in this sense that Davis has written that “By social change is mean only such alterations as secure in social organisations.

the structure and functions of society”. Social change can be observed in every society. The fact of social change can be verified by glancing at the history of society. Man is a dynamic being. Hence society can not remain static. It undergoes constant social change. Sometimes, the change is slow and at the other time, it may be very rapid.

Factors of Social Change:
Some thinkers regard diffusion to be the main factor of social change while some other writers consider invention in a similar capacity. Actually, both diffusion and invention have a hand in the change which sets social relationships. Roughly, the main causes of social change are the following:

Cultural Factors:
The main cause of social change, in the opinion of Max Weber, is the cultural factor. According to him, changes in culture are accompanied by social changes. Max Weber has proved his theory through a comparative study of religious and economic institutions. Actually, no one can deny that changes and variations in culture inevitably influence social relationships.

Technological Factors :
Technological factors have a tremendous influence on social change. Technology changes society by changing over environments which we in turn adopt. This change is usually in a material environment and the adjustment we make to the changes often modifies customs and social institutions. Society is undergoing change as a result of the development and invention of electric, steam and petrol-driven machines for production.

the means of transport and communication and various mechanical appliances in everyday life. Even institutions like family and marriage have not remained immune to the effect of these developments. The apparent effects of technological advances are labour organisations and the division of labour. Socialization, high speed of life, increase in production, etc. In the modem age, technological factors are among the predominant causes of social change.

Biological Factors:
Biological factors have some indirect influence on social change. Among the biological factors are Population, and heredity. The qualitative aspect of the population is based upon powerful and great men and their birth is dependent to a large extent upon heredity and mutation. Hence, biological factors play a part in social change to that extent. In addition to this, the biological principles of natural selection and the struggle for survival are constantly producing alternation in society.

Population Factors :
Change in the quality and size of the population has an effect on social organisations as well as customs and traditions, institutions, associations etc. Increase and decrease in population, a change in the ratio of men and women, young and old, have an effective relationship. A decrease or increase in the population has an immediate effect on economic institutions and associations. The ratio of men to women in a society affects marriage, family and the condition of women in society. In the same way, the birth and death rates etc. also influence social change.

Environmental Factors :
Geographers have emphasized the impact of the geographical environment on human society. Huntington has given so far as to assert that an alternation in the climate is the sole cause of the evolution and devolution of civilizations and cultures. Even if these claims of the geographers are to be discarded, it cannot be denied that floods, earthquakes, excessive rain, drought, change of season etc. have significant effects on social relationships and these are modified by such natural occurrences.

Psychological Factors :
Most sociologists regard psychological factors as important elements in social change. The cause of social changes is the psychology of man himself. Man is, by nature, a lover of change. He is always trying to discover new things in every sphere of his life and is always anxious for noble experiences. As a result of this tendency, the modes, traditions, customs, etc. of every human society are perpetually undergoing changes.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Long Answer Questions

Question 10.
Discuss the Demographic factors of social change?
Population and its impact on social change:
Population plays vital in social change if the population of a country is far ahead of the available resources, the country suppers economic difficulties and poverty. The division of labour which is an important factor of social change is also governed by the population. Normally a society which has less population has more uniformity and increases in population bring about diversity.

In fact, population-like geographical factors play a vital part in social change. Thinkers and economists like Malthus, Sanders etc. have propounded their theories which law down that population plays a vital role in social change. Malthusian theory of population and its impact on social change Malthus has propounded a theory of population which mainly deals with the increase of population, ways to check it, and methods for feeding it.

But along with this theory, this theory also puts forward the effects that population has on social change, Malthus has said that as a result of an increase in population which grows in a natural manner, within 25 years the population which if of a country, due to rise. geometrical proportion shall become double it. On the other hand, the resources and means of livelihood do not rise in geometrical proportion, they rise in mathematical proportion so the rise in population leaves the growth of resources far behind.

This disbalance creates a lot of problems for society. Unless there is a balance between the resources and the population, the society shall have to face a lot of problems. That is why Malthus has pleaded for use of checks for the rise in population. He has said that the population is not checks nature by it Creates certain situation that reduces the population. Due to dis-balance the resources and the population, several problems like hunger, poverty and unemployment etc.

grow they bring about several changes. Malthusian theory suffers from various weaknesses. It fails to recognize the contribution of scientific and technological factors to the growth in resources. Apart from it, the problems of want, hunger unemployment etc. are not the natural colliery to rise in population in many countries where there is proper balancing between the population and the resources but the country suffers from these problems.

Apart from it, this theory fails to recognize the importance of economic factors in checking the population. As a result of the rise in the standard of living, people reduce the number of issues and so the growth of the population is automatically checked. In spite of the weakness of the Malthusian theory, income rates above, the fact can not be denied that population has an impact on social change. Solder and his theory of rise in population and its impact on social change.

This is the theory which is quite different from Malthusian theory. According to this theory, with every new generation, the power of fecundates of the population goes down. By this theory, he tries to prove that with the rise in the social standard, the power of people to produce children and to increase in population goes down. In this manner they try to drive that there is a close relationship between social change and the rise and fall of the density of the population.

Malthus says that with every generation the power of producing children goes down. This theory is not accepted by the modem thinkers but the basic underline idea of the theory that the population is linked with social change is established. Demographic or population factors of social change Having studied these two theories which are even today looked on with respect in regard to a study of population, we can now safely rate the factors that bring about social change.

These factors are as follows.
Effect of excess population on society and the developments in society :
As a result of an excess population, several changes and development take place in society. It creates problems of food, employment education, provision for good need necessities development the responsibility lies on the excess population. Because of this excess population, the benefits of development and the new resources are not fairly utilised and used.

Effect of birth rate and death rate on Social change and social developments :
If due to the rise of the birth rate, the population of a country goes up, society is faced with several problems, similarly if due to a rise in the death rate the number of working hands goes down in a society when society is not able to make ful use of its resources. People are able to take full advantage of the resources of scientific and technological development only when there is balanced birth and death rate.

Composition of population and social change:
By composition of the population, it is meant the composition of various groups, sex etc. in a society if in a society the number of old people is more than the young, the society shall not be able to make progress, On the other hand, in a society, there are very few old persons, that society shall not be able to take full advantage of the women and children, the problems of feeding them brings about various social complications developments and the changes. In other words, it means the composition of the population has an impact on social change.

Population, immigration and emigration:
if the population of a country goes up. At rapid speed and people are faced with various economic problems they migrate form one country to another this creates problems for the society from which migrate and in countries like Australia people of other countries are welcomed while in countries like India it is not possible to welcome addition to the population.

People of countries like Australia want manpower to utilise their resources while countries like India want their populations so balanced that there is close coordination between the population and the resources. All these points go to prove that population and social changes are very much interrelated rise or decline in population has an impact on society and brings about several developments and changes.

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