CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Multiple Choice Questions with Answers

Question 1.
In which century B.C. Jainism and Buddhism rose to the eminent religious aspects.
(a) 6th century B.C.
(b) 7th century B.C.
(c) 9th century B.C.
(d) 10th century B.C.
Answer:
(a) 6th century B.C.

Question 2.
Who is regarded as the first Tirthankar of Jainism?
(a) Parsvanath
(b) Rishavnath
(c) Mahavir Vardhaman
(d) Gautama Buddha
Answer:
(b) Rishavnath

Question 3.
Who is the 23rd Tirthankar of Jainism?
(a) Parsvanath
(b) Neminath
(c) Mahavir
(d) Rishavanath
Answer:
(a) Parsvanath

Question 4.
In the 6th century B.C. Mahavir was born in which Kshatriya dynasty?
(a) Sakya
(b) Jnatrika
(c) Lichhabi
(d) Malla
Answer:
(b) Jnatrika

Question 5.
In which village of Gideha state of ancient India Mahavira Jina was born?
(a) Kapila Bastu
(b) Timbika village
(c) Kunda Grama
(d) Rajagriba
Answer:
(c) Kunda Grama

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 6.
For the development of life who proclaimed the “Four-fold division of Religion”?
(a) Neminath
(b) Rishavnath
(c) Mahavir
(d) Parsvanath
Answer:
(d) Parsvanath

Question 7.
Which number “Tirthankar” was Mahavir Jina?
(a) 14th
(b) 22nd
(c) 23rd
(d) 24th
Answer:
(d) 24th

Question 8.
Name of the father of Mahavir Jina?
(a) Siddhartha
(b) Parsvanath
(c) Suddhodan
(d) Sariputta
Answer:
(a) Siddhartha

Question 9.
Name of the mother of Mahavira Jina?
(a) Mayadevi
(b) Goutami
(c) Trishala
(d) Karubaki
Answer:
(c) Trishala

Question 10.
What was the childhood name of Mahavira?
(a) Nataputra
(b) Goutama
(c) Jnanaputra
(d) Vardhamana
Answer:
(d) Vardhamana

Question 11.
When Vardhana Mahavira was born?
(a) 536 B.C.
(b) 538 B.C.
(c) 540 B.C.
(d) 542 B.C.
Answer:
(c) 540 B.C.

Question 12.
Near the pipal tree which village Mahavira got extreme knowledge of “Kevala Gyana”?
(a) Kunda Grama
(b) Tumbika Grama
(c) Gaya
(d) Vaisali
Answer:
(b) Tumbika Grama

Question 13.
Mahavira got extreme knowledge of which eternal river?
(a) Rijupalika
(b) Saraswati
(c) Sindhu
(d) Ganga
Answer:
(a) Rijupalika

Question 14.
Who preached “Pancha Mahabharata”?
(a) Mahavira
(b) Siddhartha
(c) Neminath
(d) Rishavanath
Answer:
(a) Mahavira

Question 15.
Name of Mahavira’s wife?
(a) Jasodhara
(b) Gopa
(c) Priyadarshini
(d) Yasoda
Answer:
(d) Yasoda

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 16.
Name of the daughter of Vardhamana Mahavira?
(a) Gopa
(b) Priyadarshini
(c) Ninnala
(d) Vasundhara
Answer:
(b) Priyadarshini

Question 17.
With the “Fourfold principle of life” of the previous Tirthankar Parsvanath, Mahavira added which principle?
(a) Non-violence
(b) Truth
(c) Non-Possession
(d) Brahmacharya on celibacy
Answer:
(d) Brahmacharya on celibacy

Question 18.
Where the great life of Mahavira ended?
(a) Pava
(b) Kusinagar
(c) Magadha
(d) Vaisali
Answer:
(a) Pava

Question 19.
Jainist system of Right faith, Right knowledge add Right Action is regarded as which principle?
(a) Tri-principle
(b) Tri-column
(c) Tri-Ratna
(d) Salvation
Answer:
(c) Tri-Ratna

Question 20.
Which long of Odisha was the pioneer of Jainism?
(a) Mukundadeva
(b) Prataprudradeva
(c) Kharavela
(d) Narasinghadeva
Answer:
(a) Kharavela

Question 21.
Where Jaina caves are found in Odisha?
(a) Lalitagiri
(b) Ratnagiri
(c) Udayagiri
(d) Dhauli
Answer:
(a) Lalitagiri

Question 22.
In which language Mahavira preached his message?
(a) Pali
(b) Prakrit
(c) Magadhi
(d) Andha-Magadhi
Answer:
(d) Andha-Magadhi

Question 23.
In which principle Mahavira stressed the utmost importance?
(a) Nonpossession
(b) Non-violence
(c) Karma and Rebirth
(d) Re-birth
Answer:
(b) Non-violence

Question 24.
Mahavira discarded the importance of which epic?
(a) Veda
(b) Upanishad
(c) Geeta
(d) Tripitaka
Answer:
(a) Veda

Question 25.
Who is regarded as “Natasutra”?
(a) Vardhaman Mahavira
(b) Parsvanath
(c) Siddhartha
(d) Rishavanath
Answer:
(a) Vardhaman Mahavira

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 26.
Among the booklets which is the epic of Jainism?
(a) Sangita
(b) Veda
(c) Kalpasutra
(d) Tripitaka
Answer:
(c) Kalpasutra

Question 27.
Who is the founder of Buddhism?
(a) Asoka
(b) Harshavardhana
(c) Goutama Buddha
(d) Mahaira Jina
Answer:
(c) Goutama Buddha

Question 28.
Where Goutama Buddha was born?
(a) Lumbini garden of Kapilavastu
(b) Vaisali
(c) Rajagriha
(d) Uruvilva
Answer:
(a) Lumbini garden of Kapilavastu

Question 29.
When Gautama Buddha was born?
(a) 540 B.C.
(b) 468 B.C.
(c) 566 B.C.
(d) 486 B.C.
Answer:
(c) 566 B.C.

Question 30.
What was the name of the father of Gautama Buddha?
(a) Suddhodana
(b) Nandivardhan
(c) Siddhartha
(d) Parsvanath
Answer:
(a) Suddhodan

Question 31.
What was the name of the mother of Gautama Buddha?
(a) Yasoda Dcvi
(b) Mayadevi
(c) Trisala
(d) Kausalya
Answer:
(b) Mayadevi

Question 32.
To which Kshatriya dynasty Buddhadeva belongs?
(a) Jnatrika
(b) Sakya
(c) Moriya
(d) Ikshaku
Answer:
(b) Sakya

Question 33.
Who is regarded as the Light of Asia?
(a) Moka
(b) Hiuen Tsang
(c) Gautama Buddha
(d) Mahavira Jina
Answer:
(c) Gautama Buddha

Question 34.
Where Buddha got Enlightenment?
(a) Rajagriha
(b) Vaisali
(c) Kapilavastu
(d) Buddhagaya
Answer:
(d) Buddhagaya

Question 35.
In Buddhism which system is regarded as the “Turning of the Wheel of Law (Dharma Chakra Pravartan)”?
(a) First Sermon of Buddhism
(b) Buddhist Epic
(c) Birth of Buddha
(d) Death of Buddha
Answer:
(a) First Sermon of Buddhism

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 36.
Where Buddha delivered his first sermon?
(a) Saranath
(b) Gaya
(c) Uruvilva
(d) Kusinara
Answer:
(a) Saranath

Question 37.
What is the name of the epic of Buddhism?
(a) Anga
(b) Upanga
(c) Kalpasutra
(d) Tripitaka
Answer:
(d) Tripitaka

Question 38.
In which year of his life Buddha got ‘Enlightenment’?
(a) 29
(b) 34
(c) 35
(d) 42
Answer:
(c) 35

Question 39.
During the last stage of his meditation, Buddhadeva took a little food from which village girl and continued meditation?
(a) Gopa
(b) Yasoda
(c) Sujata
(d) Manini
Answer:
(c) Sujata

Question 40.
Name of the wife of Gautama Buddha?
(a) Yasoda
(b) Priyadarsini
(c) Yasodhara
(d) Trisala
Answer:
(c) Yasodhara

Question 41.
Name of the son of Gautama Buddha?
(a) Rahula
(b) Chandan
(c) Gautama
(d) Parsvanath
Answer:
(a) Rahula

Question 42.
During the city tour how many scenes affected Gautama Buddha?
(a) 8
(b) 10
(c) 2
(d) 4
Answer:
(d) 4

Question 43.
The renouncement of family life is regarded as what in Buddhist text?
(a) Turning of the wheel of law
(b) Mahapariniman
(c) Mahaviniskramana
(d) Fourfold division of life
Answer:
(c) Mahaviniskramana

Question 44.
During the first stage of his meditation from which philosopher Gautama Buddha got some divine knowledge?
(a) Allan Kalam
(b) Udraka Ramputra
(c) Mogglan
(d) Sariputra
Answer:
(a) Allan Kalam

Question 45.
When Buddha renounced his life?
(a) 540 B.C.
(b) 566 B.C.
(c) 486 B.C
(d) 468 B.C.
Answer:
(a) 486 B.C.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 46.
Where Buddha ended his life?
(a) Pava
(b) Samath
(c) Kusinagar
(d) Bodhagaya
Answer:
(c) Kusinagar

Question 47.
The renouncement of Buddha’s life is regarded as what in Buddhist text?
(a) Mahaviniskramana
(b) Turning of the Wheel of Law
(c) Mahapaninirvan
(d) Dharma Sansthan
Answer:
(c) Mahaparinirvan

Question 48.
In 486 B.C. who presided over the first Buddhist conference at Rajgriha?
(a) Ajatasatru
(b) Mahakasyap
(c) Hiuen Tsang
(d) Sariputta
Answer:
(b) Mahakasyap

Question 49.
Under the guidance of Kalasoka in 387 B.C. where the important Buddhist conference was held?
(a) Rajagriha
(b) Pataliputra
(c) Vaisali
(d) Kundalavana Vihar
Answer:
(a) Vaisali

Question 50.
At the reign of Asoka in 250 B.C. who presided over the third Buddhist conference at Pataliputra?
(a) Mogaliputtatisa
(b) Vasumitra
(c) Aswaghosa
(d) Sariputta
Answer:
(a) Mogaliputtatisa

Question 51.
Under the guidance of Kaniska and the presidentship of Vasumitra who was the vice¬president of the Fourth Buddhist Council held at Kundalavanavihar of Kashmir?
(a) Kalasoka
(b) Asoka
(c) Kaniska
(d) Asvaghosa
Answer:
(d) Asvaghosa

Question 52.
During the lifetime of Gautama Buddha which king was his disciple?
(a) Bimbisara
(b) Asoka
(c) Kaniska
(d) Kharavela
Answer:
(a) Bimbisara

Question 53.
With Bimbisara which son of his took initiation of Buddhism?
(a) Asoka
(b) Ajatasatru
(c) Parsurama
(d) Kulabhadra
Answer:
(b) Ajatasatru

Question 54.
In future times which king of Kosala took initiation of Buddhism?
(a) Biraballa
(b) Pravakara
(c) Prasenjit
(d) Kalasoka
Answer:
(c) Prasenjit

Question 55.
Which famous trader of Kosala took initiation from Gautama Buddha?
(a) Japani
(b) Bhallika
(c) Sudutha
(d) Anatha Pindika
Answer:
(d) Anatha Pindika

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 56.
Buddhist organisations gave chance to which prostitute to take initiation.
(a) Sujata
(b) Ambrapalli
(c) Many
(d) Karubaki
Answer:
(b) Ambrapalli

Question 57.
Where Buddhist chronicles are seen in Odisha?
(a) Ratnagiri
(b) Khandagiri
(c) Udayagiri
(d) Kapilas
Answer:
(a) Ratnagiri

Question 58.
To whom has the designation “Indian Luther” has given?
(a) Mahavira
(b) Shankar
(c) Buddhadev
(d) Nimbark
Answer:
(c) Buddhadev

Question 59.
Which king was the father of Asoka?
(a) Chandragupta Maurya
(b) Bindusara
(c) Samudragupta
(d) Kharavela
Answer:
(b) Bindusara

Question 60.
Who was the founder of the Maurya dynasty?
(a) Asoka
(b) Binndusara
(c) Chandragupta Maurya
(d) Kharavela
Answer:
(a) Chandragupta Maurya

Question 61.
When Asoka Ascended the throne?
(a) 271 B.C.
(b) 269 B.C.
(c) 273 B.C.
(d) 277 B.C.
Answer:
(c) 273 B.C.

Question 62.
When the coronation festival of Asoka was celebrated?
(a) 273 B.C.
(b) 272 B.C.
(c) 269 B.C.
(d) 267 B.C.
Answer:
(c) 269 B.C.

