CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Solutions Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 11th Class Sociology Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions

Long Type questions and answers

Question 1.
Discuss different Criticism on Srinivas?
It must be admitted that Srinivas has made a serious attempt to analyse social change not only in villages but in the wider society at large. Concepts are not theories they are only formats of a theory.

There is a possibility of a format to suffer from several weaknesses. Response of Srinivas’ concept of Sanskritisation has been much encouraging, not with standing its drawbacks.

For instance, in 1965, the University of Chicago organised a seminar on ‘Social Change in India’. The seminar was important in the sense that it was attended by Srinivas himself and a number of social anthropologists, such as Bernard S. Cohen, David G. Mandelbaum, McKim Marriott, Owen M. Lynch, Milton Singer and a few others.

All these had rich experience of working in Indian villages. Sanskritisation was discussed thoroughly in this conference. Besides, some of the Indian sociologists also conducted intensive field studies to verify the concept. The critique which we give below is drawn from all these comments:

Religion is suigeneris for Srinivas:
Whether we consider dominant caste, Sanskritisation on westernisation, in all these concepts the major thrust of Srinivas is caste. Caste is related to religion and, therefore, when Srinivas talks about caste he means religion.

His fundamental assumption is that caste has originated from religion. It is the Brahma who created four varnas out of the different parts of his body.

Religion and caste, therefore, for Srinivas, are the two sides of the same coin. Viewed from this perspective, the concept of Sanskritisation is the concept of religion.

And when he focuses on caste, he is concerned with hierarchy. K.L. Sharma (1986) rightly observes: Srinivas’s study of the role of religion among the Coorgs is clearly an extension of Radcliffe Brown’s functionalism. Religion is sui generis for Srinivas.

Caste and religion are intertwined. Hence religion becomes the basis of caste hierarchy (emphasis ours). The weakness of the concept of Sanskritisation is that it is only concerned with the culture.

It would not be wrong to say that Srinivas is concerned only with the cultural and normative criteria which bring change in rural society. The economic and political parameters of change have largely been overlooked by him.

Hierarchy is supreme:
The concept of sanskritisation is based on hierarchy. The idea in the process of sanskritisation is that the lower castes might rise to higher caste by imitating the sanskritic rights of the twice-born.

Such a social change is hierarchical. When today, in contemporary India, democratisation has become a new value, hierarchical transformation is increasingly becoming weak.

Parvathamma brings out this weakness of sanskritisation when she observes: In all the writings of Srinivas, the Brahmin non-Brahmin values are juxtapose, hierarchy remains basic to Srinivas.

Social tensions and contradictions by-passed:
For Srinivas, the idea of Indian society is that of caste society. lie altogether forgets that Indian society is a plural society; it does not discriminate individuals on the basis of caste.

By giving the concept of sanskritisation he very rigidly adheres to caste model of Indian society. K.L. Sharma comments harshly on this weakness of Srinivas.

A scholar of the eminence Srinivas does not take cognizance, perhaps inadvertently, of the continuity of ‘social formation’ of Indian society, and prefers to adhere to caste model of Indian society. He refers to ‘rural caste’ and ‘urban caste’, like some American scholars, such as Rosen and Marriott.

Caste and class, theoretically speaking, are principles of social status determination, hence not concerned with ‘rural’ or ‘urban’ people as such. ‘Rural’ and ‘urban’ are patterns of living and not principles of ranking (emphasis ours).

Sanskritisation may lead to interclass hostility:
Yogendra Singh has yet another weakness in the concept of Sanskritisation given by Srinivas. His guess is that sometimes Sanskritisation may manifest suppressed inter-class hostility. In support of his guess Yogendra Singh refers to the observation made by Harold Gould.

One of the prime motives behind Sanskritisation is this factor of repressed hostility which manifests itself not in the form of rejecting the caste system but in the form its victims trying to seize control of it and, thereby, expiate their frustrations on the same battlefield where they acquired them.

Only then can there be a sense of satisfaction in something achieved, i.e., tangible, concrete, and relevant to past experience. Not only Yogendra Singh but Srinivas himself has admitted that Sanskritisation subsumes many meanings. Some of the meanings are mutually antagonistic.

