Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 11 Sociology Solutions Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Short Answer Questions.
CHSE Odisha 11th Class Sociology Unit 4 Process, Stratification and Change Short Answer Questions
Short Type Questions and Answers
What do you mean by Social Process?
Social interaction assumes a number of terms. These forms of social interaction are called social processes. Different sociologists have defined social processes in different ways. Social processes are many. However, it can be broadly categorised into two kinds:
What is Associative Social Process?
The associative social process always works for integration in society. These include cooperation, accommodation, assimilation, acceleration.
What is a Disassociative Social Process?
The disassociative social process often works towards the disintegration of society. These include competition and conflict.
Merril and Eldredge say “Co-operation is a form of social interaction wherein two or more persons work together to gain a common end”.
What is the main characteristic of cooperation?
- Cooperation is a conscious process.
- Cooperation takes place between two or more individuals.
- Cooperation is a personal process.
- Cooperation is a continuous process.
- Cooperation is an associative process.
Write the names of several types of co-operation?
- Direct co-operation
- Indirect co-operation
- Primary co-operation
- Secondary co-operation
- Tertiary co-operation
What is the competition?
Competition is the most fundamental form of social struggle. It is a contest to obtain something which does not exist in a quantity sufficient to meet the demand that makes two or more individuals or groups struggle for some naturally desired ends.
Park and Burgess says-that “Competition is an interaction without a social contract”.
What is the type of competition?
Bernard mentions three broad types of competitions, such as:
- Economic and
- Political competition.
Other sociologists have spoken of cultural and racial competitions.
What is conflict?
A conflict is an extreme form of disassociative process in which individuals and groups try to achieve their goals by eliminating other contestants.
Define various types of conflict?
There are various types of conflict.
- Terminal conflict.
- Personal conflict.
- Episodic conflict.
- Racial conflict.
- Continuous conflict.
What is Political Conflict?
Political conflict creates different political parties trying to achieve their self-interests. The main reason for political conflict is the power and money which they want to capture. The conflict between different political parties is an example of political conflict.
What is international conflict?
International conflict occurs among the different nations of the world that are engaged in war. The conflict between India and Pakistan is an example of international conflict.
What ¡s Personal Conflict?
Personal conflict occurs between two individuals on one personal level. It arises due to two individual classes with each other. The quarrel between two persons in a college for the post of principal is an example of personal conflict.
What is Racial Conflict?
Racial conflict arises due to physical differences and cultural differences. This type of conflict is now found in South Africa between black people and white people.
What is Direct Cooperation?
In direct cooperation, individuals do like things together playing and worshipping together.
What is Indirect Cooperation?
Persons work individually for the attainment of a common goal called indirect cooperation.
What is Primary Cooperation?
Where there is an identity of ends called primary cooperation. Each and every member work for the betterment of all primary co-operation is found in primary groups such as family, neighbourhood, friends, groups and children’s playground.
What is Secondary Cooperation?
Secondary cooperation is directed towards achieving definite goals and collective interests. In secondary co-operation, members co-operate without knowing each other. This type of cooperation is found among the members of secondary groups such as economic, political and industrial organisations.
What is Automatic Cooperation?
People cooperate with each other and live in a particular locality to achieve common goals unplanned and unnoticeable cooperation is called automatic cooperation.
What is Tertiary cooperation?
Aimed to meet a particular situation called tertiary cooperation. Two political parties may work together to defeat a third party although they have different ideologies.
What is Direct Cooperation?
Cooperative with each other as a requirement of the organisation is called direct co-operation. This type of cooperation is found among the members of military organisations.
What is Automatic Cooperation?
People cooperate with each other and living1 in a particular locality to achieve common goals unplanned and unnoticeable cooperation are called automatic Cooperation.
What is Contractual Cooperation?
People co-operate with each other in a formal way according to some agreed terms and conditions called contractual co-operation.
What is Traditional Cooperation?
People co-operate with each other to achieve some common goal is not prompted will call traditional cooperation. For example, Co-operate among the members of a joint family and members in a village community.
What is Economic Competition?
Economic competition occurs due to producing distribution and consumption of goods. Both group and individual-level economic competition arise.
What is Social Competition?
People compete to achieve higher status and positions called social competition. This type of competition is found in open societies.
What is Cultural Competition?
Competition between two or more cultural groups is called cultural competition. Competition between Aryan and Dravidians. Hindus and Muslims examples of cultural competition.
What is Racial Competition?
Competition between the different races of the world to establish racial superiority is called racial competition. Example – In South Africa competition between white and black people.
What is Political Competition?
The desire of capturing power by the political party is called political competition.
What is stratification?
Stratification is simply a process of interaction of differentiation whereby some people come to rank higher than others.
Definition of Social Stratification?
Raymond W. Murry says that “Social stratification is a horizontal division of society into high and lower social limits”.
Mention characteristics of social stratification?
According to M.M. Tumin the main characteristics of stratification is:
- It is universal.
- It is ancient.
- It is social.
- It is consequential.
- It is in diverse forms.
Define the origin of the word caste?
The term caste is derived from the Spanish also Portuguese word meaning breed, or lineage. The Portuguese used the term caste first to denote the division in the Indian Caste System.