Question 63.
How many years after the coronation of Asoka the attack on Kalinga was made?
(a) Sixth year
(b) the Eighth year
(c) Seventh year
(d) Ninth year
Answer:
(b) Eighth year

Question 64.
In which year Kalinga war took place?
(a) 273 B.C.
(b) 269 B.C.
(c) 261 B.C.
(d) 260 B.C.
Answer:
(a) 261 B.C

Question 65.
Which Rock Edict of Asoka gives information regarding the Kalinga war?
(a) 12th Rock Edict
(b) 13th Rock Edict
(c) 16th Rock Edict
(d) 18th Rock Edict
Answer:
(b) 13th Rock Edict

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 66.
Name of the capital of Kalinga?
(a) Pataliputra
(b) Ujjaini
(c) Tosali
(d) Brahmagiri
Answer:
(c) Tosali

Question 67.
From which ambassador’s accounts special information regarding the power of Kalinga is known?
(a) Megasthenes
(b) Hiuen Tsang
(c) Fa-hien
(d) I-Tsing
Answer:
(a) Megasthenes

Question 68.
Which Historian gives information that the “Kalinga war is a great incident in world history”?
(a) Historian E. H. Kaan
(b) Historian Vincent smith
(c) Historian M.N. Das
(d) Historian Herodotus
Answer:
(d) Historian Herodotus

Question 69.
Which country’s legend gives information that in that country there was a strong colonial system of Kalinga?
(a) Burma
(b) China
(c) Indonesia
(d) Japan
Answer:
(a) Burma

Question 70.
Which Historian gives information that “the strengthened inhabitants of Kalinga erected a colony at Burma long before the attack of Kalinga by Asoka”?
(a) M.N.Das
(b) H. S. Pattnaik
(c) Terini
(d) E. H. Kaan
Answer:
(c) Terini

Question 71.
Which Greek writer gives information that maximum growth elephants were in the Kalinga army?
(a) Talemy
(b) Pliny
(c) Diodenas
(d) Megasthenes
Answer:
(c) Diodenas

Question 72.
Which book symbolises that “The elephants of Kalinga are superior to other elephants of India”?
(a) Geography of Talemy
(b) Indica of Megasthenes
(c) History of Herodotus
(d) Arthasastra of Kautilya
Answer:
(d) Arthasastra of Kautilya

Question 73.
From which ambassador’s accounts it is known that the personal security of the Kalinga king was with “sixty thousand armies, one thousand cavalry and seven hundred war-elephants”?
(a) Hiuen Tsang
(b) Megasthenes
(c) I-Tsing
(d) Fa-hien
Answer:
(b) Megasthenes

Question 74.
Which Mamyar king designated himself as “Amitraghata”?
(a) Chandragupta Maurya
(b) Bindusara
(c) Susima
(d) Ashoka
Answer:
(b) Bindusara

Question 75.
Asoka was initiated in Buddhism by which Buddhist hermit?
(a) Mogaliputtatisa
(b) Sariputa
(c) Upagupta
(d) Siladitya
Answer:
(c) Upagupta

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 76.
To which country did Ashoka send his son and daughter for the preaching of Buddhism?
(a) Burma
(b) Japan
(c) China
(d) Sri Lanka
Answer:
(d) Sri Lanka

Question 77.
For the preaching or Buddhism Asoka send which two hermits to Burma?
(a) Mogaliputtatisa and Vasumitra
(b) Asvaghosa and Ananda
(c) Sona and Uttara
(d) Aniruddha & Ananda
Answer:
(c) Sona and Uttara

Question 78.
For the preaching of religion a new official class was created by Asoka. What was the name of it?
(a) Dharma Pracharaka
(b) Tajak class
(c) Dharma Rakshakari
(d) Dharma Mahamatra
Answer:
(a) Dharma Mahamatra

Question 79.
After Kalinga “Bheri Ghosa” was closed forever and against it what was eulogised?
(a) Satya Ghosa
(b) Vijaya Ghosa
(c) Dharma Ghosa
(d) Raksha Ghosa
Answer:
(c) Dharma Ghosa

Question 80.
According to the order of king Asoka the higher officials were reputed for preaching religious principles to common people in how many years repeatedly?
(a) 2 years
(b) 4 years
(c) 5 years
(d) 6 years
Answer:
(c) 5 years

Question 81.
To know many things regarding the Mauryan administration which kings’ documents are important?
(a) Kharavela
(b) Bindusara
(c) Chandragupta Maurya
(d) Ashoka
Answer:
(a) Kharavela

Question 82.
The Maurya government rested in which system of administration?
(a) Monarchy
(b) Aristocracy
(c) Democracy
(d) Autocracy
Answer:
(a) Monarchy

Question 83.
To know the importance of the Mauryan administration which historical text is important?
(a) Si-Yu-Ki
(b) Indika
(c) Mudrarakshasa
(d) Arthasastra
Answer:
(d) Arthasastra

Question 84.
Which administrative department in the Mauryan administration is known as “Kantaka Sodhana”?
(a) Revenue
(b) Defence
(c) Education
(d) Court
Answer:
(d) Court

Question 85.
In the Mauryan administration, the designation of village headman was?
(a) Gramika
(b) Siramani
(c) Bhalluka
(d) Bisesagna
Answer:
(a) Gramika

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 86.
What was the designation of the religious Advisor of the Mauryan king?
(a) Rajput
(b) Purohit
(c) Dharma Mahamantra
(d) Senapati
Answer:
(b) Purohit

Question 87.
At the time of king Asoka the Govt, the ministry was called in which other name?
(a) Mantri Parishad
(b) Moura Parishad
(c) Parisha
(d) Dandapan
Answer:
(c) Parisha

Question 88.
What type of change took place in the life of king Asoka after the Kalinga war?
(a) Chandasoka to Mahachandasoka
(b) Chandasoka to Dharmasoka
(c) Magadha Samrat to Kalinga Samrat
(d) Rajyajayee to Digvijayee
Answer:
(b) Chandasoka to Dharmasoka

Question 89.
To whom the term “Beloved of the Gods (Devanam Priya Priyadarshi)” has given?
(a) Chandragupta Maurya
(b) Bindusara
(c) Asoka
(d) Kharavela
Answer:
(c) Asoka

Question 90.
That Buddhist inscription at Saranath was built by whom?
(a) Chadragupta Maurya
(b) Bindusara
(c) Kharavela
(d) Asoka
Answer:
(d) Asoka

Question 91.
Who was the Revenue head in the Mauryan administration?
(a) Samaharta
(b) Pradesthi
(c) Prasethi
(d) Poura administration
Answer:
(a) Samaharta

Question 92.
What was the name of the capital of the Mauryan kingdom?
(a) Kanouja
(b) Pataliputra
(c) Rajagriha
(d) Kosambi
Answer:
(b) Pataliputra

Question 93.
“Astadasa Tirtha” were placed at the time of which king?
(a) Chandragupta Maurya
(b) Chandragupta II
(c) Kaniska
(d) Harsavardhan
Answer:
(a) Chandragupta Maurya

Question 94.
For the municipal corporation of Pataliputra how many departments were constructed?
(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 7
Answer:
(c) 6

Question 95.
In the Mauryan kingdom what was the name of the capital of Uttarapath state?
(a) Taxasila
(b) Ujjaini
(c) Pataliputra
(d) Rajgriha
Answer:
(a) Taxasila

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 96.
In the Mauryan kingdom what was the name of the capital of Dakshinapath state?
(a) Pataliputra
(b)Ayodhya
(c) Taxasila
(d) Subamagiri
Answer:
(d) Subamagiri

Question 97.
Magadha was famous and popular in which another name in Mauryan Age?
(a) Tosali
(b) Taxila
(c) Jaugarh
(d) Prachi
Answer:
(d) Prachi

Question 98.
From which book it known that a naval unit existed in the Mauryan military administration?
(a) Indika
(b) Mudrarakshas
(c) Arthasastra
(d) Mahabhasya
Answer:
(c) Arthasastra

Question 99.
What was the designation of state administrators in the Mauryan administration or in which name they were adorned?
(a) Pradesika
(b) Rajya-adhikari
(c) Kumara
(d) Prasasaka
Answer:
(c) Kumara

Question 100.
In the Mauryan administration, the states were renowned in which name?
(a) Bhukti
(b) Janapada
(c) Jilla
(d) Mahala
Answer:
(b) Janapada

Question 101.
In ancient India which era is regarded as the golden era?
(a) Vedic era
(b) Buddhist era
(c) Mauryan era
(d) Gupta era
Answer:
(d) Gupta era

Question 102.
Which Chinese ambassador who came to India at the time of Chandragupta II has given utmost importance to social life?
(a) Hiuen-Tsang
(b) Megasthenes
(c) Fa-hien
(d) I-tsing
Answer:
(c) Fa-hien

Question 103.
In Gupta Age with which country there was a continuous trade relationship?
(a) Egypt
(b) Arab
(c) Rome
(d) Japan
Answer:
(c) Rome

Question 104.
What was National Emblem in Gupta Age?
(a) Goddess Laxmi
(b) Goddess Saraswati
(c) Eagle
(d) Hanuman
Answer:
(c) Eagle

Question 105.
In India which literature creator is regarded as the “Shakespeare of India”?
(a) Kalidasa
(b) Vishakhadutta
(c) Vishnu Sharma
(d) Buddhaghosa
Answer:
(a) Kalidasa

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 106.
Who has written “Kumara Sambhava”?
(a) Bharabi
(b) Kalidasa
(c) Sudraka
(d) Visakhadutta
Answer:
(b) Kalidasa

Question 107.
Name of the play writer of SakuntaIa”?
(a) Kalidasa
(b) Sudraka
(c) Bharabi
(d) Bishnu Sharma
Answer:
(a) Kalidasa

Question 108.
“Meghaduta” poem was written by whom?
(a) Bharabi
(b) Bhatti
(c) Magha
(d) Kalidasa
Answer:
(d) Kalidasa

Question 109.
The Great Epic “Raghuvansam” was written by whom?
(a) Vartuhari
(b) Bishnu Sharma
(c) Kalidasa
(d) Visakhadutta
Answer:
(c) Kalidasa

Question 110.
Which writer has created the play “Malabikagnimitra”?
(a) Vishakhadutta
(b) Bhatti
(c) Kalidasa
(d) Barahamihira
Answer:
(c) Kalidasa

Question 111.
Which English writer has translated the “Sakuntala” of Kalidas into the English language?
(a) William Shakespeare
(b) Sir William Johnes
(c) Charles Dickens
(d) Robert Frost
Answer:
(b) Sir WiHiam Johnes

Question 112.
The social play “Mrichhakatika” is written by whom?
(a) Sudraka
(b) Bharavi
(c) Kalidasa
(d) Bhaui
Answer:
(a) Sudraka

Question 113.
Kalidasa has adorned which king’s Assembly?
(a) Chandragupta I
(b) Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya)
(c) Skanda Gupta
(d) Kumaragupta
Answer:
(b) Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya)

Question 114.
The famous play “Mudraraksbasa” was written by whom?
(a) Kalidasa
(b) Buddhaghosa
(c) Bharavi
(d) Vishakhadutta
Answer:
(d) Vishakhadutta

Question 115.
“Devi Chandraguptam” play was written by whom?
(a) Vishnu Sharma
(b) Vishakhadufla
(c) Barahainihira
(d) Bararuchi
Answer:
(b) Vishakhadutta

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 116.
Who has written “Tini Sataka”?
(a) Buddhaghosa
(b) Visakhaduita
(c) Bhartuhari
(d) Sudraka
Answer:
(c) Bhartuhari

Question 117.
In Gupta Age, the famous literary willing “Panchatantra” is written by whom?
(a) Kalidasa
(b) Rharavi
(c) Dandi
(d) Bishnu Sharrna
Answer:
(d) Bishnu Sharma

Question 118.
Who was the author of “Kiratarjunium”?
(a) Bharabi
(b) Birasena
(c) Kalidasa
(d) Vishakhadutta
Answer:
(a) Bharabi

Question 119.
“Padya Chudamani” is written by whom?
(a) Bhartuhari
(b) Kalidasa
(c) E3uddhaghosa
(d) Bharabi
Answer:
(c) Buddbaghosa

Question 120:
Who was the author of “Dasakumara Chai-ita”?
(a) Dandi
(b) Magha
(c) Bharabi
(d) Bhatti
Answer:
(a) Dandi

Question 121.
“Basabadutta” was written by whom?
(a) Kalidasa
(b) Subandhu
(c) Basubandhu
(d) Amarasmgha
Answer:
(b) Subandhu

Question 122.
Who was the author of “Amarakosha”?
(a) Amarasingha
(b) Basubandhu
(c) Kalidasa
(d) Bliarabi
Answer:
(a) Amarasingha

Question 123.
‘Astadhyayi’ was written by whom?
(a) Amarasingha
(b) Panini
(c) Batsyayana
(d) Patanjali
Answer:
(b) Panini

Question 124.
“Kamasutra” was written by whom?
(a) Paninin
(b) Amarasingha
(c) Batsyayana
(d) Bharabi
Answer:
(c) Batsyayana

Question 125.
Who is the author of the books “Arya Siddhanta”, “Arya-Bhattutan” and “Sur Siddhanta”?
(a) Aryabhatta
(b) Barahamihira
(c) Buddhaghosa
(d) Kalidasa
Answer:
(a) Aryabbatta

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 126.
Who was the author of the futurelogles text of “Pancha-Siddhanta”, “Brihatsanglta” and “Brihat Jataka”?
(a) Kalidasa
(b) Barahamihira
(c) Brahmagupta
(d) Aryabhatta
Answer:
(b) Barahamihira

Question 127.
“Brahma Siddhanta” and “Khanda Khadyaka” etc. science texts are written by whom?
(a) Barahamihira
(b) Kalidasa
(c) Brahmagupta
(d) Aryabhatta
Answer:
(c) Brahmagupta

Question 128.
“Hastayurveda” is written by whom?
(a) Salihotra
(b) Palakapya
(c) Patanjali V
(d) Susutra
Answer:
(b) Palakapya

Question 129.
Who wrote “Asvasastra”?
(a) Palakapya
(b) Bharabi
(c) Salihotra
(d) Brahmagupta
Answer:
(c) Salihotra

Question 130.
“Susruta Samhita” is written by whom
(a) Palakapya
(b) Bhatti
(c) Aryabhatta
(d) Susutra
Answer:
(d) Susruta

Question 131.
At Mebruli of Delhi, the Pillar Inscription was erected during which dynasty?
(a) Maurya dynasty
(b) Gupta dynasty
(c) Kushana dynasty
(d) Satavahan dynasty
Answer:
(b) Gupta dynasty

Question 132.
Who has given information regarding the Solar eclipse and Lunar eclipse
(a) Aryabhatta
(b) Barahamihira
(c) Vishakhadutta
(d) Kalidasa
Answer:
(a) Aryabhatta

Question 133.
In how many numbers of the cave of Ajanta’s “Dying princess” drawing ¡s engraved?
(a) 12 number
(b) 14 number
(c) 15 number
(d) 16 number
Answer:
(d) 16 number

Question 134.
In which number of Ajanta cave the picture of “Mother and son” is engraved?
(a) 14 number
(b) 15 number
(c) 16 number
(d) 17 number
Answer:
(d) 17 number

Question 135.
“Renunciation of the family by Gautama’1 picture is installed in how many numbers of Ajanta caves?
(a) 16 number
(b) 17 number
(c) 18 number
(d) 19 number
Answer:
(d) 19 number

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 136.
Long before Newton who has given information regarding gravitational force?
(a) Brahmagupta
(b) Aiyabhatta
(c) Baraharnihira
(d) Kalidasa
Answer:
(a) Brahmagupta

Question 137.
Who is popular as the “Father of surgery”?
(a) Charaka
(b) Susruta
(c) Palakasya
(d) Salihotra
Answer:
(b) Susruia

Question 138.
Who has given Information regarding the decimal system and zero?
(a) Brahmagupta
(b) Barahamihira
(c) Aryabhatta
(d) Vishakhadutta
Answer:
(c) Aryabhatta

Question 139.
The Gupta kings were the patronizer of which religion?
(a) Buddhism
(b) Jainism
(c) Brahmanical Hinduism
(d) Christianism
Answer:
(c) Brahmanical Hinduism

Question 140.
Which Gupta king adorned the title of “Kabiraya’?
(a) Chandragupta I
(b) Samudragupta
(c) Chandragupta II
(d) Asoka
Answer:
(b) Samudragupta

Question 141.
In ancient India who is regarded as “Indian Napoleon”?
(a) Chandragupta I
(b) Chandragupta
(c) Samudragupta
(d) Asoka
Answer:
(c) Samudragupta

Question 142.
Which Gupta king celebrated “AsvamedhaYagna”?
(a) Samudragupta
(b) Chandragupta I
(c) Skanda Gupta
(d) Chandragupta II
Answer:
(a) Samudragupta

Question 143.
Which Buddha hermit adorned the court of Samudragupta?
(a) Tathag4ta
(b) Upagupta
(c) Mogaliputtatisa
(d) Basuvandhu
Answer:
(a) Basuvandhu

Question 144.
Who is the author of “Sankhya kanika”
(a) Iswarakrushna
(b) Patanjali
(c) Batsyayana
(d) BarahamihiraA
Answer:
(a) Iswarakrushna

Question 145.
Asha Katha” is written by whom?
(a) Digrara
(b) Buddhaghosa
(c) Basubandhu
(d) Asanga
Answer:
(b) Buddhaghosa

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 146.
Ritusamhara” is written by whom?
(a) Bishakhadutta
(b) Sudrka
(c) Kalidasa
(d) Barahamihira
Answer:
(c) Kalidasa

Question 147.
Who has compiled the Allahabad pillar inscription?
(a) Samudragupta
(b) Bishnu Sharma
(c) Sudraka
(d) Harisena
Answer:
(d) Harisena

Question 148.
Whose picture came to light at the 2nd number cave of Ajanta?
(a) Rama-Sita
(b) Siba-Parvati
(c) Birth of Buddha
(d) Enlightenment of Mahavira
Answer:
(c) Birth of Buddha

Question 149.
Who has circulated the “Raja-Rani” coin?
(a) Asoka
(b) Kharavela
(c) Samudragupta
(d) Chandragupta I
Answer:
(d) Chandragupta I

Question 150.
Where is the ‘Dasavatara Temple” of the Gupta clan situated?
(a) Tigwa
(b) Bhuman
(c) Deogarh
(d) Jhansi
Answer:
(c) Deogarh

Fill in the Blanks.