Sanskritisation is a limited concept:
Surely, one of the weaknesses of Sanskritisation is its limited usefulness. It refers only to social change in the caste hierarchy: Caste hierarchy is basically ritual-cultural hierarchy. But beyond caste, i.e., in secular hierarchy Sanskritisation ceases of exist. In any case the concept is not comprehensive enough in explaining social change.

It is a process confined too little tradition only: Admittedly,” Sanskritisation is a process of social change. Theoretically, “Sanskritisation may represent changes in cultural structure, of the little as well as the great tradition: But most empirical observations of this process are confined to the little tradition”.

In other words, changes in the great tradition, i.e., in epics like Puranas can be made by a comprehensive cultural renaissance that can be effected at the local level.

And, therefore, Sanskritisation though wider in scope remains restricted to a few castes found in a specific region. For instance, if there is a movement of Sanskritisation among the potters, it does not necessarily mean that the movement would spread among the potters at national level. Obviously, a caste varies from place to place, region to region.

Sanskritisation sometimes is a protest against the normative structure:
There are empirical observations in some parts of rural India that the lower castes have rebelled against the Sanskritic values of the higher castes. Such protests have resulted out of the democratic values given by education, party ideology and idiom of equality.

Emphasising this point Yogendra Singh observes:
Looked at from an ideal-typical value frame, Sanskritisation is a form of protest against the normative structure and principles laid down by the great tradition.

It, amongst to a rejection of the Hindu theory of karma which integrates the various levels of role institutionalisation supposed to be ascribed by birth, is thus a process of usurpation of a position higher in hierarchy as defined by the great tradition, by rejection of fundamental principle of hierarchy (great tradition).

The protest against sanskritisation thus gets manifested in the denial of the karmakanda practised by Brahmins. The ritual status of Brahmin in this process gets eroded.

Similarly, the former ruling class of Rajputs is also looked down by the rebels. And, therefore, it would be erroneous to understand that on all occasion’s sanskritisation is looked with favour.

Weakening dominant caste also lowers Sanskritisation:
The concept of dominant caste is a supplement to the concept of Sanskritisation. In modern India, the construct of dominant caste is fast becoming irrelevant. No more are Brahmins a dominant caste in many of the villages.

Dominance carries power, professional status and party association. Quite like the construct of dominant caste sanskritisation also suffers certain weaknesses. The developed villages now hardly consider dominant caste as their reference models for sanskritisation.

Power acquisition and political participation are more important than cultural status:
Milton Singer has brought out new empirical evidence (1968) to suggest that the contemporary upward mobile group has rejected sanskritisation for political participation. Singer, in this regard, refers to the studies of Owen Mr Lynch and William Rowe. Lynch conducted a study among the Jatav of Agra.

What is the view of Luynch While rejecting Srinivas? The concept of sanskritisation describes the social changes occurring in modem India in tenns of sanskritisation and westernisation.

The description is primarily in cultural and not in structural terms. Lynch argues that in place of sanskritisation the process of‘elite emulation’ applies well so far the Jatavas, i.e., Chamars are concerned.

He says that the Jatavas have given up claims to a ‘dominant’ status of Kshatriya and sanskritic cultural behaviour, and have become antagonist of castes and caste system; in effect, they have reversed their old position against the Adi-IIindu movement. The reasons for rejection of sanskritisation, i.e., caste culturology, as given by Lynch, are:

The change is due to the fact that sanskritisation is no longer as functional as is political participation for achieving a change in style of life and a rise in the Indian social system, now composed of both caste and class elements. The object of sanskritisation was ultimately to open and legitimise a place in the opportunity and power structures of the caste society.

The same object can now be better achieved by active political participation. It is no longer ascription based on caste status, but rather achievement based on citizenship status that, manifestly at least, is the recruitment principle for entrance into the power and opportunity structures. For Lynch, Rowe, Singer and others sanskritisation is basically a concept of social mobility.

