Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 4 British Economic Policies in India (1757-1857 A.D.) Long Answer Questions
Long Questions With Answers
Give a note or permanent settlement and analysis its principles.
Give, the founder of the British Empire, could not give to Bengal a good land system. The land revenue was collected from peasants through oppressive agents Warren Hastings tried his best to bring a better system. He established the Board of Revenue. He appointed European District Collectors to remain in charge of revenue collection.
But still, the difficulties continued. The real problem of the government was how to go to the countless villages and get land revenue from millions of peasants according to the size and nature of their lands. It was impossible for the European district collector, who was only one for each district, to do that work through his subordinate officers.
So, Warren Hastings thought of a system of auction. By that system, any man, who promised to collect the largest amount of revenue from an area, was given that land for 5 years. That man collected land revenue from villagers and paid it to the district authorities. The system proved dangerous. Those who promised to pay the maximum tried to collect as much as possible by oppressive means.
The people suffered badly. Hastings also experimented with the annual settlement of lands. But, that too, failed. That was the condition of the land revenue system when Cornwallis came. He came from a family of landlords in England. On Thursday, the British landlords were regarded as the permanent masters of their lands.
They locked to the interests of the peasants and their lands and collected revenue from them. As the landlords were hereditary their interests in the land were of a permanent nature. Cornwall thought of such a system in India. He thought of creating a class of hereditary landlords who should become permanent masters of their lands.
They should collect land revenue from the people and deposit it at the government treasury regularly at all times. In this work, the Governor-General was lapsed by an able administrator of that time. John-shore. He justified the need for a permanent class of landlords or zamindars, for the “security of government with respect to its revenues and the security and protection of its subjects.”
In Bengal before the British conquest, there were old Zamindar families who enjoyed hereditary rights on lands for a long. But after the country was conquered by the English, those Zamindars disappeared. Their lands were taken over by the Government. And the Government collected revenues by various methods, as already discussed. Cornwallis and share wanted to revive the class and give them the responsibility of revenue collection.
So, at last, Cornwallis issued a proclamation in 1973, introducing the permanent settlement. The proclamation ran as follows. Marquis Cornwallis, knight of the noblest order of the Garter Governor General- in-council now notifies all Zamindars, independent palookas, and other actual proprietors of land in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, that he has been empowered by the Honorable Court of Directors of the East India Company to declare the Jumma which has been or may be assessed upon their lands, fixed forever.
Firstly, it recognized the landlords as the proprietors of the land. It also recognized the rights of hereditary succession for the heirs or lawful successors of the landlords. Secondly, the landlords were given the right to transfer or sell their lands if they liked. Thirdly, all rights of the landlords depended on their payment of the fixed revenue on a fixed date at the treasury of the Government.
All their rights ended if they failed to pay. Fourthly, if fixed once and for all total amount of revenue is to be paid by each landlord for his Zamindari to the government. Finally, the landlord was required to give to the tenant the patta describing there in the area of the land and the rent to be collected for that land.
Thus the tenants got rights on their holdings and knew of the revenue to be paid. The permanent settlement became a subject of great controversy in the future. It contained both merits and demerits. Among the merits, the followings are noteworthy. Firstly, in those beginning days of British rule, the British administrative machinery could hot-touch the removed peasantry to collect revenue.
Modem means of communication did not exist. It was decided, therefore, to shift the responsibility to the shoulders of the Indian nobility. The landlords looked into the problems of the peasants. As the British Government could not have done much to solve the land problems, it was better than the class of landlords took up that work.
Secondly, the landlords were themselves the sons of the soil. They understood the real difficulties of the Indian villager and the problems of his cultivation. Therefore, in those days they served the people better. They knew that the land belonged to them for all time. It was their hereditary property. Therefore, they felt attached to their Zamindari and worked for its improvement.
Thirdly, the permanent settlement by being a permanent system created a sense of security in everyone concerned. There was a feeling of certainty in matters of land and revenue. The government knew its exact income from the land. It knew the fine of that income. It was also confident of the regularity of that income.
And, all such benefits were enjoyed without the burden of collecting it the time of that income. It was also confident of the regularity of that income. And all such benefits were enjoyed without the burden of collecting it from individual peasants. The landlord knew the area of his Zamindari. He knew the amount to be collected from that area.