Define the origin of the Caste System?
The caste stratification of the Indian Society has/had its origin in the chaturanga system. According to the chaturanga doctrine, the Hindu Society was divided into four main games namely the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas and the Shudras.
What is Caste System unique to India?
The caste system as a form of social stratification is peculiar to India. The caste is an inseparable aspect of Indian Society. It is peculiarly Indian in origin and development.
Define the Universality of Social Stratification?
Social stratification is obiquitious. In all societies, there is social differentiation of the population by age, sex and personal characteristics.
What is the meaning of Social Stratification?
All societies arrange their members in terms of superiority interiority and equality. The vertical scale of evaluation this places people in strata or layers is called social stratification.
What is Social Change?
Social change means a change in the social structure of society or in other words social change means a significant change in social relationships. Social changes include those changes in society which are sufficiently durable and which influence a majority of people.
Mention four characteristics of social change?
- Social change is universal.
- Social change is continuous.
- Social change is associated with time.
- Social change is caused by multiple factors.
Mention the cause of social change?
A number of factors are responsible for social change such as:
- Technological factors.
What is Endogenous Social Change?
Endogenous social change refers to change from within the society. For example The birth of trade unions and communalism are some examples of endogenous social change.
What is Exogenous Social Change?
Change comes from outside called exogenous change. Wars and conquest and western technology are the best examples of exogenous social change.
What is Planned Social Change?
Planning in our society brings about changes field of social and economic development. Such as city planning and rural development. Planning in our country also caused significant and widespread changes in the fields of agriculture, industry and technology such changes are called planned social change.
Name of the main sociologists who support the technological factors?
W.F. Ogbum and Karl Marx have supported technological factors.
Write short notes on any three factors of social change?
Demographic Factors play an important role in bringing change in society. The size and composition of the population and the quality of the population bring a variety of changes in society. Cultural Factors bring changes in society. Cultural factors include values, attitudes, beliefs, ideologies, customs and traditions. Technological Factors bring changes in society. Technology refers to the use of animate power in production. Change in the technology of work produces changes in material conditions.
Write a short note on demographic factors of social change?
Social change is caused by multiple factors out of which demographic, factors is the most important. Demography means the science of population. The size, composition and quality of the population produce a variety of changes in society. Differences in the density of the population also bring changes in society.
Write a short note on cultural factors of social change?
Cultural factors greatly influence social changes and determine social change. Cultural factors include values, attitudes, beliefs, ideologies, customs and traditions. Any change in these factors brings changes in society. The relationship between society and culture is very close. Hence cultural change involves social change.
Write short notes on technological factors of social change?
Among other factors of social change technological factor is important. By technology, we mean the use of inanimate power in production. Many sociologists recognised the role of technology in bringing social change. Karl Marx opines that change in technology brings changes in all areas of social life.
Write short notes on cultural lag?
The concept of cultural lag was first used by W.F. Ogbum in his book social change. He classified culture into two types. Material, Non-material aspects of culture call for changes in the non-material aspect of culture. Non-material culture takes time to adjust to the changes taking place in the material aspect. As a result, a gap is created between the two which is known as cultural lag.
Write short notes on the effects of technology on family life?
Technology brings changes in all areas of social life. Accordingly changes in technology results in changes in family life, its structure and functions:
Technology led to the breaking up of joint families and the formation of the nuclear family. Technology led to the liberation of women in different fields. Technology brought industrialization which brought women from home to factories and offices. Technology reduces the importance of family as an agent of social control.
Write short notes on the effects of technology on social life?
Technology brings changes in all areas of social life. It affects our social life in the following ways:
Technology made social relationships formal and contractual and goal-oriented. It changed the old bases of stratification and introduced wealth and power to new determinants of social stratification. Technology led to the fall of community life individuals became more selfish.
Explain the Social process?
The social process is the fundamental way in which men. interact and establish relationships. They are repetitive forms of behaviour which are commonly found in social life. These are forms of social interaction and characteristic ways in which interaction occurs.,
Distinguish between Social interaction and Social process?
Social interaction is a process whereby men inter-penetrate into the minds of each other. But social processes are repetitive forms behaviour which is commonly hard in social life. Smiling with friends is an example of social interaction whereas cooperation is an example of an associative process.
Explain the dissociative Social process?
Though there are many kinds of social processes they can be broadly divided into two kinds associative and dissociative social processes. The dissociative social process works -towards disintegration in society. Competition and conflict are examples and dissociative social processes.
Distinguish between the Associative and Dissociative process?
Associative social process. works towards the integration of society whereas the dissociative social process works towards the disintegration of society. Co-operation accommodation and assimilation are examples of the associative social process whereas competition and conflict are examples of the dissociative social process.
Co-operation is an associative social process. The term co-operation is derived from the two Latin words ‘Co’ meaning together and operate meaning to work. According to, co-operation means working together for a common goal. It is the continuous and common endeavour of two or more persons to perform a task or to reach a goal that is commonly cherished.
Distinguish between Direct and Indirect Co-operation?