Quite like these American scholars Y.B. Damle has also applied Merton’s reference group reference group theory to analyse social change in rural India. It is argued that sanskritisation is very limited in its scope, whereas reference group theory is quite comprehensive. Concluding bur description on sanskritisation it could be said that the nature of sanskritisation is definitely empirical.

It focuses on localised culture. It is concerned with the culture of the twist-born. Its weaknesses are several. The difficulty with the concept is that rural India is changing fast and the concept has not received any corresponding change. It is well known in theory that concepts commit their own suicide when they do not interact with the reality.

This is exactly what has happened with the concept of Sanskritisation. Some of the youngsters even belonging to the dalit castes raise their heads and say: Who cares for the twice-born? We have our own dignity. We have our legitimate rights. Who can deny it?

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions

Question 2.
What are the features of sanskritization?
In the traditional society, the occupations practiced by castes, their diet, and the customs they observe determine their status in the hierarchy. Thus, practicing an occupation such as tanning, butchery puts a caste in a low position. Eating beef, fish and mutton is considered defiling. Offering animal sacrifices to deities is viewed as a low practice than offering fruit and flowers.

As such, castes following these customs, diet habits, etc. adopt the life of the Brahmins to achieve a higher status in the caste hierarchy. This is moving of a low caste upwards in the social structure.

Srinivas termed this process as “Sanskritisation”. M.N. Srinivas first introduced the notion of Sanskritisation to explain the process of cultural mobility in India, in his book ‘Religion and Society among the Coorgs’.

In his study of the Coorgs, he found that the lower castes adopted some customs of the Brahmins and gave up some of their own, which were considered to be impure by the higher castes in order to raise their position in the caste hierarchy. For example, they gave up meat-eating, consumption of liquor and animal sacrifice to their deities.

They imitated the Brahmins in matter of food, dress and rituals. To denote this process of mobility Srinivas first used the term ‘Brahmanisation’.

Subsequently he replaced it by Sanskritisation. Srinivas preferred the term ‘Sanskritisation’ to ‘Brahmanisation’. Sanskritisation is a broader term, while Brahmanisation is a narrower term.

In fact, Brahmanisation is subsumed in the wider process of Sanskritisation. For instance, the Brahmins of the Vedic period consumed alcohol (soma), ate beef, and offered animal sacrifices. But these practices were given up by them in the poscyedic times, perhaps under the influence of Jainism and Buddhism.

Today, by and large, Brahmins are vegetarians and teetotalers; only the Kashmiri, Bengali and Saraswati Brahmins eat non-vegetarian food. Had the term ‘Brahmanisation’ been used, it would have been necessary to specify which particular Brahmin group was meant. In fact Srinivas has been “broadening his definition of Sanskritisation from time to time”.

Initially he described it as “the process of mobility of lower castes by adopting vegetarianism and teetotalism to move in the caste hierarchy in a generation or two”; Latter on, he redefined it as “a process by which a low caste or a tribe or other group changes its customs, rituals, ideology and way of life in the direction of a high twice-born caste”.

The second connotation of Sanskritisation is thus much broader because first Srinivas talked of imitation of mere food habits, rituals, religious practices but later on he talked of imitation of ideologies too (which include ideas of Karma, Dharma, Papa, a Punya, Moksha, etc). By means of these changes in customs and rituals the low caste or tribal people claim a higher position in the caste hierarchy (Srinivas 1952).

Srinivas has admitted that he emphasised unduly on the Brahminical model of Sanskritisation and ignored other models – Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra in his book on Coorgs. According to him, the lower castes also imitated the cultural ways of other higher castes such as Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, and the Sudras in various regions of the country.

Further, he says, dominant castes set the model for the majority of people living in rural areas including, occasionally, Brahmins. If the local dominant caste is Brahmin it will tend to transmit a Brahminical model, whereas if it is Kshatriya or Vaishya it will transmit Kshatriya or Vaishya model. Srinivas also says that small number of Brahmins or other high castes (Kshatriyas, Vaishyas) may gradually assimilate from the culture of locally dominant caste.