He knew the amount to be paid to the Government from his collection. He knew the amount of his own income as the Zamindar. Therefore, he became habituated to a system on a permanent basis. It helped him to acquire efficiency in his work. The peasant knew the plot of his land. He regarded the patta as proof of his possession.
He knew the amount of the revenue to be paid to the landlord. And, he knew where, when, and how to pay. Thus, the government, the landlord, and the peasant were called aware of their respective positions m revenue matters. Fourthly, all kinds of details regarding the lands, the paper of the countless ryots, the question of their rights, etc were managed by the landlords, and their nails or managers, etc.
The Servants of the Zamindar were usually competent persons. They took their duties seriously and worked to the best of their ability. Fifthly, many of the landlords believed in philanthropic works for the benefit of their tenants. In those days, the Government did not establish charitable dispensaries or schools.
The government also did not dig wells or ponds for people’s welfare. Such works were done by the landlords out of religious considerations as well as for gaining popularity. Some of them believed that the prosperity of their sons and grandsons depended on their charitable works. Thus, in those remote days, the permanent settlement served some useful purpose.
More than a century after Cornwallis one of the famous economists of India. R.C. Dutta praised the permanent settlement in the following words. If the prosperity and happiness of a nation be the criterion of wisdom and success, Lord Cornwallis’s permanent settlement of 1793 is the widest and most successful measure which the British nation has ever adopted in India.”
Give an account of the Sanyasi Rebellion against British colonialism and its outbreak.
The Sannyasi and Fakir Rebellion is an important episode in the early colonial rule in Bengal. The rebellion started in 1750 onwards but took a violent turn in 1773 when Warren Hastings assumed the Governor-Generalship of Bengal. The movement covered a wide range of Bengal and Bihar and continued for a long time.
It has already drawn the attention of historians viz. Jamini Mohan Ghosh to the present time. There is also a distorted reflection of rebellion in Bankim Chandra’s Anandamath for which Bankim Chandra has been accused. The present article implores how the Sannyasis and Fakirs launched the- campaign in an anti-colonial attitude against the Birth Reg.
And their trusted Zamindars. It was only possible due to their wide range of activities and organized network. The religious pilgrimage was no doubt a factor in combining the Sannyasis and Fakirs to launch a spontaneous movement for a long time. The dense forest and rivers also helped them to move to different parts of Bengal and Bihar and also to build up an organizational network with the other parts of India.
Geography and physical features of BiharThe Sannyasi and Fakir uprising affected a very wide area of Bengal, for nearly half a century neighboring Bihar could not escape from the insurgency of the Fakirs and Sannyasis. The historians, both past and present tried to show how the rebellion affected the East India company’s administration in Bengal.
Their activities in Bihar have been simply ignored. The present paper intents to throw light on some specific aspects of their rebellion in Bihar, viz, the geography and history of the rebellion, the organization through which they were able to operate their activities, reasons for their sudden emergence as insurgents, and also to find out the link between the rebellion that took place in Bengal with various parts of Bihar.
The present paper also seeks to explain whether the Sannyasis and Fakirs in Bihar were separate movements or just an offshoot of their insurgency in Bengal. Another question that needs to be answered in this context is why the Fakirs and Sanyasis choose this. Bihar was one of their hunting grounds.
Geographically Bihar was closely connected with the northern districts of Bengal, particularly with Malda, Dinajpur, and Rangpur. Even there was a direct link between Bihar and Morung in southern Nepal. Even the vast region of Northern India. Particularly, Banakes, Allahabad, and Mirzapur also had close links with Bihar.
This geographical contiguity could be strategically used by people coming from the North West towards Bihar and Bengal by river routes. The Fakirs and Sannyasis used to operate their activities in Malda. Dinajpur, Rangpur, and Cooch Behar or in other parts of esteem Bengal by using the rivers like Ganga choose (Kushi) and Gunduck (Gandak). The river Brahmaputra, Teesta, and Mahananda helped them to communicate with Assam and Bhutan.
As Glazier has remarked. “In 1787 the Tista river which had flowed southwest into Dinajpur district, finding its way to the Ganges met with some obstructions it its course and turned its mass of water into a small branch running south-east into the Brahmaputra forcing its was among the fields and over the country in every direction and filling the Ghagat, Manas and another river to overflowing.