Question 1.
In _________ century B.C. Jainism had Buddhism is regarded as the developed religious structure in India.
Answer:
Sixth

Question 2.
_________ was regarded as the twenty-third Tirthankara of Jainism.
Answer:
Parsuanath

Question 3.
At Nalanda, Niahavira came In relation with the hermit named _________.
Answer:
Gosala Makhaliputra.

Question 4.
Right faith right action right knowledge is regarded as _________ in Jainism.
Answer:
Tri-Ratna

Question 5.
Mahavir was born in _________ kshetriya clan.
Answer:
Jnatrika

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 6.
In the earliest Indian Videha state in _________ village, Mahavira was born.
Answer:
Kundargrama

Question 7.
Who was the first Tirthankara of Jainism?
Answer:
Rishavanath

Question 8..
Mahavira was _________ number Tirthankara in Jainism.
Answer:
24th

Question 9.
Mother of Mahavira belongs to _________ dynasty.
Answer:
Lichhabi

Question 10.
Mahavira got enlightenment under a sal tree near in _________ village.
Answer:
Zumbika

Question 11.
Mahavira got enlightenment near in the bank of _________ river.
Answer:
Rajupalika

Question 12.
Name of the wife of Mahavira as _________.
Answer:
Yasoda

Question 13.
Name of the daughter of Mahavira as _________.
Answer:
Priyadarsini

Question 14.
In _________ place, the death of Mahavira occurred.
Answer:
Pava

Question 15.
Mahavira assembled as the fifth principle with _________ parsunaths four truths.
Answer:
Observe chatity

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 16.
Kalinga king _________ was the chief pioneer of Jainism.
Answer:
Kharavela.

Question 17.
Jaineees caves are found in _________ place of Odisha.
Answer:
Udayagiri

Question 18.
Mahavira preached his principles in _________ language.
Answer:
Ardha Magadha

Question 19.
Who is known as Nataputra?
Answer:
Varthatnan Mahavira

Question 20.
The religious script of Jainism is known as _________.
Answer:
Kalpasutra

Question 21.
At first, Jainism was popular in _________ class.
Answer:
Trader

Question 22.
Goutam Buddha was born in _________ garden of Kapilabassu.
Answer:
Lumbini

Question 23.
_________ was the father of Goutam Buddha.
Answer:
Suðdhodana.

Question 24.
_________was the mother of Goutam Buddha.
Answer:
Mayadevi

Question 25.
_________ was the wife of Gautama Buddha.
Answer:
Yasodhara.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 26.
Buddadeva belongs to _________ Kshetriya clan.
Answer:
Skya

Question 27.
Buddha was the preacher of _________ path.
Answer:
MiddIe

Question 28.
In course of time, the meditated place of Buddha came to be known as _________.
Answer:
Buddhagaya

Question 29.
In later times the name of the pipal tree (where Buddha got enlightenment) known as _________.
Answer:
Biddhitre

Question 30.
_________ is regarded as the light of Asia.
Answer:
Gotham Buddha

Question 31.
Swetambara and Digambara is the two classes of _________ religion.
Answer:
Jainism

Question 32.
The Jalna marble temples of _________ hill in Rajasthan are attractive in enormous art sculpture.
Answer:
Mount Abu

Question 33.
Khandagirl and Udayagiri of Odisha shows _________art and sculpiure.
Answer:
Jainism

Question 34.
In 512 B.C. the Jaina conference was held in the presidentship of _________.
Answer:
Nagarjuna

Question 35.
Though Siddhartha was born in the Sakva dynasty, he was called _________.
Answer:
Sakyasingha

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 36.
Budhadeva is renowned as _________.
Answer:
Indian Father

Question 37.
Tunning of the wheel of Law ¡n Buddhism is regarded as _________.
Answer:
First preacting of religion

Question 38.
In _________ place, Buddbadeva delivered his first sermon.
Answer:
Saranath

Question 39.
The religious script of Buddhism is known as _________.
Answer:
Tripit

Question 40.
Family renunciation of Goutama Buddha is known in Buddhist script as _________.
Answer:
Mahaviniskramana

Question 41.
Buddhadeva got enlightenment under _________tree.
Answer:
Pipal

Question 42.
Huddhadeva got some food from _________ named village girl.
Answer:
Sujata

Question 43.
Prostitute Ambapali accepted _________ religion.
Answer:
Buddhism

Question 44.
By discarding all self-centric options one can get eternnal happiness and it is called us _________in Buddhist principle.
Answer:
Nirvana

Question 45.
The death of Buddhadeva Is known In Buddhist script as _________.
Answer:
Mahapari Nirvana

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 46.
Tripitaka is divided in _________ parts.
Answer:
3 (three)

Question 47.
Name of Tripitaka as Sutrapitaka _________ pitaka & Abhidharma pitaka.
Answer:
Binaya

Question 48.
According to Goutama Buddha _________ was the cause of all sorrows.
Answer:
Desire

Question 49.
Hinayana and Mahayana are two classes of _________ religion.
Answer:
Buddhism

Question 50.
Ajanta and Ellora’s art is the marvellous episodes of _________ religion.
Answer:
Buddhism

Question 51.
From the Chinese description, it is known that an enormous tower was built in _________ capital city of Kaniska.
Answer:
Purusapura

Question 52.
In general, Buddhism was preached in _________ language.
Answer:
Prakrit

Question 53.
Mahavira passed away in _________B.C.
Answer:
468

Question 54.
The birth of Goutama Buddha has in _________B.C.
Answer:
566

Question 55.
Gautama Buddha was nourished by his aunt _________.
Answer:
Goutami

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 56.
Buddha preached his discovered truth at first at _________.
Answer:
Saranath

Question 57.
The religious book of Buddhism is _________.
Answer:
Tripitaka

Question 58.
The early name of Mahavira was _________.
Answer:
Bardhamana

Question 59.
Goutama Buddha’s early name was _________.
Answer:
Siddhartha

Question 60.
_________ presided over the first Buddhist conference held in 486B.C.
Answer:
Mahakasyapa

Question 61.
The first Buddhist conference was held at _________.
Answer:
Rajagriha

Question 62.
By the guidance of Kalasoka, the Buddhist conference at _________ had the utmost importance.
Answer:
Baisali

Question 63.
_________ was the president of the third Buddhist council organised by Asoka.
Answer:
Mogaliputtatisa.

Question 64.
By the presidentship of Vasumitra in the fourth Buddhist conference, _________ was the Vice President.
Answer:
Asvaghosa.

Question 65.
In the lifetime of Buddhadeva _________ king had taken discipleship of his.
Answer:
Bimbisara

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 66.
With king Bimbisara his son _________ had initiated Buddhism.
Answer:
Ajatasatru

Question 67.
In later times the _________ king of Kosala initiated Buddhism.
Answer:
Prasenjit

Question 68.
The eminent trader of Kosala _________ had taken initiation from Bddhadeva.
Answer:
Anathapindika

Question 69.
_________ was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty.
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya

Question 70.
In Mauryan administration, the head of the village was called as _________.
Answer:
Gramika

Question 71.
The coronation festival of king Asoka was celebrated in _________ B.C.
Answer:
269

Question 72.
By _________ Asoka took initiation of Buddhism.
Answer:
Hermit Upagupta

Question 73.
The central point of Mauryan administration was _________.
Answer:
King

Question 74.
In the Mauryan administration, the spy was called _________.
Answer:
Sancharaka.

Question 75.
The thirteenth Rock Edict of Asoka is situated at _________.
Answer:
Sahabazgarh

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 76.
_________ Rock Edict narrates regarding the Kalinga war of Asoka.
Answer:
Thirteenth

Question 77.
In _________ year after the coronation of Asoka, he invaded Kalinga.
Answer:
Eighth

Question 78.
Kalinga war was held _________ in B.C.
Answer:
261

Question 79.
The capital of Kalinga was _________.
Answer:
Tosali

Question 80.
Svannagiri was the capital of _________.
Answer:
Dakshinapath

Question 81.
From _________ ambassador’s description, many things regarding the power of Kalinga is known.
Answer:
Meghasthenes

Question 82.
_________ historian has opined that the Kalinga war was an eminent incident in world history.
Answer:
Bhinsent smithgan

Question 83.
In the Mauryan administration, the states were divided into _________.
Answer:
Visaya.

Question 84.
At the time of King, Ashoka _________ were the collectors of tax.
Answer:
Rajuka

Question 85.
At the time of King, Chandragupta _________ was the capital city of Pataliputra.
Answer:
Prachya

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 86.
Taxila was the capital of _________ state.
Answer:
Uttarapath

Question 87.
Regional treasurers were called as _________
Answer:
Yikta

Question 88.
In Asokan administration, the entire Mauryan Kingdom was a _________ state.
Answer:
Welfare state

Question 89.
The designation of the national herald was first given to _________.
Answer:
Chandragupta.

Question 90.
At the time of Asoka, the minister council was popular as _________.
Answer:
Parisha

Question 91.
At the time of Asoka, the chief of revenue collections was named as _________.
Answer:
Samahara

Question 92.
In the Mauryan administration, the defence workers of palaces were called as _________.
Answer:
Durgapala

Question 93.
After the Kalinga war, Bherighosa was converted to Chosa.
Answer:
Dharma

Question 94.
Son of Asoka _________was the administrator of Taxila.
Answer:
Kunala

Question 95.
In Mauryan administration, the Law administrator of a district was known as _________.
Answer:
Visayapati

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 96.
From Meghasthene’s account, it is known that In Mauryan administration in citie _________administration was continuing.
Answer:
Self-dependant

Question 97.
_________was in charge of the labourers.
Answer:
Gop

Question 98.
The head of _________unit was known as Visayapati.
Answer:
District.

Question 99.
At the time of Asoka, the district treasury was in the charge of _________.
Answer:
Vukta

Question 100.
Asoka is compared with _________ in christianism.
Answer:
Saint Ra1

Question 101.
Asoka was dead in _________ B.C.
Answer:
232

Question 102.
The last king of the Maurya dynasty was _________.
Answer:
Brihadrath

Question 103.
From the hereditary sayings of _________ country, it is known that there was a strength colonialism of Kalinga there.
Answer:
Burma

Question 104.
From _________ Greek writer, it was known that maximum strengthened war elephants were in the Kalinga army.
Answer:
Dayodenas

Question 105.
_________Mauryan king adorned himself as Amitraghata tile.
Answer:
Bindusara.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 106.
Preaching of Buddhism King Asoka has sent his son and daughter to _________ country.
Answer:
Srilanka.

Question 107.
Preaching of Buddha religion Asoka has sent to _________ and _________ Bodudha hermits to Burma.
Answer:
Sona and Uttara

Question 108.
Peachin of religion Asoka has created a new close of officials name of it as _________.
Answer:
Dharma Mahamatra

Question 109.
To know about Mauryan administration the archival information of _________ king is important.
Answer:
King Asoka

Question 110.
To know the importance of the Mauryan administrative system _________ historical text is important.
Answer:
Arthasastra.

Question 111.
In Maurvan administration _________ department was called as Kantakasodhana.
Answer:
TriaI department

Question 112.
_________ King is considered as Devanam priya Priyadarshi.
Answer:
Asoka

Question 113.
Saranath Buddhist tower was constructed by _________.
Answer:
Asoka

Question 114.
In Mauryan military administration there was a naval unit and it was known from _________book of Kautilya.
Answer:
Arthasastra

Question 115.
In Maurvan times the state administrators were called as _________.
Answer:
Kumara

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 116.
_________ age is described as the golden age in ancient India.
Answer:
Gupta

Question 117.
Fahian the Chinese ambassador come to India in the reign of _________.
Answer:
Chandragupta II

Question 118.
In Gupta Age, India had trade relationships with _________ foreign country.
Answer:
Rome

Question 119.
The kingly symbol in the Gupta administration was _________.
Answer:
Garuda

Question 120.
_________ eminent written is called in India as Indian Shakespeare.
Answer:
Kalidasa

Question 121.
Kumara Sambhava was written by _________.
Answer:
Kalidasa

Question 122.
Shakuntala was written by _________.
Answer:
Kalidasa

Question 123.
Lyric poem Meghadutta was composed by _________.
Answer:
Kalidasa

Question 124.
The great Lyrical poem Raghuvamsa ¡s composed by _________.
Answer:
Kalidasa

Question 125.
Drama Malabikagnimitram was created by _________.
Answer:
Kalidasa

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 126.
Which English poet translated Shakuntala into the English language?
Answer:
Sir William Johns.

Question 127.
Kalidas adorned the count of King _________.
Answer:
Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya)

Question 128.
The famous drama Mudrarakshasa was written by _________.
Answer:
Visakhadutta

Question 129.
Drama Devichandraguptam was written by _________.
Answer:
Visakhadutta.