It is important to mention that the dominance of a caste is characterised by secular values. Thus, it appears that Brahmin and other higher castes imitate the cultural values of locally dominant castes which are secular in nature. On the other hand lower castes follow cultural ways of both ritually higher castes and dominant castes which include both sacred and secular values.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions

Question 3.
What are the Features of Sanskritisation?
The process of Sanskritisation is characterised by imitation, change of ideals, social mobility, social change etc. The concept ‘Sanskritisation’ has been integrated with economic and political domination, that is, the role of local dominant caste in the process of cultural transmission has been stressed.

Besides the castes, the process of Sanskritisation has been indicated in tribal communities like Bhils of Rajasthan, Gonds of Madhya Pradesh and other hilly tribes. By the process of Sanskritisation a tribal community tries to prove itself to be a part of Hindu society.

Sanskritisation occurred sooner or latter in those castes which enjoyed political and economic power but have not rated high in ritual ranking (that is, there was a gap between their ritual and politico-economic positions).

Economic betterment is not a necessary pre-condition to Sanskritisation, nor must economic development necessarily lead to Sanskritisation. However, sometimes a group may start by acquiring political power and this may lead to economic betterment and Sanskritisation.

Srinivas has given the example of untouchables of Rampura village in Mysore who have got increasingly sanskritised though their economic condition has remained almost unchanged.

The British rule provided impetus to the process of Sanskritisation but political independence has weakened the trend towards this change. The emphasis is now on the vertical mobility and not on the horizontal mobility. Describing social change in India in terms of Sanskritisation is to describe it primarily in cultural and not in structural terms.

Srinivas himself has conceded that Sanskritisation involves ‘positional change’ in the caste system without any structural change. Factors that have made Sanskritisation possible are industrialisation, occupational mobility, developed communication, spread of literacy, and western technology.

No wonder, the spread of Sanskrit theological ideas immersed under the British rule. The development of communications carried Sanskritisation to areas previously inaccessible and the spread of literacy carried it to groups very low in the caste hierarchy. M.N. Srinivas has specifically referred to one factor which has helped the spread of Sanskritisation among the low castes.

It is the separation of ritual acts from the accompanying mantras which facilitated the spread of Brahmanical rituals among all Hindu castes, including the untouchables. Furthermore, the political institution of parliamentary democracy has also contributed to the increased Sanskritisation, according to Srinivas.
The process of Sanskritisation indicates

  • a process of change
  • upward mobility or aspirations of lower castes to move upward in hierarchy and
  • attack on hierarchy and leveling of culture.

As regards attack on hierarchy, it is not only the lower castes but even the tribes and castes in the middle regions of the hierarchy which try to take over the customs and way of life of the higher castes. As regards the upward mobility, Yogendra Singh calls it ‘contextual specific’ connotation of Sanskritisation.

This is because it explains the process of cultural imitation by lower castes of upper castes, which could be Rajputs, Jats, Brahmins, Baniyas etc. In some places, tribes are reported to imitate the customs of the caste Hindus. As regards merely ‘the process of change’, Yogendra Singh calls it the ‘historical specific’ connotation of Sanskritisation.

In this sense, it refers to the process in the Indian history which led to changes in the status of various castes or its cultural patterns in different periods of history.

It is also indicative of an endogenous source of social change. So far as the religious aspect is concerned, the Hinduisation of tribals is an example of religious Sanskritisation.

In the social field, the low caste individuals are elevating their social status within the caste hierarchy. Coming to the role of Sanskritisation in economic field we observe that the members of SC & ST are entering into higher posts and are obtaining reservation in services. Last but not the least, the life styles of the lower castes have considerably improved.

The usefulness of the concept of Sanskritisation as a tool in the analysis of Indian society has been described by Srinivas himself as ‘greatly limited because of the complexity of the concept as well as its looseness”.

Certain deficiencies in the concept may be noted. Since the reference group is not always a caste but in many cases it is the local ‘dominant caste (which could be a Rajput, Bania, Jat etc).

The context of Sanskritisation varies not only in each model but also within the same model from region to region. Power and dominance have been integrated by Srinivas with the process of Sanskritisation. This introduces the structural element in the Sanskritisation model of social change. Srinivas has not made this explicit.