Bihar was situated in such a geographical location that it was not difficult for the Fakirs and Sannyasis to establish a close link with Morung and the territories adjoining Nepal. This explains why the Fakirs and Sannyasis were chased in northern or eastern Bengal by the company’s forces, they took shelter in Bihar and from there they escaped either to Nonhem India or to Nepal.
From their centers in Northern India like Allahabad, Benares, and Mirzapur, their routes to their principal spoliation in Bengal ran through Bihar, and herein lies the importance of Bihar in the history of Fakir and Sannyasi uprisings. Besides they had to fortify their subsidiary centers in various parts of Bihar and maintained active contacts with Nepal for purpose of trade and religious pilgrimage.
The year 1765 is a landmark in the history of British administration in India, for in that year the East India Company obtained the dewani and became directly connected with the revenue administration of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. As L.S.S.O Mally has observed the internal administration was left largely in the hands of the great landholders or Zamindars who collected the revenue of the tracts under them and made it over the Nawabs officers.
In 1769 East India company officials under the designation of Supervisors began to collect the revenue in the districts. Jamini Mohan Ghosh pointed out that operations of the marauding bands begin to be recorded in reports and letters since the period. Vincent Smith also observed their incursions into Bengal ceased in the second year of the administration of Hastings.
History does not mention any further depredation by them in other provinces. The bands evidently melted away when the Bengal hunting ground was closed by the vigilance of the Governor. In fact, Bengal, or parts of it, Bihar continued to be a hunting ground for some years to come, though Fakirs were more prominent than Sannyasis.
Rebellious Upsurge :
In order to understand the nature of the Fakir and Sannyasi rebellions that took place in various parts of Bihar and Bengal it is necessary to have a rough idea of their jurisdictions. Pamela extended on the southeast to the river Mahananda including the western portion of the modem district of Malda.
The eastern portion of Malda was included in Dinajpur which had the Mahananda on the southwest Dinajpur included most of the modem district of Bagura, the sirajgang of sub-division of Patna, and the Tangail sub-division of Mymensingh with the exception of pargana. Pokhara on the northwest. If this included the extensive Parganas of Attia, Kagmari, and Barabas. Sillberis etc.
Rajshahi which was co¬extensive with the huge Rajshahi zamindari Of the Maharaja of nature extending over thirteen thousand square miles, included the present districts of Rajshahi, parts of Rangpur, and Pabna. It even extended beyond the Ganges to some Parganas in the present districts of lessor near Nadia.
The rest of the present district of Mymensingh including some portion of the northwest (pargana karaibari of Gooalpara district in Assam) was included in Dacca under its chief. The above gives a rough outline of the revenue jurisdiction of the early British period.- It was a very inconvenient arrangement from the point of view of the Resident officials who had to devise measures of protection of defense when suddenly confronted with the presence of bodies of Fakirs and Sannyasis within their jurisdictions.
Estimate the causes and effects of the Paik rebellion.
The Paiks were the traditional landed militia of Odisha. They served as warriors and were charged with policing functions during peacetime. The paiks were organized into three ranks distinguished by their occupation and the weapons they wielded. These were the Paharis, the bearers of shields and the khanda (sword), the Banuas who led distant expeditions and used matchlocks, and the Dhenkiyasarches who also performed different duties in Odisha armies.
The conquest of Odisha by the East India Company in 1803 and the dethronement of the Raja of Khurda began the fall of the power and prestige of the Parks. The attitude of the company to the parks was expressed by waiter Ewer on the commission that looked into the causes of the Rebellion, thus.
Now there is no need for the assistance of Paiks at Khurda. It is dangerous to keep them in the British armed forces. Thus they should be treated and dealt with as common Ryots and Land revenue and other taxes should be collected from them. They must be deprived of their former jagir lands rent-free lands given to the Paiks for their military service to the state) within a short period of time, the name of paid has already been forgotten.
But still now where the Paiks are living they have retained their previous aggressive nature. In order to break their poisonous teeth the British police must be highly alert to keep the paiks under their control for a pretty long period, unless the community is ruined completely the British rule can not run smoothly.
Causes of the rebellion :
The Paik rebellion had several social, economic, and political reasons. The paiks were alienated by the British regime who took over the hereditary rent-free lands granted to them after the conquest of Khurda. They were also subjected to extortion and oppression at the hands of the company government and its servants.