Question 130.
The book Tinisataka was written by _________.
Answer:
Bhatruhari

Question 131.
The eminent literary composition Panchatantra of the Gupta age was written by _________.
Answer:
Bishnu Sharma

Question 132.
_________ wrote Kiratarjuniyam.
Answer:
Bharabi

Question 133.
Padyachudamani was written by _________.
Answer:
Buddhaghosa

Question 134.
Dasakumaracharita was written by _________.
Answer:
Dandi

Question 135.
_________ wrote Basabadulta.
Answer:
Subandhu

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 136.
Amarakosha was written by _________.
Answer:
Amarasingha

Question 137.
Astadhyayi was written by _________.
Answer:
Panini

Question 138.
Kamasutra was written by _________.
Answer:
Batsyayana

Question 139.
Aryasiddhanta was written by _________.
Answer:
Aryabhatta

Question 140.
The astrological book Brihatsamhita was written by _________.
Answer:
Barahamihira

Question 141.
The scientific book Brahma-Siddhanta was written by _________.
Answer:
Brahmagupta

Question 142.
Hastayurvada was written by _________.
Answer:
Palakapya.

Question 143.
_________wrote Asvasastra.
Answer:
Solthotra

Question 144.
Susruta Samhita was ‘written by _________ .
Answer:
Susruta

Question 145.
The mehenulli Iron pillar inscription of Delhi was constructed in _________ age.
Answer:
Gupta

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 146.
_________had given opinion regarding solar eclipse and Lunar eclipse.
Answer:
Aryabhatta

Question 147.
In _________ number Ajanta cave, the Dying princess picture is seen.
Answer:
16

Question 148.
In _________ number cave, there was a drawing of the picture of mother and son.
Answer:
17

Question 149.
The renunciation of the family by Gautama Buddha was picturised in _________ number of Ajanta cave.
Answer:
19

Question 150.
Long before lsewton ________ eminent personality of India gave information regarding gravitational force.
Answer:
Brabmagupta

Question 151.
________ is regarded as the father of surgery.
Answer:
Susruta

Question 152.
_________has given information regarding the mathematical decimal system and the use of zero.
Answer:
Aryabhatta

Question 153.
The Gupta kings were the patrons _________ of religion.
Answer:
Brahmanya Hindu

Question 154.
_________Guptaking was adorned as Kabirya in ancient lndia.
Answer:
Samudragupta.

Question 155.
At the time of _________Gupta king horse sacrifice, Yajna was celebrated.
Answer:
Samudragupta

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 156.
_________ was the Buddhist hermit who adorned the court of Samudragupta.
Answer:
Vasubandhu

Question 157.
Sankhyakanika was written by _________.
Answer:
Iswarakrushna

Question 158.
Athakatha was written by _________.
Answer:
Buddhaghosa

Question 159.
Ritusam bara was written by _________.
Answer:
Kalidasa

Question 160.
__________ was the composer of Allahabad prasasti
Answer:
Harishena

Question 161.
In _________ number cave of Ajanta, the picture of Buddhas birth ¡s seen.
Answer:
Two

162.
_________king of Gupta empire circulated King-Queen coin.
Answer:
Chandragupta I

Question 163.
The Dasabatara temple of the Gupta age is seen at _________.
Answer:
Deogarh

Question 164.
In 453 A.D. a Jaina conference was arranged at _________.
Answer:
Pillavi.

Question 165.
Drama Uruvanga was written by _________.
Answer:
Rhasa

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Objective Questions

Question 166.
Kabyadarsha was the legendary creation of _________.
Answer:
Dandin.

Question 167.
In the Gupta age, Parvati temple was situated at _________.
Answer:
Nachnakutar

Question 168.
Gupta King _________ gave permission to the king of Srilanka Megha Sarna to construct a Buddhist temple at Boddhagaa.
Answer:
Samudragupta

Question 169.
Guptabda began from _________ AD.
Answer:
320

Question 170.
The eminent dramatist in the Gupta age was _________.
Answer:
Kalidasa

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Very Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When Mahavira preached the religion of Jainism and in total there were how many Tirthankaras in Jainism?
Answer:
In the 6th century B.C. Mahavira preached the religion of Jainism and in total one after another, there were twenty-four Tirthankaras in Jainism.

Question 2.
Who was the first Tirthankara and so also who was the last Tirthankara of Jainism?
Answer:
Rishavanath was the first Tirthankara was Jainism. The 24th or the last Tirthankara of Jainism was Mahavir Vardhaman.

Question 3.
Who was the just previous “Tirthankara” of Mahavira and how many years before Mahavira was he born?
Answer:
Parsvanath was the just previous Tirthankara of Mahavira. He had bom two hundred and fifty years before Mahavir.

Question 4.
The twenty-third Tirthankara Parsvanath convocated how many vows and what are they.
Answer:
The twenty-third Tirthankara Parasavanath convocated four vows. They are truth non-violence, non-stealing, and non-attachment.

Question 5.
Mahavir was born in the village of which kingdom?
Answer:
Mahavir was bom in the village kundagrama near to Vaisali of the kingdom of Videha.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 6.
What was the nickname of Mahavira and who were the parents of Mahavira?
Answer:
The nickname of Mahavira was Vardhaman. The name his father was Siddhartha he belongs to the Jnatrika clan and the name of his mother was Trisala.

Question 7.
For which purpose Mahavira left home and at first meet which saint?
Answer:
For the purpose of obtaining the truth, Mahavira left home. At first, he met the leader of the Aryavika tribe Gosala Mankhaliputra.

Question 8.
After the attainment of supreme knowledge in which designation. He was popular and after that in which work he engaged?
Answer:
After supreme knowledge, he was popular with the designation of “Kevalin”. After that knowledge, Mahavir lived the life of a wandering teacher and preached his doctrines.

Question 9.
Mahavira breathed his last at which age and where?
Answer:
Mahavira breathed his last at the age of 72 at a place called Pava in the Patna district of Bihar.

Question 10.
Which two dynasties mourned at the death of this great teacher Mahavira?
Answer:
The Lichachhavis and the Mallas mourned the death of this great teacher by burning lamps as a symbol of the Mahavira spirit.

Question 11.
What were the four principles of parsvanath and to which principle Mahavira added with it?
Answer:
The four principles of Parsvanath were truth, non-violence, non-stealing, and non-attachment. Mahavira added the principle of chastity observation as the fifth principle.

Question 12.
How many sets are in Jainism and what are they?
Answer:
There are two sets in Jainism. They are svetambara and digambara..

Question 13.
What is Triratna or the three-fold path of Jainism?
Answer:
The Triratna or threefold path in Jainism was right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct.

Question 14.
Mahavir advocated the doctrine of which philosophy in extreme form and he attributed life to which aspects?
Answer:
Mahavir advocated the doctrine of non-violence or Ahimsa in extreme form. He attributed life to plants, animals, metals, and water and urged non-injury to them.

Question 15.
What are the religious texts of Jainism?
Answer:
The religious texts of Jainism are Anga, Upanga, and Kalpa sutra.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 16.
In the 6th century B.C. which clan had established a republican state and who was the elected chief of it?
Answer:
In the 6th century B.C. the Sakya clan had established a republican state. The father of Gautama Buddha, Suddhodan was its elected chief.

Question 17.
When Gautama Buddha was born and where?
Answer:
Goutama Buddha was bom 566 B.C. at Lumbinivana in the Sakya country.

Question 18.
Who was the mother of Gautama Buddha and she died how many days after the birth of Gautama Buddha?
Answer:
The mother of Gautama Buddha was Maya Devi. She died Seven days after the birth of Gautama Buddha.

Question 19.
What was the justification for the name of Buddha as Gautama?
Answer:
After the death of Buddha’s mother, his rearing rested on his aunt Gautami. According to her name, the name of Buddha is Gautama.

Question 20.
At which age was Gautama married to whom?
Answer:
At the age of sixteen, Gautama married Yasodhara on Gopa, sister of Devadatta.

Question 21.
Which “four great signs” deeply affected the mind of Gautama?
Answer:
The four great signs which deeply affected the mind of Gautama were an old man, a cripple, a corpse, and an ascetic.

Question 22.
For which purpose Gautama Buddha renounced worldly life and in Buddhist scripture what is called this renunciation?
Answer:
In the search for truth, Gautama Buddha renounced worldly life Gautama is known in Buddhist scriptures as “Mahavinish Kramana”.

Question 23.
Gautama learned the doctrine of Sankhya philosophy and the art of meditation from which ascetics?
Answer:
Gautama learned the art of Sankhya Philosophy from the ascetic Arada Kalama at Vaisala. He also learned the art of meditation from Rudraka Ramputra at Rajagriha.

Question 24.
While Gautama was in deep meditation at which place he was offered milk by which village girl?
Answer:
While Gautama was in deep meditation at Kuruvilla he was offered milk by the village girl Sujata.

Question 25.
After the attainment of enlightenment Gautama was popular by which name?
Answer:
After the attainment of Enlightenment Gautama was popular in earning the name Buddhadeva.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 26.
According to Buddhist literature, what is the meaning of the title “turning the wheel of law” (Dharma-chakra pravartana)?
Answer:
According to the Buddhist literature after enlightenment Buddha proceeded at first to Samath near Bananas. He delivered his first sermon to five learned Brahmanas. This is called in Buddhist literature “turning the wheel of Law” (Dharma-chakra pravartana)

Question 27.
After enlightenment Buddha embraced which life and covered up to how many years?
Answer:
After enlightenment Buddha embraced the life of a missionary as a preacher of truth. It covered a period of 45 years.

Question 28.
Buddha converted his creed to many illustrious figures and who are they?
Answer:
Buddha converted his creed to many illustrious figures. They were Bimbisara, Ajatasatru, Sariputta and Maudgalayana.

Question 29.
Which king of Kosala listened to the Buddha’s discourses and which queen and two sisters became Buddha’s disciples?
Answer:
King Prasenjit of Kosala listened to the Buddha’s discourses. One of his queens Mallika and his two sisters became Buddha’s disciples.

Question 30.
While staying at Vaisali, Buddha converted to which courtesan to his faith and also gave consent to the formation of which union?
Answer:
While staying at Vaisali, Buddha converted to courtesan Ambapali to his faith. Buddha gave his consent to the formation of Bhikshuni Sangha.

Question 31.
Which is the earliest available source of Buddha’s teachings and what are they?
Answer:
The earliest available source of Buddhas teachings is the pali pitakas and nikayas. The pitakas consist of three parts the Vinaya pitaka, Sutra pitaka and Abhidharma pitaka.

Question 32.
Buddhadeva asked his disciples to comprehend how many noble truths and what are they.
Answer:
Buddha asked his disciples to comprehend four noble truths. They are:

  • life is full of suffering
  • the cause of suffering is desire and attachment
  • suffering can be ended by the destruction of desire
  • there is a way (Marga or Path) for the destruction of desire.

Question 33.
For deliverance from suffering Buddha outlined which path and what are they.
Answer:
For deliverance from suffering Buddha outlined an eightfold path (Astangika Marga). They are right speech, right action, right means of livelihood, right exertion, right-mindedness, right meditation, right resolution, and right point of view.

Question 34.
Which observance leads to the attainment of Nirvana or salvation?
Answer:
The observance of the sila and attainments of the samadhi and prajna would lead to nirvana or salvation.

Question 35.
What was the central theme of the moral code of Buddha and Buddha urged his followers to avoid which way?
Answer:
The middle path or the Majjhima path was the central theme of the moral code of Buddha. Buddha urged his followers to avoid the extreme path.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 36.
Buddha did not preach his doctrines in which language rather he preached it in which language?
Answer:
Buddha did not preach his doctrines in the Sanskrit language. But he preached it Magadhi i.e., the language of the people.

Question 37.
When the first Buddhist council was convened and where it was held under the auspices of whom?
Answer:
The first Buddhist council was convened a few weeks after Buddha’s death in the year 487 B.C. It was held at Rajagriha under the auspices of Ajatasatru.

Question 38.
Where the second Buddhist council was held and in which year?
Answer:
The second Buddhist council was held at Vaisali almost a century after Buddha purinirvaha or demise. The time of the second council is in and about 387 B.C.

Question 39.
The third Buddhist council was convoked by the presidentship of which Buddhist monk and when?
Answer:
The third Buddhist council was convoked by the Presidentship of eminent Buddhist monk Moggalpur a jiha in the year 251 B.C.

Question 40.
By whose auspices the fourth Buddhist council was summoned and where?
Answer:
By the auspices of Kanishka I the fourth Buddhist council was summoned. It was the last Buddhist council held at Kundala van vihar in Kashmir.

Question 41.
How many creeds were in Buddhism and what were those? Which age saw the emergence of a new creed?
Answer:
There were two creeds in Buddhism and those were Hinayana and Mahayana. The Kahana age shows the emergence of a new crowd of Mahajan.

Question 42.
In Odisha where the Buddha chronicles are found?
Answer:
In Odisha, we found Buddhist chronicles at Ratnagiri and Lalitgiri.

Question 43.
After which Mauryan king when Ashoka ascended the throne?
Answer:
After the Mauryan king, Bindusara Ashoka ascended the throne in 273 B.C.

Question 44.
For which reason the coronation of Ashoka was delayed for four years?
Answer:
For the fratricidal war it was anticipated that the coronation of Ashoka was delayed for four years i.e., it was held o 279 B.C.

Question 45.
When Ashok was a prince he was appointed as the governor of which state and after ascending the throne he assumed which title?
Answer:
When Ashok was a prince he was appointed as the governor of Taxila. After ascending the throne he assumed the title “Devanampriya Priyadasi Ashok”.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 46.
In the eighth year of his reign, Asoka invaded which country in which B.C.?
Answer:
In the eighth year of his reign, Asoka invaded Kaling in 261 B.C.

Question 47.
The material prosperity of Kalinga country was augmented by commercial relations with which countries?
Answer:
The material prosperity of Kalinga country was augmented by commercial relations with Malay, Java, and Ceylon.

Question 48.
Which Rock edict of Asoka has described the Kalinga war and the appealing story of Carnage, death, and deportation of the people of Kalinga?
Answer:
The rock edict XIII of Asoka has described regarding Kalinga war and the appealing story of carriage death and deportation of the people.

Question 49.
The policy of “Verighosha” was converted to which policy after Kalinga War?
Answer:
The policy of “Verighosa” was converted to “Dharmaghosha” after the Kalinga war.