Srinivas’s model explains the process of social change only in India which is based on the caste system. It is not useful for other societies. Yogendra Singh maintains that Sanskritisation fails forecourt for many aspects of cultural changes in the past and contemporary India as it neglects the non-Sanskritic, traditions, which often are a localized form of the Sanskrit’ tradition.

McKim Marnot also found such phenomenon in his study of a village community in India. Sanskritisation is not a universal process. Srinivas accepts that in Hinduism the lower castes are taking to the norms and values of the higher castes. This fact may be true with reference to a particular community or region but it is not universal.

D.N. Majumdar has shown in his study of Mahana village, in U.P., that there is no tendency among the lower castes to adopt the customs and manners of higher Caste nor does it help in elevating the status of any caste. Majumdar has also shown that in the social stratification the movement among the castes is not vertical but horizontal.

As Majumdar says, there are more signs of the reverse process namely de- Sanskritisation in evidence all over the country. In de-Sanskritisation the members of higher caste abandon their dress and rituals, for example Kashmir. Pandits. According to him, the shrinkage of distance between castes is not due to Sanskritisation but its-reverse.

Sanskritisation has been a major process of cultural change in Indian history and it has occurred in every part of the Indian sub-continent (Srinivas). It can be said that the process of Sanskritisation has occurred in specific historical context and led to changes in the status of different castes. As says Prof. Y. Singh, this is the historical specific connotation.

In contextual specific sense, however, Sanskritisation denotes contemporaneous process of cultural imitation of upper castes by lower castes or sub-castes in different parts of India. The nature of this type of Sanskritisation is by no means uniform as the context on cultural norms or customs being imitated may vary from Sanskrit or Hindu traditional forms to tribal and even the Islamic patterns.

He notes how the tribal groups such as the Bhils Gonds and Oraons claim to be a caste through, the process of Sanskritisation and claim a place in the caste hierarchy. Consequently, he has been changing his definition from time to time.

The definition of Sanskritisation does not mean change in customs, ritual, ideology and way of life of a Tow’ Hindu caste or tribal in the direction of a high, frequently twice born caste.

Rather it means cross imitation of customs and way of life among different social groups. In other words, Sanskritisation is only an illustration of the operation of the ‘reference group’ process. A reference group is a group which is used as a standard to evaluate one’s attitudes, customs, rituals etc.

The influence of the reference group on the behaviour of a person or group depends on the prestige of that group in the given society. So long as the caste has prestige in the social groups it serves as a model. In the same way a ruling caste or group will also serve as a model when it commands prestige in the society.

As Srinivas himself has observed, “The best way of staking a claim to a higher position is to adopt the customs and way of life of a higher caste. Though over a long period of time, Brahminical rites and customs spread among the lower castes, in short run the locally dominant caste was imitated by the rest” even if it was not Brahmin.

Merton (1957) has written about the influence of reference group with respect to the norms and standards and by providing a frame for comparison. Non-members try to adopt the norms of the reference group and also develop the characteristic attitude of that group.
They also aspire to be the members of those groups. Theoretically, Sanskritisation is an ideological borrowing process.

It as a process only refers to changes in cultural attributes of a caste and not a structural change. It might be used as the means available to lower castes for status mobility in a closed system of stratification. But this status mobility during post-colonial phase may be better explained in terms of modernisation as it already gathered momentum having the status mobility.

Sanskritisation, to quote Y. Singh, is psychologically or even structurally, & a kin to modernisation in so far as the motive forces to challenge the deprivations by Great Traditions are stronger.

As Srinivas himself points out, the Varna hierarchy is clear and immutable. It is evident that Sanskritisation reinforces and consolidates the immutable Varna hierarchy rather than dislodges it or modifies it.

Thus, Sanskritisation is not a process by which structural changes in Hindu Society can become possible. Sanskritisation as a concept is irrelevant to explain cultural and, status mobility in independent India. There is greater homogeneity in the cultural values of the members of all castes exposed to the process of modernisation.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions

Question 4.
What is research, purpose of research, scientific research, research and theory? What is research?
The unique characteristic of human mind is the curiosity to know about the universe. Innumerable questions arise in our mind about our environment, planet and the universe.