When co-operating individuals do like things it is called direct cooperation. But in indirect cooperation, people do different tasks towards a similar goal. In direct cooperation, members perform identical .functions whereas indirect co-operation is based on the principle of division of labour and specialisation. Playing together weaving cloth is an example of indirect cooperation.
Distinguish between Primary and Secondary Co-operation?
In primary cooperation, there is the identity of ends whereas in secondary cooperation members cooperate without knowing each other. Primary cooperation is found among the members of the primary groups like family whereas secondary cooperation is found among members of secondary groups such as banks, offices etc. Mutual obligations are the bases of primary cooperation whereas the achievement of individual aims is the bases of secondary cooperation.
Competition is a dissociative social process. Here, people strive to forget scarce goods. Park and Burgess opine that competition is an interaction without social contact. It is a struggle to possess rewards which are limited so that all cannot share.
Explain three characteristics of Competition?
Competition is both an impersonal and personal activity. It is impersonal because it is directed towards a goal when it is face-to-face it is personal. Competition is always governed by norms. It never goes in an unrestricted manner. It hardly operates in an unrestricted manner. Competition is a never-ending and continuous social process. Competition is always going on among people to get their desired things.
Distinguish between Cooperation and Competition?
Co-operation is an associative social process whereas competition is a dissociative social process. Co-operation means working together for a common goal whereas competition is interaction without social contact. Co-operation is a conscious process whereas competition is an unconscious process.
Distinguish between Cultural and Racial Competition?
Cultural competition Recurs between two or more cultural groups, whereas racial competition occurs between two different races. Competition between Hindus and Muslims is an example of cultural competition whereas competition between white and black is an example of racial competition.
A conflict is an extreme form|of dissociative social process. Here individual it. groups try to achieve their goals by eliminating contestants. Defeat or destruction of the opponents to attain the goal is the main aim of conflict. It is the deliberate attempt to oppose, resist or coerce the will of another.
Explain any three characteristics of Conflict?
Conflict is a conscious activity because individuals or groups involved in conflict know that they are conflicting. Conflict is an intermittent social process. It does not take place continuously. It occurs suddenly and disappears after some. Conflict is universal in nature. It is found in all societies and at all stages of development.
Distinguish between Cooperation and Conflict?
Co-operation is an associative social process whereas conflict is a dissociative social process. Co-operation means working together for a common goal whereas conflict is the deliberate attempt to oppose, resist or coerce the will of another or others. Co-operation is continuous process but conflict is an intermittent process.
Distinguish between Competition and Conflict?
Competition is dissociative. social process but conflict is an extreme form of dissociative social process. Competition is interaction without social contact whereas conflict is the deliberate attempt to oppose, resist or coerce the will of another. Competition is an unconscious process whereas conflict is a conscious process.
Distinguish between Latent and Manifest Conflict?
The unexpressed and hidden conflict is known as manifest conflict. Hostile action is an example of latent conflict whereas war between India and Pakistan is an example of overt or manifest conflict.
Explain Social Stratification?
Every society is divided into various groups and these groups enjoy different social statuses and privileges. This deviation of society is called social stratification. The term social stratification refers to the division of a population into strata, one on top of another, on the basis of possession of certain characteristics like inborn qualities material possessions and performance. It involves the distribution of unequal rights and privileges among the members of society.
Explain the Indian Stratification system?
The system of stratification in India fails in a class itself. The advanced industrial societies of the west the characterised by the ‘open-class system’. The social structure of India on the other hand is dominated by the closed class that is the caste system. Any careful observer will find two types of class hierarchy in Indian social science, the traditional caste hierarchy which is articulated in religious terms and the modem hierarchy which is emergent.
What do you mean by a caste system?
Caste is or was until recently almost universal in India. There are many castes among Muslims whose religion supposedly derives caste. Even among the Indians who have embraced Christianity caste distinctions still generally prevail. It is, however, the Hindu caste system that is unique among the system of social stratification.
Explain the concept of class.
Another important element of social stratification is class. A social class is a category or group of persons having a definite status in society that permanently determines their relations to other groups. Social classes have been defined by various thinkers in different manners. The nation of objectivity of class existence is the main contribution of Karl Marx.
His emphasis is on the economic factors, power style of life, and property that determines the class status of individuals in society. Karl Marx defined the social classes by their relation to means of production (ownership or non-ownership). In a modem capitalist society, there are two principal classes the capitalist and the proletariat.
Distinguish between Social Stratification and Social Differentiation.
Social stratification is however different from social differentiation. In social stratification, there is a hierarchy in which one class is above the other. On the other hand in social differentiation, there is no hierarchy e.g. male and female. In stratification organized group division is needed whereas in differentiation there is no such division of society.
What is Racial competition?
Competition among the different races of the world to establish racial superiority’ is called racial competition. In South Africa competition between white and black people is the burning example of racial competition.
What is Cultural competition?
Competition between two or more cultural groups is called cultural competition. Competition between Aryan and Dravidians. Hindus and Muslims Indians and Britishers can be cited as examples of cultural competition.
What is Political competition?
The desire of capturing power by the political party is called political competition. This type of competition is even found at the international level like the Nations U.S.S.Rand U.S.A.