Question 50.
On Rock edict, VIII Asoka narrates that in the tenth year of his reign he converted to which Yatra to what?
Answer:
In Rock edict, VIII Asoka narrates that in the tenth year of his reign he converted Vihar-yatras (pleasure tours) to Dharma yatras (Religious tours)

Question 51.
It is described in which is rock edict Ashoka appointed a class of which officials to work for the temporal and spiritual welfare of the people.
Answer:
It is described in rock edict III that Ashoka appointed a class of officials called Dharma Mahamatras to work for the temporal and spiritual welfare of the people.

Question 52.
At the time of Ashoka when the third Buddhist council was convocated and what was the purpose of it?
Answer:
At the time of Ashoka, the third Buddhist council was convocated at Pataliputra. The purpose of it was an attempt to eliminate schism within the Buddhist Church.

Question 53.
Ashoka send to him which son and daughter were and what was the purpose of it.
Answer:
Ashoka sends his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Ceylon for the propagation of Buddhism.

Question 54.
Ashoka send which two Buddhist saints to the so-called golden land?
Answer:
Asoka sends the Buddhist saint Sura and Uttara for the propagation of the Buddhist religion to the golden land of Burma.

Question 55.
According to legends who was Karubaki and in which rock edict her name was engraved?
Answer:
According to legends, Karubaki was the princess of Utkal fisherman king. Her name was engraved in the Allahabad rock edict.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 56.
Which are the main source of information for the political and administrative system of the Mauryas?
Answer:
The main sources of information for the political and administrative system of the Mauryas are the Indika of Meghasthenes, the Arthasastra of Kautilya, and the inscriptions of Asoka.

Question 57.
In the Mauryan Administration who was the sovereign authority of the state and in which divine origin he was identified?
Answer:
In Mauryan, the Administration king was the sovereign authority of the state. He was identified with “Beloved of the Gods”.

Question 58.
In Maurya kingship enjoyed unlimited executive power and which author opined that “the king was the fountainhead of all powers”.
Answer:
In Mauryan kingship, the kings enjoyed unlimited executive power. The author Kautilya opined that the king was the fountainhead of all powers.

Question 59.
In which separate edict which Mauryan king declared that “All men are my children”?
Answer:
In a separate Kalinga edict, the Mauryan king Ashoka declared that “All men are my children”.

Question 60.
The Mantri-Parishad-in the Mauryan government was considered with Which Vedic organization and for it, we obtain information from which accounts?
Answer:
The Mantri-Parishad in the Mauryan government was considered with “Samiti” organization of the Vedic period. For it, we obtain information from Arthasastra and rock edict IE and VI of Ashoka.

Question 61.
The high officials in Mauryan times were styled in which position and in the Mauryan period the financial year began from which month?
Answer:
The high officials in Mauryan times were styled as “amateurs” corresponding to the councilors of Meghasthenes. In the Mauryan period the financial year began from Ashadha (July-August).

Question 62.
In Mauryan Administration the whole empire was divided into how many parts and what are they?
Answer:
In Mauryan Administration, the whole empire was divided into two parts. They are kingdoms under direct rule and vassal states.

Question 63.
During the kingship of Ashoka in the Mauryan age how many provinces were in the kingdom and what names of the capitals of those?
Answer:
During the time of Ashoka in the Mauryan age, there were five provinces. The capitals of these provinces were Taxila, Ujjaini, Tosali, Suvarragini, and Pataliputra.

Question 64.
The provinces were subdivided into which units and what was the name of the divided units of provinces in the frontier areas?
Answer:
The provinces were subdivided into Visayas. In the frontier areas, the Visayas were Probably named Pradesh.

Question 65.
In Mauryan Administration, the Visayas were divided into which units and the divided unit was a mixture of what?
Answer:
In Mauryan Administration the visayas were divided into Janapadas. Each Janapada has comprised of a mixture of the number of villages.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 66.
In the Mauryan provincial administration which was the lowest unit and who was the head of this unit?
Answer:
In Mauryan provincial administration village was the lowest unit. Gramika was the head of this unit.

Question 67.
The city administration in the Mauryan era was provided by a board of how many members and how many numbers in committees?
Answer:
The city administration in the Mauryan era was provided by a board of 30 members. The board was divided into 6nos. of committees.

Question 68.
From the description of which country it is known that the palace of Pataliputra is more decorative and decent looking in comparison with the palaces of Persian Susa and Ecbatana?
Answer:
From the description of the Greek country, it is known that the palace of Pataliputra is more decorative and decent looking in comparison with the palaces of Persian Susa and Ecbatana.

Question 69.
In the Mauryan administration what was the principal share of revenue and what was the proportion of land tax?
Answer:
In the Mauryan administration, the principal share of revenue was derived from the land. The proportion of land tax was one-sixth of the produce.

Question 70.
In the Mauryan administration who was the head of the judiciary and what was the name of the judges?
Answer:
In the Mauryan administration, the king was the head of the judiciary. He appointed many judges named Vyvaharika Mahamatras.

Question 71.
In the Mauryan justice administration, there were how many tribunals, and what were they?
Answer:
In the Mauryan justice administration, there were two types of tribunals as Dharmasthiya courts and the Kantakasodhana court.

Question 72.
The ancient Gupta age is considered to which age of ancient India and it was compared with which ages of the ancient world?
Answer:
The ancient Gupta age is considered the golden age of ancient India. This age was considered with Pericles’s age of Greece, Augustus’s age of Rome, and Elizabeth’s age of England.

Question 73.
The Gupta age had remarkable progress in which field and which language became the chief vehicle of literary creation.
Answer:
The Gupta age had remarkable progress in the field of literature. Sanskrit became the chief vehicle of literary creation.

Question 74.
Who was the creator of literature and brilliant luminary of the Gupta age? He was in comparison with whom?
Answer:
Kalidasa was the creator of literature and a brilliant luminary of the Gupta age. He was considered as Shakespeare of India.

Question 75.
The engraved scripts in 1964 signify where the birthplace of Kalidasa and he was contemporary with which king?
Answer:
The engraved scripts in 1964 signify that Ujjaini was the birthplace of Kalidasa. He was contemporary with king Vikramaditya who was Chandra Gupta II.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 76.
Which was the best among the dramas of Kalidasa and which critics have offered high praise for this drama?
Answer:
The Avijnana Sakuntalam of Kalidasa is one of the best dramas of Kalidasa. European literary critics have offered high praise for this drama.

Question 77.
What were the two Mahakavyas of Kalidasa and which lyrical poem of his was regarded as a valuable gem in Sanskrit literature?
Answer:
The two Mahakavyas of Kalidasa were Raghuvansham and Kumara Sambhavam. The lyrical poem Meghaduttam was universally regarded as a valuable gem in Sanskrit literature.

Question 78.
Name of the other literary dignitaries of the Gupta period and what was the name of their works?
Answer:
The other literary dignitaries of the Gupta period were Bhairavi, the author of Kirataijuniyam, Sudraka, the author of Mrichchhakatikam, and Visakhadatta, the author of Mudra Rakshasa.

Question 79.
Who was Harisena and what was his poetical episode?
Answer:
Harisena the minister of Samudra Gupta was a poet of no mean order. He was the author of Allahabad prasasti.

Question 80.
Who was virasena and in which sphere he was famous?
Answer:
Virasena was a member of the court of Chandragupta II. He was not only a poet rather a grammarian.

Question 81.
Buddha Ghosa composed which poetry and it was the subject matter of which personality?
Answer:
Buddha Ghosa composed the Pandya Chudamani. Its subject matter was the life of
Goutama Buddha.

Question 82.
In the Gupta age who was the important figure in practical and applied sciences and what was the name of his work?
Answer:
In the Gupta age, Varahamihira was an important figure in practical and applied sciences. The name of his work was Panchasiddhant which is regarded as the bible of Indian astronomy.

Question 83.
Who was Aryabhatta and which theory he depicted first?
Answer:
Aryabhatta was a great mathematician and astronomer in the Gupta age. He was the first astronomer to invent the cause of solar and lunar eclipses.

Question 84.
Aryabhatta is said to have invented which famous system and which country borrowed it?
Answer:
Aryabhatta is said to have invented the famous decimal system. The Arab country borrowed Indian Mathematics and decimal systems from India.

Question 85.
The Gupta emperors were the patrons of which religion? Were they tolerant of other creeds?
Answer:
The Gupta emperors were patrons of Brahmanism. They were highly tolerant of other creeds.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 86.
Some caves in Ajanta are rich in which painting and these paintings depict which stories?
Answer:
Some caves in Ajanta are rich in Gupta paintings. These paintings first depict the jataka story and the life of Buddha.

Question 87.
The Gupta gold and silver coins depicted which earmark and which emperor showed considerable originality in casting his coins.
Answer:
The Gupta gold and silver coins depicted the high water marks of Indian coinage. Emperor Chandra Gupta II showed considerable originality in casting his coin.

Question 88.
Whose account is the valuable and chief source of knowledge for the social life of the Gupta age and which personality remained in India from 401 to 410 A.D?
Answer:
The account of Fa-Hien is a valuable and chief source of knowledge for the social life of the Gupta age. Fa-Hien remained in India from 401 to 410 A.D.

Question 89.
What was the position of women in literature and what was their practical life?
Answer:
Women had an idealistic position in literature. In a practical way, they lived in subordination to the male members of society.

Question 90.
Which amusements were popular in the Gupta age and which was a popular pastime?
Answer:
In Gupta, age amusements consisted of theatrical entertainments, dance performances, and musical concerts, and gambling was a popular pastime.

Question 91.
Which educational system was provided in the Gupta period and was there a distinction between Buddhist and Hindu teachings?
Answer:
The educational system provided in the Gupta period was Brahmanical and Buddhist culture. No distinction was made between Buddhist and Hindu teachings.

Question 92.
Stress the educational atmosphere at Nalanda University? Was admission to this university an easy process?
Answer:
Nalanda became a very well-equipped university with a big library, classrooms, and student homes. Admission to this university was not an easy thing and willing
students had to face various competitions.

Question 93.
Which foreign traveler lived in Nalanda for 10 years and how many students were at that university?
Answer:
A foreign traveler lived in Nalanda for 10 years. Near about three thousand students were studying at that university.

Question 94.
Give an account regarding the excellence of metallurgy teaching at Nalanda University.
Answer:
Nalanda University metallurgy course proves the excellence of its signifies that the Delhi Iron pillar of king Chandragupta and the life-size copper image of Buddha though had a remaining length still these items were even after hundred and hundred years still not less rusted.

Question 95.
Was there a caste system in the Gupta period and who was in higher status?
Answer:
Caste system was widely prevalent in the Gupta period. The law book describes the Brahmins were in higher status.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 96.
The prosperity of India due to Roman trade started from which period and when the direct link was established between Gupta India with Roman trade?
Answer:
The prosperity of India due to Roman trade started during the Kushana period. Chandragupta II conquest of Malwa and Saurashtra by overthrowing the Saka rulers established a direct link between Gupta India with Roman trade.

Question 97.
Which port bore the bulk of trade with the west and which town served as a great link market with the rest of India?
Answer:
The port of Brigukachchha bore the bulk of trade with the west. Ujjairutown served as a great link market with the rest of India.

Question 98.
The roman trade continued in a flourishing condition till which period and for what it was declined?
Answer:
The roman trade continued in a flourishing condition till the early Gupta period. It suffered from the time of the Hun invasion.

Question 99.
Which country’s trade compensated for the loss of roman trade and after Brigukachchha which port became a great center of trade?
Answer:
Trade with China and Southeast Asia compensated for the loss of roman trade. After Brigukachchha Tamralipta port became a great center of trade.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 100.
Which system was a part of the Jive of traders and manufacturers and what was the name of the president of this committee?
Answer:
The Guild system was a part of the life of traders and manufacturers. The name of the president of this guild was Bhandagarika.

Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Tri-Ratna in Jainism.
Answer:
Jina asked his disciples to follow three conditions for a nobler life. Those were Right Faith, Right knowledge, and Right Action. These conditions are known as the Tri-Ratna or the Three Jewels. In Jainism, man is required to regulate his life under those conditions. It was through faith, knowledge, and action that man could realize his own soul.

In the Jaina faith, the perfection of the soul was regarded as the real purpose of life. There was no need to worship God or Gods or to offer prayers or sacrifices. A pure soul could surely reach salvation without such things.

Question 2.
Karma And Rebirth in Jainism.
Answer:
In Jainism faith in the theory of karma and rebirth was absolute. Man has to work in order to live. His soul, therefore, is engaged in various works. But a man should also know the difference between good and bad work. Because he has to face the results of his work. If one does good work in life, the results will be good.

If one does evil work, bad results will follow. The results of the action or the karma are inevitable. No one can escape karma. Because it is the eternal law of existence. It is this karma that results in rebirth. Birth and rebirth are like an unending cycle. Man is bom again only to suffer for the sins of the previous life.

Question 3.
Non-violence in Jainism.
Answer:
Absolute faith in Ahimsa or non-violence received the highest place in Jainism. The life of every living being was regarded as sacred. The smallest of the small creatures also possessed life as did the human being. It was therefore a supreme sin that man should destroy the life of other creatures.

As the man himself does not want to be injured or killed. So also no creature would like to be injured or killed. According to Jainism, it was the duty of man to protect and preserve the life of every living creature. To Mahavira Jina, the practice of Ahimsa was like the highest duty of every mart.

Question 4.
Salvation in Jainism.
Answer:
Mahavira Jina taught his disciples to realize the absolute Truth of existence. Man is mortal. His physical body is unreality. Worldly attractions are meaningless. Karma or action leads to sins when a man is attached to worldly pleasures. It is for the sins that there is rebirth in an endless cycle. Unless on attempts to escape the rebirth there will be no end to his sufferings.

Jina showed the path for man to escape rebirth. In order to realize that the Atma or the soul is real while the body is unreal. Jina advised me to give up all attachments to the body. By putting the body in pain showing no desire for anything by giving up all possessions and even by inviting death by starvation a man can prove that he has no desire for worldly existence.

Question 5.
Four noble Truths or Arya Satya in Buddhism.
Answer:
Buddha got his enlightenment with the knowledge of four things. They were life is suffering is due to desire, suffering ends with the end of desires, and desires end with noble thoughts and actions. Buddhism deviated its philosophy from these truths. To Buddha, the material existence of everything is momentary. The world is full of sorrows.

Life is unreal. Sorrows, sickness old age, and death are inevitable. It is necessary to escape all suffering. He searched for means to escape worldly sufferings. He discovered the causes of suffering. Most causes were man’s desires. He wanted the destruction of worldly desires. For that purpose, he discovered the Noble1 Eightfold path.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 6.
Noble Eightfold path in Buddhism.
Answer:
Buddha saw how life rested on holes and desires. He also knew now hopes and desires were the root causes of sorrows and suffering. He discovered the path to come out of those miseries. That path is famous as the Noble Eightfold path. They were the Right view, the Right Aspiration.