Most of these questions starting with what, why, how and soon. For example, what are stars? why day and night alternate? How is rain formed and why the mode of life and activities of human beings vary from place to place?

Whenever such questions arise we seek answer to them or we try to find out solutions to them. Seeking answers to questions and finding solutions to the problems have been the basis of human progress. A systematic search for an answer to a question or a solution to a problem is called research.

Actually research is simply the process of arriving as dependable solution to a problem through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of a data. Research is the most important process for advancing knowledge for promoting progress and to enable man to relate more effectively to his environment to accomplish his purpose and to solve his conflicts.

Although it is not the only way, it is one of the most effective ways of solving problems. The term research consist of two words,’ Re’+’Search’. “Re” means again and again and “Search” means to find out something. The following is the process; Observes collection of data Person phenomena conclusions Again and again Analysis of data.

Therefore, the research is a process of which a person observes the phenomena again and again and collects the data and on the basis of data he draws some conclusions.

Research seeks to find out explanations to unexplained phenomena to clarify the doubtful propositions and to correct the misconceived facts. It simply means a search for facts, answer to questions and solutions to problems. The search for facts may be made through either

  1. arbitrary (unscientific) method or
  2. scientific method.

Characteristic of Research The above definitions reveal the following characteristics of research.

  • Research is a systematic and critical investigation to a phenomenon.
  • It aims at interpreting and explaining a phenomenon.
  • It adopts scientific method.
  • It is based on empirical evidences and observable experience.
  • It develops generalizations, principles or theories.
  • It directed towards finding answer to the questions and solutions to the problems.

Question 5.
What is the Purpose of Research?
The purposes or objectives of research are varied. They are Research extends knowledge of human beings social life, environment. Research reveals the mysteries of nature. Research establishes generalizations and general laws and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge. Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory.

Research helps us to improve our knowledge and ability to handle situations. General laws developed through research may enable us to make reliable predictions of events. Research aims to analyze inter-relationship between variables and to derive causal explanations, which help us to better understanding of the world in which we live.

Research aims to finding solutions to the problem, e.g: socio-economic problems, health problems, organizational and human relational problems and so on.

Research also aims at developing new tools, concepts and theories for better understanding to unknown phenomena. Research helps national planning board to focus our national development. It enables the planners to evaluate alternative strategies, ongoing programs and evaluation, etc., Research provides functional data for rational decision making and formulation of strategies and policies.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions

Question 6.
Discuss different types and methods of social research?
Types of Research:
The purpose of research is to discover answer to questions through application of scientific procedures. Research always starts from a question like why, what, how etc,. The nature of questions varies the type research procedure and methods and procedure also varies. Research may be classified crudely, according to its major intent or the method.

According to the intent, research may be classified as pure research (basic research), applied research, exploratory research, descriptive study, action research etc,. According to the method of study, research may be classified as experimental research, analytical study, historical research and survey.

The above classification is not a watertight demarcation. It is just a narration to understand the different approaches to research The different types of research are not sharply distinguishable from one another. There may be overlapping between one type and other.

Pure (Basic) Research and Applied Research:
The reason for asking research questions are of two general kinds; intellectual and practical. Intellectual questions are based on the desire to know or understand for the satisfaction of knowing or understanding. Practical questions based on the desire to do something better or more efficiently. The investigation to which these two types questions lead, sometimes labeled “pure” or basic and applied research.

Pure Research:
Pure research is focused to collect knowledge without any intention to apply it. It is purely intellectual in character. It is also known as basic or fundamental research.

Intellectual curiosity is the only motivational factor behind it. It is not necessarily problem oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory.

The development of various sciences owes much too pure research. The findings of pure research enrich the store house of knowledge. Pure research lays the foundation for applied research.

The findings of pure research formed the basis for innumerable scientific and technological inventions like steam engine, auto mobiles and telecommunication etc, which have revloutionalized and enriched our human life.