Had conciliatory measures been adopted towards the Paiks from the beginning? It is possible that they would have become a source of strength to the company rule in Odisha. The extortionist land revenue policy of the company affected the peasants and the zamindars alike. A source of much consternation for the common people was the rise in the price of salt due to taxes imposed on it by the new government.
The company also abolished the system of cowrie currency that had existed in Odisha prior to its conquest and required that taxes be paid in silver. This caused much popular hardship and discontent. In 1804 the Raja of Khurda planned a rebellion against the British in alliance with the Paiks, but the plot was soon discovered and the Raja’s territory was confiscated.
Leaders and participates :
The Paiks were led by Bakshi Bangabandhu Bidyadhar Mohapatra, Bhramarabar Ray the former Bakshi or commander of the force of the Raja Khurda. Jagabandhu’s familial estate of Killa Rorang was taken over by the British in 1814 reducing him to penury. When the rebellion broke out in March 1817 the Paiks came together under his leadership.
Raja Mukunda Deva the last king of Khurda was another reader of the Indian rebels. The rebellion enjoyed widespread support in Oriya society with feudal chiefš, zamindars ad the common people of Odisha participating in it. The zamindars of karipur Mrichpur, Goira Balarampur. Budnakera and Rupasa supported the Paiks.
White the revolt started from Banapur and Khurda, it quickly spread to other parts of Odisha such as Pun, Pipili, and Cuttack and to several remote villages including Kanika, kujanga, and pattamundai. The Rajas of Kanika, Kujang, Nayagarh, and Ghumusur aided Jagabandhu and Dalbehera Mirhaiclar Alli of Jadupur was an important Muslim rebel.
The course of the rebellion:
Discontent over the policies of the company simmered in Odisha when, in March 1817, a 400-strong party of Kansas crossed over into Khurda from the State of Ghumsur, openly declaring their rebellion against the company’s rule. The Paiks under Jagabandhu joined them1 looting and setting to fire the police station and post office at Banapur.
The rebels then marched to khurda itself, which the company abandoned, sacking the city buildings and the treasury there Another body of rebels captured paragana Lembai, where they killed native officials of the company. The company government, led by E Impey. the magistrate at Cuttack dispatched a force to quell the rebellion under Lieutenant Prideaure to Khurda and Lieutenant Fairs to Pipli in the beginning of April.
These met with sustained attacks from the paiks, forcing them to retreat to Cuttack suffering heavy losses, and Fans himself was killed by the Paiks. Another force was sent to Pun under Captain wellington. However, faced little opposition and on 9 April a force of 550 men was sent to Khurda. There days later they took Khurda and DCC bred mortal law in the Khurda territory.
Even as the British managed to wrest control of Khurda. Purl itself fell to the insurgents led by Bakshi Jagabandhu and the British were forced to retreat to Cuttack by 18 April. Cuttack remained out from the now rebel-held portions of southern Odisha and theater the British remained unaware of the fate of the force they had dispatched to Ja. The force’s successes in Khurda allowed the commanding officer. Captain Le Fever, to sue the insurgents into Pun.
This British party defeated a thousand strong but ill equip of Paiks as they marched to Purl, and they retook Purl and captured the Raja so he could escape from the town. The uprising spread rapidly across Odisha and there were several encounters between the British and Paik forces including at Cuttaclc Where the latter was quickly put down. By May 1817, the British managed to re-establish their authority over the entire province but it was long. While before the tranquility finally returned to it.
The Effects :
In may 1817 the British posted judges to Khruda to sentence the captured rebels. The rebels were awarded sentences of death, transportation, and long-term imprisonment. Between 1818 and 1826 the company’s forces undertook camping operations in the Jungies of Khurda to capture and put to death rebels who had managed to escape.
In these operations, numerous Paiks were killed. Their leader, Jagabandhu, surrendered to the British in 1825 and lived as their prisoner in Cuttack until 1829 when he died. On capturing Puri, Jagabandhu had offered to reinstate Raju Mukunda Deva who the British had dethroned in 1804 and exiled to Puri – as the Raja of Khurda.
Although he turned down the offer and asked for British assistance, he was arrested when the British he took the road and was imprisoned at Cuttack. The Raja died a British prisoner in November 1817. The East India Company also appointed a commission to inquire into the causes of the rebellion. The British set about reorienting their administration under the newly appointed commissioner of Cuttack. Robert kert to ensure such a rebellion would not repeat itself.