Right Speech. Right conduct, Right Livelihood. Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right contemplation. This Noble Eightfold path is also called the Middle path Buddha knew that it was impossible and undesirable for all men to renounce the world and become sannyasis. At the same time, he wanted that men should not to be too attached to worldly affairs and pleasures.

Therefore, he gave a code of conduct that was possible for a man to follow. Between a sannyasi and an extremely worldly man. Buddha’s code of conduct was like the middle path. One could remain in the world without being worldly. The Noble Eightfold path was meant for that kind of life.

Question 7.
Nirvana in Buddhism.
Answer:
Nirvana was considered the supreme goal of life. It was an escape forever, the extinction. It was possible to attain Nirvana by putting an end to the desire for life, for, the world, for birth, and for existence. When all desires and all cravings are extinguished once and for all life enters into a state of external peace. When it leaves the body it does not take rebirth. In Buddhist philosophy, the idea of Nirvana had a deep root.

In order to achieve that Nirvana a Buddhist was required to regulate his entire conduct. The conduct of Nirvana was a moral conduct man should give up violence, killing of animals, falsehood luxury, stealing, desire for wealth, and many such immoral acts. Thereafter, he should try samadhi or meditation, and try to attain propaganda or insight. Finally, he should aspire to re-enlightenment and salvation that is, Nirvana.

Question 8.
Spread of Buddhism.
Answer:
From the time of Buddha, Buddhism began to spread slowly but steadily. Yet, in the long run, it would have perhaps remained confined to India only. But two centuries after Buddha, there rules in India a great emperor named Ashok. It is he who prepared the path for the spread of Buddhism outside India. In course of centuries, over the whole of Asia Buddhism swept like a great tide. It was the tide not merely of religion, but also of civilization. Buddha is rightly, therefore, called the light of Asia.

Question 9.
State their contribution of Buddhism to Indian Culture.
Answer:
Buddhism brought about unity in the religious field by preaching against class and caste distinction. Buddhist monasteries were great centers of bearing where people from all over the world came and studied. Buddhists contributed immensely to the religious literature in India. As Buddhist scriptures were written in pali, the language of the common people.

Question 10.
State three contributions of Jainism to Indian culture.
Answer:

  • In the religious field, Jainism was a reform movement in Hinduism. It did away with superstition, empty refuels, caste system which existed in Hindu Society.
  • Jainism contributed a lot to the field of architecture. Jain caves at Udayagiri, Ellora, and the Dilwara temples of mount Abu are some notable examples of it.
  • Jain literature is in Ardh-Magadhi and Prakrit dialects. Jain literature highlights the values of Ahimsa.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 11.
State the impacts of the Kalinga war on Ashoka.
Answer:

  1. Ashoka left Digvijaya and started Dharmavijaya.
  2. Ashoka became a follower of Buddhism.
  3. The Kalinga war brought about a revolution in the life of Asoka.

Question 12.
Write about the architecture of the Gupta.
Answer:
Countless temples, pillars rock- cut valves, palaces, and cities belonging to the Buddhist, Jain, and Hindu sects flourished during the Gupta period. In temple architecture, the Gupta Age reached a high water mark. Dalavatar temple at Tigowa in Madhya Pradesh, and Bhitargaon temple at Kanpur were the finest specimen of their architectural achievements form pillar at Mehrauli near Delhi and the Garuda pillar of Keshinagar were two examples of their greatness.

Question 13.
Write about paintings of the Gupta Age.
Answer:
The paintings on the walls of the caves at Ellora and Ajanta at Aurangabad in Maharashtra and at Bagh in malwa testify to Gupta’s skill in painting. These paintings are a fine representation of the combination of the beauty of virtue carrying some themes. For example- revealing the life of Gautam Buddha, Charming and delightful scenes facial, expressions, festivals, and processions. Even after the passage of a long time all those now look quite lively. This painting is called Fresco – painting.

Question 14.
Write about Nava Ratna of the Gupta Period.
Answer:
The court of Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) was bombed by a galaxy of nine celebrated scholars known as the (Nawa Ratna) or Nine Gens. They were Dhanwanfan, Kshyapanaska, Sanku, Amarsingh, Betalbhat, Ghatakapoor. Kaiidas, Barahamihir. Bararuchi of them Kaiidas was great by his literary genius.

Question 15.
The Jatakas.
Answer:
The Jatakas are the stories of Buddha’s birth and his previous life. Jainism special literature like the epics. Through the Jatakas, we get an idea of the 3rd end 4th century B.C. The stories were written in pali and were compiled in book form in the first century B.C. The subjects from these stories were used in sculpture on the railings of the stupas.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Short Answer Questions

Question 16.
Hinayana.
Answer:
Those who followed strictly the doctrine of Budda and denied the existence of God were known as the followers of the lesser vehicle or Hinayana. This sect does not believe in idol worship. Even its follower does not believe that. Buddha was God. They believe in the Eightfold path as the only mean of salvation. They use pali as the language of their scriptures. The Hinayana sets of Buddhism are confined to India Srilanka Burma, Cambodia, and Laos.

Question 17.
Mahayana.
Answer:
The term Mahayana means ‘Greater Vehicle’ of salvation. It was another sect of Buddhism. They believe in Buddha as God. They worship the statues of Buddha and the Bodhisattvas, the Buddha in the previous births. This sect introduced idol worship and performed complex rituals and ceremonies. They wrote their scripture in Sanskrit. Kaniska was cofollower of Mahayana. The sect spread to northwestern parts of India, China, Japan, and South East Asian countries.

Question 18.
Third Buddhist council.
Answer:
In 251 B.C. Asoka organized the third Buddhist council at his capital putaliputra for the propagation of Buddhism. The famous Buddhist monk of Srilanka mogaliputta, Tissa, presided over this council. Ashoka’s active participation in this council inspired the followers of Buddhism to remain united.

Question 19.
Dharmayatra.
Answer:
After the Kalinga war, Ashoka stopped the practice of Bherighosha meant for conquering kingdoms and is stead started Dharma Yatra all over India. He started Vihara yatras (pleasure tours) and arranged for Dhamma Yatra (religious tour) in its place. He visited the places associated with the life of the Buddha. These activities had a tremendous influence on his subjects and thereby helped in the spread of Buddhism.

Question 20.
Dhamma Vijaya.
Answer:
Outs of India, Ashok sent missionaries of peace to countries like Burma Egypt, Russia, China Tibet, Srilanka, etc. They spread the doctrines of Buddhism outside India. By sending messages of peace & universal brotherhood to these countries. Ashoka paved the way for the propagation & Spread of Buddhism there.

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CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Long Answer Questions

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CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Long Answer Questions

Long Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Give an analysis regarding the rise of Jainism and the life of Mahavira Jina.
Answer:
Mahavira Jina preached Jainism in the 6th century B.C. But long before his time, there was a desire among the wise men of India to search for real spiritual values. According to the belief of the Jainas, as many as 23 Tirthankaras, or religious prophets were bom in India before Mahavira Jina. Mahavira was the 24 and the last Tirthankara. He is regarded as the founder of historical Jainism.

The history of the early Tirthankaras is unknown the 23rd Tirthankara, Parsvantha is said to have lived 250 years before Mahavira. He was born in the Kshatriya princely family of kasha. At the age of 30, he became a sannyasi in search of Truth. At last, be got the supreme knowledge. He preached four vows for men, namely to practice non-violence, to speak truth not to steal, and not to possess properly. Many years after Maranatha, the last of the Tirthankaras were born.

Mahavira Jina his life :
There was a kingdom named Videha in ancient India. Its capital was Vaisali. Near that city, there was a village named Kundagrama. A Kshatriya clan called jnantrika lived there. The ruler of that clan was Siddhartha. His wife’s name was Trishala. She was the sister of the ruler of Vaisali. A son was born to Siddhartha and Trishala and was named Vardhamana.

In the future, he became famous as Mahavira Jina. The year of the birth of Vardhamana is not definitely known. According to some sources, he was bom in 618 B.C. and lived for 72 years. Accordingly, to some other sources, he was born in 540 B.C. and died in 468 B.C. after a life of 72 years. Many historians have accepted this latter view.

Vardhamana was a contemporary of Goutam Buddha. Born in an aristocratic family, Vardhamana began a life of worldly pleasures. He got married in time. The name of his wife was Yoshida. A daughter was also bom to him. But as he advanced in years. Vardhamana gradually lost attraction toward worldly life. At last, at the age of 30, he left his name and family as a Sannyasi in search of Truth.

For long twelve years thereafter Vardhamana traveled as a homeless wanderer. He practiced hard penance and put his body in extreme pain. He did not care for the heat of the summer or the cold of the winter. He lived without food or water for a long time. He moved from place to place without putting any clothes on his body which people attached to him at many places.

But like a hero, he suffered pain or punishment without signs of sorrow. Suffering the hardship of nature and cruelty from human hands, he continued his meditations to reach the Truth. At last, in the thirteenth year of his wandering life as a monk, he got the supreme knowledge of the Kevala Jnana. At that moment of bliss, Vardhamana became the Mahavira, or the Great hero, and the Jina, or the conqueror.

From that time when he was 42 years in his age, Mahavira Jina began to preach his doctrines. His preaching continued for long 30 years till his death. He went from place to place and attracted countless people wherever he went. He visited Mithila, Sravasti Champa, Vaisali, Rajagriha, and several other places.

It is known from the Jaina sources that he came as for as Kalinga and preached his doctrines from the Kumari Hill (the Udayagiri Hill near Bhubaneswar) to the people of Odisha. Everywhere, the common people as well as the kings listened to him. He was venerated, as a great prophet. Mahavira Jina died at the age of 72 at a place named Pava near Rajagriha. The followers of Mahavira Jina came to be known as the Jain as. The religion which he preached became famous as Jainism.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Long Answer Questions

Question 2.
Five is an analysis of the essence of Jainism and its impact on life.
Answer:
Parsvanatha, who preached before Mahavira had given four principles for a pure life. Those were non-violence, truth, non-stealing, and non-possession. Mahavira Jina added another principle namely brahmacharya or celibacy. According to him, these five qualities were necessary for leading a life toward perfection and crossing the stream of existence. Mahavira gave up all attachments to worldly things. He even gave up the use of clothes.

Tri-Ratna :
Jina asked his disciples to follow three conditions for a nobler life. Those were Right Faith, Right Knowledge, and Right Action. These conditions are known as the Tri- Ratna or the Three Jewels. In Jainism, man is required to regulate his life under those conditions. It was through faith, knowledge, and action that man could realize his own soul. In the Jaina faith, the perfection of the soul was regarded as the real purpose of life. There was no need to worship God or Gods or to offer prayers or sacrifices. A pure soul could surely reach salvation without such things.

Karma and Rebirth :
In Jainism faith in the theory of karma and rebirth was absolute. Man has to work in order to live. His soul, therefore, is engaged in various works. But a man should also know the difference between good and work. Because he has to face the results of his work. If one does good work in life, the results will be good.

If one does evil work, bad results will follow. The results of the action or the karma are inevitable. No one can escape karma. Because it is the eternal law of existence. It is this karma that results in rebirth. Birth and rebirth are like an unending cycle. Man is bom again only to suffer for the sins of the previous life.

Jainism showed the path to escape from the cycle of rebirth. By Right Faith, the right knowledge, and the Right Action that man can avoid the sins of life by escaping sins, one can escape the pain of rebirth. By giving up attachment to worldly things, one can escape the sins of greed.

Last and possession:
According to the Yains, no one can escape the results of sins by offering prayers to the gods. It is only by right conduct and action that one can do so.

Non-Violence :
Absolute faith in Ahimsa or non-violence received the highest place in Jainism. The life of every living being was regarded as sacred. The smallest of the small creatures also possessed life as did the human being. It was therefore a supreme sin that man should destroy the lives of other creatures as the man himself does not want to be injured or killed, so also no creature would like to be injured or killed. According to Jainism, it was the duty of man to protect and preserve the life of every living creature.

To Mahavira Jina, the practice of Ahimsa was like the highest duty of every man. Jainism carried non-violence to its extreme extent. The Jainas did not cook food after an evening in fear that even the smallest of the insects might fall into the fare. No other religion paid so much respect to live beings as Jainism. Kindness towards all kinds of life was a cardinal feature of Jainism.

Salvation :
Mahavira Jina taught his disciples to realize the absolute Truth of existence. Man is mortal. His physical body is unreality. Worldly attractions are meaning less. Karma or action leads to sins when a man is attached to worldly pleasures. It is for the sins that there is rebirth in an endless cycle. Unless one attempts to escape the rebirth, there will be no end to his sufferings.

Jina showed the path for man to escape rebirth. In order to realize that the Atma or the soul is real while the body is unreal, Jina advised to give up all attachment to the body. By putting the body in pain, showing no desire for anything, by giving up all possessions, and even inviting death by starvation a man can prove that he has no desire for worldly existence. It is by such detachment that man can finally realize the Real Knowledge or the kevalin. By destroying karma.

He can Liberate his soul and escape rebirth. The liberated soul can at last reach the eternal abode of peace or the Siddha Sila. That is the salvation or Kaivalya. There will be no rebirth and no return to sufferings on earth once the salvations was reached. In Jainism, the supreme goal of life was salvation.

Reformism :
Jainism rose as a new religion. Side by side, it challenged many existing evils of the Brahmanic faith. Mahavira Jina was one of the greatest reformers of ancient India. He raised his voice against many social and religious systems of his time. In an age when religion mainly meant the worship of many deities practice of meaningless ceremonies and the sacrifice of animals, Jina drew the attention of man towards higher spiritual goals.

According to him sins of life cannot be washed away by worship or prayers. Man can avoid sins by virtuous conduct. By denying worship and prayers. Jina gave a blow to the supremacy of the priestly class. The Jain did not believe in the Vedas. They denounced blind beliefs and superstitions.

White preaching the value of non-violence, condemned the practice of animal sacrifice. Jainism believed in human equality. As such the Jainas, criticized the caste system. The rise and spread of Jainism resulted in a new socio-religious consciousness among the people. Its impact on Indian Society and culture became deep and wide.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Long Answer Questions

Question 3.
Analyze the teachings of Gautama Buddha.
Answer:
The religion of Gautama Buddha is famous as Buddhism. The teachings of Buddha were simple. They were meant both for the masses as well as for the most learned and the wise. Buddha did not lay emphasis on the Fatherhood of God. His emphasis was on the brotherhood of men. He did not preach dogmas. He preached ethics.

Four Noble Truths or Arya Satya:
Buddha got his enlightenment with the knowledge of four things. They were life is suffering due to desire, suffering ends with the end of desires, desires end with Nobel thoughts and actions. Buddhism developed its philosophy on these truths. To Buddha, the material existence of everything is momentary.