Basic research had many definitions, most of them unsatisfying in one way or another. It can even authoritatively been said that an adequate or operational definition of basic research is not possible (Kidd-1959). In many cases basic research is done to test theory to test relations among phenomena in order to understand the phenomena, with little or to thought of application of the results to practical problems (Kerlinger – 1972).

The best example is that to Michael Faraday. He said research in electricity, with out knowing that, it would be useful. He did continuous search to find out the truth or knowledge. Knowledge for knowledge sake only.

Contributions of Pure Research:
Pure research of solutions to many practical problems by developing principles. Pure research helps to find out the critical factors in practical problems. Pure research provides many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose best solutions.

Applied Research:
Applied research is focused up on a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It tries to find out practical and immediate result. It is thus problem oriented and action directed.

According to Kerlinger (1979) applied research is research directed towards the solution of specified practical problems. Julian Simon has pointed out that applied social sciences help in making policy decision.

Applied research methods are sometimes more sophisticated than any methods used in pure research (offers: 1950). There is vast scope for applied research in the fields of technology, management, commerce, economics and other social sciences. Innumerable problems are face in these areas.

They need empirical study for finding solutions. The immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to practical problems. It may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovering of new facts or testing of a theory or to conceptual clarity.

Contributions of Applied Research:
Applied Research can contribute new facts. It uncovers new facts which enrich the concerned body of knowledge. Applied research can put theory to the test.

It offers an opportunity to test the validity of existing theory. Applied research may aid in conceptual clarification. Many concepts are vague. E.g. small farmer, social responsibility, social structure etc.

Applied research aid conceptual clarity. Applied research may integrate previously existing theories. A practical problem has many facts. It cannot be solved by the application of abstract principles from a single science. The solution of a practical problem may require some integration of the theories and principles of various disciplines.

Relation between Pure and Applied Research:
The distinction between pure and applied research is not absolute. Both are not contradictory but are complementary. Pure research may have significant potential for its application to the solution of a practical problem and applied research may end up with making a scientific contribution to the development of the theoretical knowledge.

The terms ‘pure’ and ‘applied just represent the polar of a continuum. Morry said “research studies have differing degree of purity and ‘applicability’, depending on whether their purpose is solely to advance knowledge in a field or to solve some financial problem.

Action Research:
Conventional social scientific research is concerned to analyse and explain phenomena. The role of research is detached, in order to minimize disturbance of the phenomena under investigation. In action research, research is jointed with action. Researcher became participants in planned policy initiatives. It is an action programme launched foe solving a problem or for improving an existing situation.

Government institutions and voluntary agencies undertake action programmes for achieving specific goals or objectives. Social welfare programmes human resource development programmes, research for improving the qualities of life in factories an offices etc, are some examples of action research programme.

Types of Action Research:
R covar categorize action research into five types.
Classical design:
Research and action are separated and independent. The connection between research and action is not purposely sought. It may occur by chance.

Interdependence of action and research:
Action is carried out by an agency not connected with a research institution. Research on action may be entrusted to an independent research body; For example government may launch a development programme and a university social scientist may be welcomed to study the on-going programme.

Evaluate research built into an action programme:
In this case, research is dependent upon action, and the action people define the scope of the research.

Action for research:
In this type research is joined with action. Researcher became participants in planned policy initiatives.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions

Question 7.
What is Observation method?
Observation Method
Observation is one of the cheaper and more effective techniques of data collection. Observation, in simple terms, is defined as watching the things with some purpose in view.

However, in research activity the term has a wider meaning than simple watching. Observation, is a systematic and deliberate study through eye of spontaneous occurrence at the time, they occur.

Observation may serve a variety of research purposes, it may be used to explore the given area of subject matter or to gain insight into the research problem and provide a basis for development of hypotheses.

Observation may also be used as the primary technique of data collection in descriptive studies and also in the experimental studies designed for testing casual hypotheses.

Observation many times is a perception. Observation has mainly three components-Sensation, attention and perception. The accuracy of observation depends on knowledge and experience. Generally, the intellectual, physical and moral conditions are very important in observation.