These attempts remained halfhearted at best the British viewing Odisha largely as a convenient land link between their presidencies of Madras and Bengal Odisha continued to be wracked by localized insurgencies including at Tapanga in 1827 and the Banapur Rebellion of 1835. The revenue policies of the company in Odisha, which was a major course of the hardship of the people, remained unchanged.
The background and accumulated Santhal rebellion against British colonists.
The uprising of the Santhals began as a tribal reaction to and deposit the British revenue system. Usury practices and the zamindari system in India in the tribal belt of what was then known as the Bengal presidency. It was a revolt against the oppression of colonial rule propagated through a distorted revenue system enforced by the local Zamindars, the police, and the courts of the legal system set up by the British.
Before the British advent in India. Santhals resided in the hilly districts of Manbhum, Barabhum Chhotanagpur. Palamau and Birbhum. They lived an agrarian lifestyle, by clearing forest patches cultivating, and hunting for subsistence. But as the agents of the new colonial rule claimed their rights on the lands, the Santhals retreated to the hills of Rajmahal.
After a brief period the British operatives with their native underlings, i.e. the local landlords lay claim to this new land as well. Zamindars and the money lenders allured them by goods lent to them on loans. Through corrupt practices of the money lenders, the loan grew to prohibitive proportions, for repaying which entire family had to work as bonded laborers. This dispossession turned the Santhals into rebels and finally, they took an oath to launch an attack on the ruling authority i.e. the British.
On 30 June 1855 two santal rebel leaders. Sido and Kanhu Murmu mobilized ten thousand Santhals and declared a rebellion against British colonists. Sindhu Murmu had accumulated about ten thousand Santhal to run a parallel government against British rule. The basic purpose was to collect taxes by making his own laws. Soon after the declaration, the Santhals took to arms.
In many villages, the Zamindars, money lenders, and their operatives were put to death. The open rebellion caught the British Government in success and this further fueled the spirit of the revolt. When the law and order situation was getting out of hand the British Government finally took a major step and sent a large number of troops assisted by the local zamindars and the Nawab of Murshidabad to quell the Rebellion. British Government had announced an award of Rs. 10,000 to arrest Sindhu and his brother Rnhu Murmu.
A number of skirmishes occurred after this which resulted in a large number of casualties for the Santhals. The primitive weapons of the Santhals were not a match against the musket and cannon firepower of the British. Troop detachments from the 7th Native Infantry regiment 40th Native Infantry and others were called into action. Major skirmishes occurred from July 1855 to January 1856 in places like Kahalgaon. Suri Reghunathpur and Munkatora.
The Revolt was brutally crushed the two celebrated leaders Sidhu and Kanhu were killed. Elephants supplied by the Nawab of Murshibadbad were used to demolish Santhal huts and likewise, atrocities were committed by the British army and it allies in suppressing the Rebellion of the 60,000 odd tribesmen who had been mobilized in rebellion, over 15,000 were killed and tens of villages were destroyed.
They did get the support of Gwalas (milkmen) and lahars (blacksmiths). Although the Rebellion was crushed with, a heavy hand some British army officers like Major Jervis observed. It was not warring they did not understand yielding. As long as their national drum beat, the whole party would stand and allow themselves to be shot down.
Their arrows killed our men and so we had to fire on them as long as they stood. When their drum ceased they would move off a quarter of a mile then their drums beat again, and they calmly stood till we came up and poured a few volleys into them. There was not a sepoy in the war who did not feel ashamed of himself.
Charles Dickens in Household words wrote.
There seems also to be a sentiment of honor among them (Santhals) for it is said that they use poisoned arrows in hunting, but never against their foes. If this be the case and we hear nothing of the poisoned arrows in the recent conflicts they are infinitely more respectable than our civilized enemy the Russians who would most likely consider such for bearing as foolish and declare that is not war.
Although its impact was largely shadowed by that of the other rebellion, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the legend of the Santhal Rebellion lives on as a turning point in Santhai pride and identity. This was reaffirmed, over a century and a half later with the creation of the first tribal province in independent India Jharkhand.
Discuss the social and religious cause of the Great Revolt of 1857.
Social cause The British conquest of India was followed by western influences ‘ on Indian Society. Many changes began to appear thereby. Western culture spread in many ways. In some respects, the impact of the west was useful no doubt. But the conservative society could not appreciate many of the new ideas which came. The time of lord William Bentick saw several social reforms.