The world is full of sorrows. Life is unreal sorrows, sickness, old age, and death are inevitable. It is necessary to escape all suffering. He searched for means to escape worldly sufferings. He discovered the causes of suffering. Most causes were man’s desires. He wanted the destruction of worldly desires. For that purpose, he discovered the “Noble Eightfold path”.

Noble Eightfold path :
Buddha saw haw life rested on hopes and desires. He also knew how hopes and desires were the root causes of sorrows and suffering. He discovered the path to come out of those miseries. That path is famous as the Noble Eightfold path. They were Right view, Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, and Right.

Mindfulness and Right contemplation. This Noble Eightfold path is also called the ‘Middle path’ Buddha knew that it was impossible and undesirable for all men to renowned the world and become Sannyasis. At the same time, he wanted that men should not to be too attached to worldly affairs and pleasures.

Therefore, he gave a code of conduct that was possible for a man to follow. Between a Sannyasi and an extremely worldly man, Buddha’s code of conduct was like the middle path. One could remain in the world without being worldly. The Noble Eightfold path was meant for that kind of life.

The Karma :
The desires lead men to karma. Bad desires lead to views. Man cannot escape the results of his karma. There is no escape even in death. After death, life will again take a new shape to suffer the karma of the last life. Transmigration of the soul will continue. Thus, kama leads to the cycle of many births. To the same world of sorrows and sufferings, life returns again and again. To Buddha, it was essential to put an end to such eternal suffering. He discovered the path at last. It was the Nirvana.

Nirvana :
The Nirav was considered the supreme goal of life. It was an escape forever, the extinction. It was possible to attain Nirvana by putting an end to the desire for life, for the world for birth, and for existence. When all desires and all cavings are extinguished are for all life enters into a state of eternal peace. When it leaves the body, it does not take a re-birth.

In Buddhist philosophy, the idea of Nirvana had a deep root. In order to achieve that Nirvana a Buddhist was required to regulate his entire conduct. The conduct of Nirvana was moral conduct. A man should give up violence, killing of animals, falsehood, luxury, stealing desire for wealth, and many such immoral acts. Thereafter he should try for Samadhi or mediation and try to attain prajna or insight.

Finally, he should aspire for enlightenment and salvation, that is, Nirvana. In substance, salvation was possible through moral and ethical practices. With salvation, there was to be neither thirst nor desire, neither sorrow nor decay, and above all, neither life nor death. While Buddhism emphasized such faiths, it also stood to reform the existing Indian religion and society. Buddha was, in fact, the greatest reformer in Indian history.

Question 4.
Emphasize the impact of Jainism and Buddhism on Indian Society.
Answer:
At a time when the early Vedic society was on its path toward degeneration. Jainism and Buddhism appeared to halt that process. The caste system and inequality of men were denounced. Society fought for the values of equality. The people were advised to develop the ethics of kindness towards all men.

By opening the doors to the lower casts to come to their fold. Jainism and Buddhism created a new hope for them for their honorable social existence. The higher castes were brought under a spirit of liberation. Jainism and Buddhism taught the people to practice non-violence towards each and all.

Both religions presented to men new codes of moral conduct. People were advised to lead a better and purer life. Higher spiritual goals were put before all men. In brief, Jainism and Buddhism created a new awareness in Indian Society for change for good.

Impact of Jainism and Buddhism on Literate:
The rise of Jainism and Buddhism opened the path for great literacy activities in ancient India. Mahavira Jina and Gautama Buddha were great prophets of the ancient world. Enough of literature, therefore, grew up around those two remarkable personalities. Their teaching was of unique value. Enormous literature, therefore, came up around their doctrines and sayings.

The most important of the Jaina literature were Anga, Upanga, and the mula sutra. The Buddhist religious literature became famous as the Tripitaka. In course of time, many philosophers and thinkers were born to enrich the Jaina and Buddhist literature. Knowledge of ancient history, philosophy, science astronomy, and various other subjects found a place in that religious literature. The literature of both those religions became the storehouse of ancient knowledge.

Influence on Architecture Art and Sculpture :
Both Jainism and Buddhism greatly enriched the art and architecture of India. Numberless religious shrines, monuments, monasteries, viharas, and stupas were constructed for religious purposes. The caves of Khandagiri – Udayahgiri in Odisha the temples of Elora, Junagarh, and mount Abu in Rajasthan are some of the examples of Jaina architecture that have survived till today.

They contain fine specimens of Jaina art and Sculpture. Examples of architecture are seen at Bodh Gaya, Sarnath, Sanchi, Barhat, Amaravati, and Ratnagiri. Countless Buddhist monuments have perished in course of time. The gigantic architectural works of the Kushan period are no more.

The descriptions of many works of architecture are seen in Buddhist literature but most of them have disappeared from the surface of the earth. Some examples of the cave architecture of the Buddhists are to be found today in Nagarjuna and Barabar hills. The finest examples of Buddhist sculpture are to be seen on the gateway and railings of the Sanchi Stupa.

The Buddhist stone pillars, as to be seen in some places, were works of fine sculpture. When the Mahayana form of Buddhism began to spread, the images of Buddha were required all over the country. Some of those images represent the excellence of the Indian art of sculpture. Jainism and Buddhism also encouraged the art of painting.

The Jaina painters made wonderful contributions to Indian art. Unfortunately, most of them perished due to the ravages of time. The Buddhists too developed the art of painting towards perfection. The world-famous paintings of the Ajanta Caves were the work of Buddhist painters. In brief, Jainism and Buddhism made immense contributions to Indian civilization during their key day.

In every sphere of culture, those two religions marked their impact deeply. Though Buddhism disappeared as a religion from India in course of time yet Buddha and his teachings found a permanent place in Indian thought. No historic figure has been worshipped as God as the Buddha in India. That proves the depth of the Buddhist impact on Indian history. Jainism thrives on the soil of this land as one of India’s great religions.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Long Answer Questions

Question 5.
Kalinga war and its impact on the life of Ashoka live a description?
Answer:
In the 12th year of his reign and the 8th year of his coronation, Ashoka invaded Kalinga. It was in 261 B.C. Ashoka’s Kalinga war was the greatest political event of his rule and one of the greatest events of all history. From very ancient times Kalinga was a famous state. Its power rested on internal prosperity and maritime activities.

Modern Odisha roughly covers the territories of ancient Kalinga. When Chandragupta Maurya was conquering far and wide to unite India, Kalinga was seen as independent and strong. The Greek Ambassador Megasthenes who lived at Pataliputra at that time indirectly referred to the power of Kalinga.

It was surprising that the Maurya army which conquered lands from Hindukush to the Ganges and the Himalayas to Mysore did not try to conquer a nearer country like Kalinga. The next Maurya Emperor, Bindusara, was also a powerful ruler. But he too did not venture a war with Kalinga. It was left for the third Maurya, Ashoka, to conquer that unconquered country.

Unfortunately, nothing is known regarding the ruler or rulers who ruled Kalinga at that time. It is also not the republic of the ancient model. Only this, much is known that the people of Kalinga offered a relentless resistance to the invader. They fought for their freedom. The army of Ashoka was no doubt big From the Greek accounts it is known that Chandragupta Mourya maintained an army of 6 lakhs.

It is probable that by the time of Ashoka the army was still bigger. In any case, Ashoka invaded Kalinga with the resources and military strength of the Indian empire. The people of Kalinga fought, but at length, they lost. How desperate was the battle, how bitterly was it fought, and how terrible were the results, are known from Ashoka’s own descriptions? This is what he wrote about the Kalinga war in his Thirteenth Rock Edict.

“The country of Kalinga was conquered when king Priyadarsine, beloved of the Gods, had been anointed eight years. One hundred and fifty thousand therefore captured, one hundred were thousand were there slain, and many times as many died”. These were losses on Kalinga’s side.

On Ashoka’s side too, many many thousands died in the battle. It was indeed a horrible war. Examples are rare in ancient history when so many people died in a single contest. It is, however, not the war that became unique but the result of the war which brought about a turning point in history.

The change of Ashoka :
The Kalinga war was Ashoka’s first and last war. He did not fight, therefore. He made no more conquests. The horrors of war evolved a storm in his mind. His heart was moved to see the misery of men. There was pain and remorse. And, there came a complete change. It was as if the conquered Kalinga conquered her conqueror.

The change which came in Ashoka has been described thus: “Therefore, now when the country of Kalinga has been acquired the beloved of the Gods has Zeahous compliance with Dhamma love of Dhamma and teaching of Dhamma, is the remorse of the beloved of the Gods on having conquered Kalinga.

Verily the slaughter, death, and captivity of the people, that occurs, when an unconquered country is being conquered, is looked upon as extremely, painful and regrettable by the Beloved of the Gods. Even one hundredth or one-thousandth part of those who are stain died, or were captured in Kalinga is today considered regrettable by the Beloved of the Gods.

The Beloved of the Gods desires for all beings non-injury, self-control, equable conduct, and gentleness”. The change that the Kalinga war brought to him led Ashoka to become a Buddhist. He gave up violence once and for all and became a disciple of that Great Apostle of Non-violence, Gautama Buddha.

It was the conquest of heart that he thereafter aimed at. Because the conquest by the sword was no real conquest. The conversion of Chand Ashoka into Dharmashoka is considered as an epoch-making event in world history. His new role made him the greatest monarch of mankind.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Long Answer Questions

Question 6.
Evaluate the kind, Ashoka, as a missionary and his promotion towards the upliftment of Buddhism.
Answer:
Monarchs of men are known for political activities. Only a very few of them had a religious mission to perform. Among those few Ashoka was the foremost. No monarch was able to do for any religion what Ashoka did for Buddhism. The role of Ashoka as a missionary was manifold. He preached Buddhism as a code of ethics.

He wanted his moral elevation of his. subjects, of the officers of the state, and of the people of neighboring countries. In fact, it was a spiritual mission for the benefit of mankind. He adopted the following means for the propagation of the Dharma or the eternal law.

Dharma, yatra:
The Emporer decided to travel to various corners of his country to propagate Dharma. In the past, the kings used to go out on Vihara-yatra or pleasure tours. Those were meant for hunting, games, and spots. But Ashoka gave up Vihar-Yatra. Instead, he took up Dharma-Yatra. That is to say, Ashoka became a moving missionary himself. He went to such places as Bodhgaya where Buddha got enlightenment and the Lumbini Garden where Buddha was born.

He traveled with Buddhist bhikshus, met people everywhere, came into close contact with them, and personally taught them the rules of Dharma. Two results came out of his Dharma-Yatra. First, the Buddhist places that Ashoka visited received special veneration from the people. Secondly, the religious discourages of the emperor drew countless men towards Buddhism.

Dharma-Stambhas:
Ashoka erected Dharma Stambhas at different places in his for-flung empire to draw the pillars. The noble principle of conduct and ethics were inscribed on the pillars. Those writings were the Dharma-lipids, containing valuable thoughts about Dharma. They were meant to be preserved on imperishable stone for generations of men to see and follow. No ordinary missionary could have erected that costly pillar. It was a royal missionary like Asoka who could do it. And the stamp has a permanent value.

Dharma Mahamatras:
For the propagation and promotion of Dharma Ashoka appointed a set of officers named as Dharma Mahamatras. They were to work for the material and spiritual benefit of men. In the vast empire of Ashoka there lived people of many sects and many faiths. Ashoka wanted that they should all live together happily as well as practice their faith rightly.

Dharma Mahamatras were required to regulate cordial relations among various sets and to keep them on the right path. They were also to work on charity and philanthropy. The work of those officers roused a religious and spiritual awakening in the minds of men.

Dharma-Shravana :
Asoka wanted that people should hear the meaning of Dharma. He, therefore, ordered the officers of the state such as Rajukas, pradesikas, and Yuktas to go out four every five years to preach religious doctrines among the people. Such doctrines were the rules of this and morality for a higher and better life. When the high officers of the Government taught Dharma, people in large numbers became attracted to it. Thus, Ashoka was not only a missionary himself, but they made the officers missionaries as well.

Dharma-Ghosa:
Inside Ashoka’s empire, there were many turbulent tribes who lived in a dense dangerous forest. On the outskirts of his empire, there also lived such people. Besides, outside the immediate frontiers of the Maurya empire, there were hostile people all around. Previous monarchs terrified such people inside and outside by the Bherighosha.

It was the “Reverberation of the war Durm”. In other words, it was the conquest by force of arms. Ashok gave up that traditional mode of conquest. Instead, he wanted to conquer them by Dharma Ghost. It was the Reverberation of Dharma or law. In other words, it was a conquest by force of love non¬violence, peace, and morality.

Buddhist monks were sent to preach among the different people to bring them to the path of law. Ashoka announced a policy of peace toward all. He called Upon the dwellers of forests and others not to fear any show of force from him. Instead, he advised them to come nearer to Dharma Ashok, dharma Ghosa, no doubt, was a markable missionary of eating.

Dharma -Vijaya:
Finally, Ashoka thought of a much more ambitious mission. It was a tradition with powerful monarchs to think of conquests. It could be the conquest of far-away countries across continents. Ashoka gave up such ideas. Instead, he thought of the widest conquest through Dharma. Accordingly, he sent names mentioned in his rock inscriptions.

They were kinged Antiochos Theos of Syria, Ptolemy philosophes of Egypt, Antigonos Gonatas of Macedonia, mages of Cyrene, and Alexandar of Epirus – Ashoka’s Spiritual mission in the Greek world, in Egypt and Syria bore inevitable results. The first lessons of Buddhism made an entry into western Asia and beyond.

In the south, the conquest was more definite. In this regard, the emperor showed a remarkable personal example of sacrifice for a cause. He sent his own son Mahendra to Ceylon to preach Buddhism there. And, Mahendra was preceded as a Buddhism Bhikshu, not as the son of the richest emperor of the world. In those days, the sea routes were unsafe.

The ships were small Ceylon sent his son to that distant, dangerous, and unknown place. Next, he sent his daughter Sanghamitra to Ceylon with a branch of the Bodhi tree. Sanghamitra went as a Bhikshuni and stayed there for many years till her death. The people of Ceylon embraced Buddhism because of her discussion efforts.

It was a supreme achievement of Ashok as a missionary to have converted the people of an entire country outside India to the religion of Buddha. The people of Srilanka, that is Ceylon, are Buddhists fill today. Ashoka also sent missionaries to Suvamabhumi or Burma. Among them were Sona and Uttar whose names have survived till now.