General characteristics of observation method

  • It is a physical and mental activity.
  • It is selective and purposeful.
  • It is ai scientific tool of research.
  • It is a direct study of the situation or phenomenon.
  • It tries to establish cause and effect relationship in the observed phenomenon.

Question 8.
Discuss the process and types of observation?
Observation is one of the cheaper and more effective techniques of data collection. Observation, in simple terms, is defined as watching the things with some purpose in view. However, in research activity the term has a wider meaning than simple watching. Observation, is a systematic and deliberate study through eye of spontaneous occurrence at the time, they occur.

Observation may serve a variety of research purposes, it may be used to explore the given area of subject matter or to gain insight in to the research problem and provide a basis for development of hypotheses.

Observation may also be used as the primary technique of data collection in descriptive studies and also in the experimental studies designed for testing casual hypotheses.

Observation many times is a perception. Observation has mainly three components-Sensation, attention and perception. The accuracy of observation depends on knowledge and experience. Generally, the intellectual, physical and moral conditions are very important in observation.

There are five sequential steps in the observation method:

  • Preparation and training.
  • 2. Entry into the study environment.
  • 3. Initial interaction.
  • 4. Observation and training.
  • 5. Termination of fieldwork.

Aids in observation process:
In order to make the process of observation effective and reduce the faults, of the observer, a researcher may use a range of tools for systematising and recording data.

Diaries, field notes, maps, checklists, cameras, audio, video tape recorders, maps, analogy, checklist, sociometric scales, mechanical devices are the major tools adopted by the researcher to make the observation process as accurate as possible.

Types of Observation:
Observation, which is the most classical method of scientific enquiry, may take many forms. With reference to investigators role, it may be classified into:
Participant observation:
In this observation, the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. The persons who are observed group should not be aware of the researcher’s purpose.

Then only their behaviour will be natural. The observer can understand the emotional reactions of the observe group, and get a deeper insight of their experiences.

Non-Participant observation:
In this type of observation, the researcher does not actually participate in the activities of the group to be studied. There is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. Observer would be simply present in the group to note down the behaviour of the respondents.

Controlled observation:
This type of observation is found quite useful in either in the laboratory or in the field. This involves standardization of the fields like psychology and sociology; Controlled observation is carried out observational techniques and exercise of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables

Uncontrolled observation:
If the observation takes place in the natural settings, it may be termed as uncontrolled observation. The main aim of this observation is get spontaneous picture of life. This does not involve control over any extrinsic or intrinsic variables.

Direct observation:
In this type of observation, the event or the behaviour of the person is observed as it occurs. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur.

Indirect observation:
This does not involve the physical presence of the observer, and the recording is done by mechanical, photographic or electronic devices. This method is less flexible than direct observation. In other words, the behaviour of the person is not observed, rather its effects are observed.

CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Unit 5 Sociology, Methods and Techniques Long Answer Questions

Question 9.
What are the Advantages of observation method?
Observation is one of the cheaper and more effective techniques of data collection. Observation, in simple terms, is defined as watching the things with some purpose in view.

However, in research activity the term has a wider meaning than simple watching. Observation, is a systematic and deliberate study through eye of spontaneous occurrence at the time, they occur.

Observation may serve a variety of research purposes, it may be used to explore the given area of subject matter or to gain insight in to the research problem and provide a basis for development of hypotheses.

Observation may also be used as the primary technique of data collection in descriptive studies and also in the experimental studies designed for testing casual hypotheses. Observation many times is a perception.

Observation has mainly three components-Sensation, attention and perception. The accuracy of observation depends on knowledge and experience. Generally, the intellectual, physical and moral conditions are very important in observation.

  • It is the most direct means of studying a wide variety of phenomena based on actual and first-hand experience.
  • It enables the observer to code and record behaviour at the time of its occurrence.
  • The behavior of human beings can be best studied. It is the basis for formulating hypothesis.
  • Data collected under this method is more accurate and reliable, as it is based on the first hand perception of the eyes.

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