To the orthodox people, those reforms were unwanted. The abolition of the sati system led some people to complain that the Government had. to right to interfere with the Hindu social systems. The talk of widow marriage at the time of Dalhousie shocked the orthodox people greatly. In the meantime, western education began to spread.
The English-educated young people came under modern influences and began to Criticise the superstition in their own society. They wanted changes and reforms. Their manners & behavior greatly displeased, the orthodox people. Thus there was going on a silent mental hostility between the conservation & the progressive sin; the Indian society.
The orthodox people thought that by the rapid spread of English Education, the fabric of the traditional Indian society should break. Ultimately there should rise up an artificial western society on Indian soil. That fear made them unhappy. They regarded the British Govt, as the enemy of the Indian people. Social discontent began to grow.
The religious cause:
Almost from the beginning of British rule Christian missionaries tried to preach Christianity among the people. Gradually their activities began to increase. The Govt permitted the missionaries to come from England without any restriction. Their number thus grew considerably. They established schools at many places.
To conservative Indians, missionary activities appeared very dangerous. In times of famine & other calamities, the missionaries helped the helpless with food or shelter. Such works also shocked Indian conservation. Those Hindus who embraced Christianity were not allowed to inherit their paternal property.
A fear, as well as a, run spread among the orthodox Indians that the Govt, would convert India into a Christian country in the course of time. Those were the days when people believed in all types of rumors. The enemies of the English spread rumors that in order to destroy the religion of the Hindus the British mixed the power of animal bones with salt.
It was also circulated that the flesh of pigs and cows was thrown into wells. The religious sentiments of Muslims and Hindus were greatly hurt by such stories. They became fearful regarding their religions. The orthodox and pious Brahmins could not like the rule of the British on religious grounds. In the right time, they came forward to create discontent in the minds of their countrymen. Thus, there developed a religious grievance against British rule. It became one of the causes of the Revolt.
Discuss the consequences of the Revolt of 1857.
The Great Revolt of 1857 did not succeed in achieving its aim. But it had to reach consequences. Some of the important consequences were as follows :
End of the company’s rule :
The first important consequence of the war was the end of the rule of the East India Company. In 1858, the British parliament passed enact for the better government of India, by which the government of India was transferred to the British Queen and her parliament. Thus, the rule of the company came to an end. The Governor General was made the viceroy. Lord Canning became the first viceroy under this Act.
Queen Victoria’s proclamation :
Queen Victoria was ruling England at the time of the war. The decision to end the company’s rule in India and the transfer of the government of India by queen victoria’s proclamation. This proclamation was made by Lord Canning in a grand Durbar at Allahabad on the 15th the new Government towards Indian princes in order to make them loyal to the British. According to the proclamation, people were guaranteed fuel religious freedom & they were assured that the Govt, would not interfere in their religious beliefs & practices.
Religious freedom :
The new Govt, quadrant fed full religious freedom to the people of India. The Indians were assured that they would be appointed to high posts, irrespective of their caste or creed.
Reorganization of the Army:
the army was reorganized. The proportion of Europeans of Indians in the army was raised. To curb nationalism, Indian soldiers of different communities castes, and religions were all mixed up.
End of Peshwaship and the Mughal rule :
The war also ended the Peshwarship and the Mughal rule. Similarly, the title of Mughal Emperor was also abolished with the death of Bahadur Shah II with his revolt, the great Mughal dynasty founded by Babar in 1526, ended.
Economic Exploitation :
After the revolt, the economic exploitation of India by the British became more prominent. The British abused their political power for their economic interests. India now became a dumping ground for British manufacturers. For an investment of capital, if offered unlimited scope for commercial and industrial enterprises like railways, steamers, tea and coffee plantation, etc.
Policy ‘Divide & Rule’:
The British followed the policy of Divide & Rule. During the war, the Hindus & the Muslims fought together. The British first victimized the Muslims and favored the Hindus. After the revolt, they reversed the policy of treatment. This policy of ‘Divide & Rule’ led to the partition of India.
Rise of Nationalism :
It aroused national feelings & paved the way for the rise of the National movement which ultimately won freedom for India in 1947.
Discuss the Important of the Non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji.
Under the leadership of Gandhiji, the Indian National Congress decided in 1920 to start a Non-violence Struggle in India. The Rowlatt Act, of 1919, the Jallianawala-Bagh Tragedy, and the khilafat movement were some backgrounds, leading to the Noncooperation movement of 1921. Gandhiji adopted various methods like satyagraha, swadeshi, mass movement, etc. The Non-Cooperation movement had the. following program.
- Use of Swadeshi goods.
- Nationalisation of education.
- Popularisation of charkha and khadi.
- Enrolment of volunteers.
- Boycott of foreign goods.
- Boycott of an educational institution.
- Boycott of the election.
- Boycott of British goods.
- Boycott of Govt, functions.
- Surrender of honors and titles conferred by the British.
Gandhiji went around the country and mobilized public opinion in favor of the movement with the clarion call of Mahatma Gandhi, many educated Indians, returned their degrees, titles & honors. People boycotted Govt, functions, and thousands of people lift the Govt jobs. The lawyers gave up their practice.
The student left their school and colleges. There were many leading figures who participated in the movement. Among them Motilal Nehru, Zakir Hussain, and Lala Lajpat Ray were prominent. Khadi became the symbol of freedom. A wave of enthusiasm swept the country. People routed the strike hartal everywhere.
While the movement was going on violence broke out at chaurichaure a village in Gorakhpur, in the district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 1922 where a violent mob stormed and brunt a police station and killed twenty-two policemen. As Gandhiji was the opposite of Non-violence therefore he suddenly announced the suspension of the movement.
However, the movement had for reaching effects. It brought Gandhiji into close touch with the masses. It brought about Hindu-Muslim unity. The movement provided a national base to congress. The Indians realized that if they work united, the road to freedom was not far away.
Assess the role of Odisha in the civil disobedience movement.
Odisha played a vital role in the civil disobedience movement started by Mahatma Gandhi. Included was main the center of salt satyagraha in Odisha. After Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law on the seashore of Dandi, a place named Inchudi on the sea coast of Balasore district was selected for the breaking of the salt law under the leadership of Acharya Harihar dash.
The first batch of the Satyagrahis began their march to Inchudi on 6th April 1930 under the banner of Gopabandhu Choudhury. Women like Ramadevi, and Malati Devi became the Satyagrahi. Hundreds of men & women from different comers of Odisha began their March towards the coast to prepare salt from seawater. That salt was sent to other places to symbolize the disobedience of the governing law.
The Oriya women took an active part in this movement. The movement suddenly spread to other places on Odisha’s seacoast where men & women in large numbers prepared salt from seawater. They defined the police force & marched ahead for law-breaking. Kujang in Cuttack district. Ashtanga in Puri district and Huma in Ganjam district become some of the notable places where on the seashore people broke the salt law of the government.
What surprised the congress leader of India was the participation of a large number of women in the salt satyagraha movement in Odisha. No doubt the Govt, suppressed the movement, and many Oriya leaders were taken to Jail. Even after the Gandhi. Irwin pact the movement could last long. In the Salt satyagraha movement, Odisha gained credit on two accounts:
- According to a British report, the Inchudi event was second only to Mahatma Gandhi’s Dandi march in the whole of India
- A large number of Oriya women from all sections of society took part in the breaking up of the law, which surprised the Government and pleased the congress. Indeed Gandhi’s civil Disobedience movement got a warm reception in Odisha & it clearly shows the heroism of the Oriyas.
Analyze the significance of the Quit India Movement.
The Quit India movement (1942) was the last non-violence struggle of Garidhiji in India. It is also known as the ‘Do or Die’ movement & August Kranti. It was an unimportant landmark in India’s struggle for freedom. Its importance may be summed up in the following way. First, the movement warned the British that they were not wanted in India. Secondly, It aroused among people a spirit of total sacrifice.
Thirdly, there was nothing to stop Indians from attaining their freedom because the Indian revolution reached its climax. Fourthly, The wholehearted response of the people to the movement has tended to the British decision to quit India. Fifthly, In the history of British rule in India, no such revolt had occurred earlier.
Sixthly, people from all sections men, women, children, handicapped, and older generations alike, all had joined in this movement. Seventhly, There was no rest part of India where the movement was not galvanized. Eighty, people joined certainly feel love for their motherland last but not least The quit India movement led the Indian freedom battle very close to freedom. After the end 6f this movement, it was amply clear. The Indians tested freedom on 15 August 1947.