Through Burma, Buddhism made its way to Southeast Asian countries which in course of time became Buddhist. Ashoka was praised for his Dharma Vijaya outside. He proclaimed in his rock Edict. “But this conquest is considered to be the chiefest by the Beloved of the Gods, which is conquest through Dharma. And that again has been achieved by the Beloved of the Gods here and in his bordering dominions, even as far as six hundred Yojanas”.

The missionary emperor was also confident that the influence of the dharma would spread beyond his neighboring countries. Therefore, he said, “Even where the envoys of the Beloved of the Gods do not go, they, having heard the utterances of Dharma the ordinances, and the teaching of Dharma by the beloved of the Gods practice Dhamma and will such practice.”

Such were the achievements of Ashoka a missionary. In this zeal for the propagation of religion, both inside his empire and outside, Ashoka is without a rival, or a parallel, among the monarchs of men.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Long Answer Questions

Question 7.
Give an account of the Mauryan Administration and its impact on society.
Answer:
Literacy sources such as the Indika and the Arthasastra and the various rock and pillar edicts of Ashoka give us a detailed account of the Mauryan administration. The administration can be studied under far heads of central provincial, district and village. The capital city of Pataliputra was administered separately.

Central:
The king was the supreme authority. He took all important decisions concerning the empire. He was assisted by a council of ministers Mantri Parishad. The various branches of the administration were under officials called ‘Amatyas”.

Provincial :
The empire was divided into provinces. Each province was headed by a prince. He ruled the province as a representative of the king. He was assisted by many officials.

District:
Each province was divided into a number of districts. The ‘Pradeshta’ was the head of the district. He was assisted by Junior officials such as ‘Yaktas’ and ‘Rajkas’. Their functions included the survey and assessment of land, collection of revenue, and maintenance of law and order.

Village :
Each district consisted of many villages. Villages assisted government officials in marking the boundaries of the village, maintaining land records, and collecting taxes.

City of Pataliputra :
Pataliputra was the capital of the empire. It was also a most around the city to protect it from enemy attacks. A committee of 30 members looked after the city. This committee of 30 members looked after the city. This committee was divided into six boards, each consisting of five members. Each board looked after a specific department, such as the comforts and security of foreigners, registration of births and deaths, industry and trade and commerce, an inspection of manufactured goods, and collection of taxes.

Army :
The Mauryans had a large army which included infantry, cavalry, elephants, chariots, and a navy. Senapati was the head of the army. The army was equipped with bows, arrows, swords, armor shields, etc. The army defended the kingdom from enemy attacks. The officers and soldiers were well-trained and regularly paid.

Spy system :
The Mauryan kings maintained an efficient spy system. They informed the kind about the development within the kingdom and outside.

Question 8.
Write a note on the Development of Literature and science during the Gupta period.
Answer:
The Gupta age was an age of high culture and many scientific achievements.
Literature :
The Gupta kings were great patrons of Sanskrit Literature. Some of the finest poetry and dramas in Sanskrit were written during his time. Kalidasa lived during the reign of Chandragupta II. It is famous works include Meghaduta, Raghavamsha, Ritusamhara, Kumara Sambhava, and the famous play, Abhijnana Shankuntalam.

There were other great writers too. Sukruta wrote Mrich Chhakatika. Vishakhadutta authored. Mudrakshasa and Devichandra Gupta – Panini’s Ashtadhyagi was an excellent work in Sanskrit Grammar. Another popular work today, the Panchatantra was also written during the Gupta period.

Science :
All branches of science made rapid progress during this period. The science of mathematics, astronomy, metallurgy, and medicine was very advanced.

Astronomy :
Two well-known mathematicians and astronomers of the time were Aryabhata and Varahamihira. Aryabhata said that the earth moves around the sun and at the same time moves on its own axis. His theory was not believed at that time. However, now he knows that it is true. He wrote Aryabhatiyam, in which he gave solutions to many mathematical problems. Varahmihira was another leading scientist. He wrote Brihat Samhita which is an encyclopedia of science.

Mathematics :
The numeral system was also very advanced. The Arabic numbers were first used by the Indians. This system was later adopted by the Arabs and then by the Europeans. Indian mathematicians knew the use of the zero. They used the decimal system extensively.

Metallurgy :
Metallurgy was also very advanced. This is clear from the iron pillar at Mehrauli, in Delhi, built in the fourth century. As it has remained exposed to sun and rain for over to centuries. However, the dust has formed over it. The gold coins of the Guptas were also excellently designed.

Medicine :
In the field of medicine too, there was great progress. Doctors attended to patients in the many hospitals which were built during the Gupta period. Many books on medicine were written. Dhanvantari was the greatest physician of this time. Veterinary science also developed.
The Gupta age is still remembered for its achievements in the field of literature and science.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 2 Religious Movements of Sixth Century BC Long Answer Questions

Question 9.
Why Gupta Age is known as the classical Age in Sanskrit literature.
Answer:
The Sanskrit Language was patronized during the Gupta period. It was recognized as the court language and was used in their inscriptions. Gradually it became the lingua franca of India. Even Buddhist scholars began writing their scriptures in Sanskrit. The Jain writers too, who had been writing in Pali and Prakrit, switched over the Sanskrit which gradually became the literary language of northern India. Great poets, dramatists, grammarians, and playwrights lived in the period. Some of the well-known scholars who flourished during the period are mentioned below.

Kalidasa :
He was the greatest Sanskrit poet and playwright of this age. Meghaduta, Ritu Sambhar, Kumar Sambhava, Raghu-vans, Shakuntala, Abhijnana Shakuntalam, Vikramorvashi & Malavikagnimitram were his important contribution to Sanskrit literature.

Vishakhadutta :
He was a great poet & playwright of the Gupta period. His two great historical plays are Mudra-Rakshasa & Devi Chandragupta Mudra Rakshasa (seal of Rakshasa) was the story of how Chandragupta Maurya managed to get the throne of Magadha. Devi Chandra Gupta is a historical play dealing with the early life of Chandragupta II.

Sudhakar wrote the famous play Mrichhakatika which throws light on the social-cultural conditions of the Gupta period. Bhargavi wrote the great Kirataijuniya. This epic describes the battle between Arjuna & Lord Shiva disguised as Kirata. Dandin was a Versatile writer. His Das Kumar Charita (Tales of the ten princes) describes the adventures of ten princes.

These adventures give us information on the Sociocultural conditions of that period. Sudhanshu was a prose writer. In his famous work Vasavadatta, he narrates the story of the heroine Vasavadatta and prince Kandarpaketu.

Panchatantra :
It was during the Gupta period that the Panchatantra, a collection of tables was written. In these stories, animals and birds play the part of the king’s ministers and common men. These animal stories were a help in instructing children in moral values. The famous work Hitopadesa is based on Panchatantra. The Panchatantra has been translated into many languages.

The book is a treasure house of people’s feelings and emotions in human relations. The stories contain wisdom and common sense needed for daily living. During the Gupta period, Sanskrit grammar was systematically written by such grammarians as Panini and Patanjali. Thus it is rightly called the Gupta age as the classical Age is Sanskrit languages.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Odisha State Board CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Solutions Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions.

CHSE Odisha 12th Class History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Very Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The traveler Al-Beruni was of which reign and in which of his book the social condition of India is seen?
Answer:
The traveler Al-Beruni belongs to the region of Arab. In his written book of Tahiq-EHind, we came to see the social condition of India.

Question 2.
When and the time of which Muslim sultan Al-Beruni had come to India and how many books he had written about India?
Answer:
Al-Beruni had come to India in 1017 A.D. and at the time of Mahmud of Ghazni’s Indian invasion. Regarding India, he has written 20 books.

Question 3.
According to the description of Al-Beruni which prevailing system was prominent in Indian society and which community was in the highest position in society?
Answer:
According to the description of Al-Bruni, the prevailing system of caste system was prominent in Indian society. Brahmins reserved the highest position in society.

Question 4.
According to the description of Al-Beruni in the sphere of Brahmins which religious Ashram prevailed and how many Ashrams?
Answer:
According to the description of Al-Beruni in the sphere of Brahmins, the religious “Chaturashram” has prevailed in society. The number of Ashrama was four.

Question 5.
According to the description of the traveler Al-Beruni which marriage system was prohibited in Hindu society? In the sphere of women were the many husband-accepting systems prevailed?
Answer:
According to the description of the traveler Al-Beruni, the “same clan” marriage system was prohibited in Hindu society. In the sphere of women, the system of many husbands in the acceptance prevailed in the hill areas.

Question 6.
The traveler Ibn-Battuta belongs to which region and he had come to India at the time of which sultan?
Answer:
The traveler Ibn-Battuta belongs to the African region. He had come to India at the time of the Sultan Muhammad-Bin-TughlaQuestion

Question 7.
In which written book of Ibn-Battuta the social picture has been given and in this book written in which language?
Answer:
In the written book of “Rihla” by Ibn-Battuta, the social picture has been given. This book is written in the Arabian language.

Question 8.
According to the description of Ibn-Battuta, the Hindus of India celebrated which festivals?
Answer:
According to the description of Ibn-Battuta, the Hindus of India celebrated the festivals like “Holi”, “Diwali”, “Dushahera” etc.

Question 9.
Who were Francois Berrier and belongs to which nation and in India, he was appointed as the personal physician of whom?
Answer:
Francois Berrier wets a French physician and traveler. He was appointed as the personal physician of prince Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Saha Jahan.

Question 10.
In which book Francois Berrier has described the social picture in the reign of the Mughals and which personalities were in the highest position?
Answer:
In the book “Travels in the Mughal Empire,” Francois Berrier described the social picture in the Mughal reign. According to him the personalities in the highest position were the king himself his courtiers, the king’s family kith and kin, etc.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 11.
According to Francois Berrier, the social condition of Hindus is based upon which principle and to which system he has condemned as a social evil?
Answer:
According to Francois Berrier, the social condition of Hindus is based upon the principle of the caste system. He has condemned the caste system as a social evil.

Question 12.
At first, the Muslims of which country invaded India, and before the invasion the Muslims were engaged in trade on which coast?
Answer:
At first, the Muslims of Arab countries invaded India. Before the invasion, the Muslims were engaged in trade on the Malabar coast.

Question 13.
Who was the administration of Iraq under Khalifà at the time of the beginning of the eighth century and at that time who was the Hindu king of Sindh?
Answer:
Hejaz was the administrator of Iraq under Khalifa at the time of the beginning of the eighth century. At that time Dahir was the Hindu king of Sindh.

Question 14.
On which A.D. Muhammad-bin-Kasim with his army invaded and entered Sindh and on which A.D. did they conquer some places of Sindh and Punjab?
Answer:
On 712A.D. Muhammad-bin-Kasim with his army invaded and entered Sindh. In 713 AD. they conquered some places of Sindh and Punjab.

Question 15.
After Sabuktagin who was the king of Gazni and by assuming which title he strengthened his position?
Answer:
After Sabuktagin his son Mamud was the king of Gazni. He assumed the title “Sultan” and strengthened his position.

Question 16.
Sultan Mahmud had invaded India from which AD. to which A.D. and for how many times he invaded India?
Answer:
Sultan Mahmud invaded India from 1000 A.D to 1027 AD. He invaded India seventeen times.

Question 17.
On 1175A.D. Muhammad Ghori waged an invasion against India and captured which region. At that time who ruled over Delhi and Ajmer?
Answer:
In 1175 A.D. Muhammad Ghori waged an invasion against India and captured Multan. At that time the Chauhan dynasty ruler Prithviraj ruled over Delhi and Ajmer.

Question 18.
The first battle of Tarain was fought in which between whom?
Answer:
The first battle of Tarain was fought in 1191 A.D. It was fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chouhan.

Question 19.
What was the result of the second battle of Tarain and which newness was created for it?
Answer:
In the second battle of Tarain Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Muhammad Ghori. The newness in this battle was that Muslim reign was established in Delhi and North India.

Question 20.
When Maham made Chon dead and after him who took the administration charge of Delhi?
Answer:
Muhammad Ghori died on 1206 Ai). After him, his faithful commander Kuttabuddin Aibak took charge of the Delhi administration independently.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 21.
After Kuttabuddin who took charge of the Delhi administration?
Answer:
After Kuttabuddin in 1211 A.D., Ilnitmish became the emperor of Delhi.

Question 22.
When Allauddin Khfflji by staining who became the sultan of Delhi?
Answer:
Allauddin Khiji staining to his father-in-law Jalaluddin became the sultan of Delhi.

Question 23.
For which administrative policy the reign of Allauddin KhIljI is memorable?
Answer:
For the administrative policy of the “Market regulating system,” the reign of Allauddin Khilji is memorable.

Question 24.
After the death of their father prince, Juna Khan was styled in which name took in charge of the throne and he ruled from which A.D. to which A.D.
Answer:
After the death of their father prince, Juna Khan styled himself Muhammad bin-Tughlaq took charge of Delhi’s throne. He ruled from 1325 A.D. to 1351 A.D.

Question 25.
When the first battle of Panipat was fought and what was the result of this battle?
Answer:
The first battle of Panipat was fought in 1526A.D. between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi. The result of this battle was that the reign of the Sultans came to an end.

Question 26.
In the sultan’s administration to whom importance was given and in his name what was read?
Answer:
In sultan, administration importance was given to “Khalifa”. In the name of Khalifa “Khutba” was read.

Question 27.
In sultan administration which religious law had given importance and with this law which law and condition widely prevailed?
Answer:
In the sultan administration, the I slam law “Sariyat” had given utmost importance. The law and condition of the state have widely prevailed.

Question 28.
The administration of sultan reign prevailed by which law and by which clan they were dealt with?
Answer:
The administration of the sultan’s reign prevailed by “Quoran” law. They were dealt with by the religious clan “Ulema”.

Question 29.
Who was the chief of the sultan’s administration and at the same time he was the supreme of which system?
Answer:
The Sultan was the chief of administration. At the same time, he was an administrator, chief executive, and chief lawgiver.

Question 30.
What was the name of the ministry at the central level and which people were getting a chance in this administrative sphere?
Ans:
The name of the ministry at the central level was “Mazlis-E-Khalwat”. In this administrative sphere, the people of learned and experienced got a chance.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 31.
At the central level, how many eminent members were the help of important works to the sultan and advised him and they were called what?
Answer:
At the central level, four numbers eminent members were the help of important works to the sultan and advised him. They were called as “Raizan-E-Daroga”.

Question 32.
In the absence of the sultan who was the administrative head of the state and in which field he took in charge of the administrative system?
Answer:
In the absence of a sultan, the Prime Minister or wazir was the head of the state. In the minor age of sultan, Wazir can take charge of the administrative system.

Question 33.
“Diwan-E-Urge” was the minister of which department and this minister gave suggestions to the sultan in which matter?
Answer:
“Diwan-E-Urge” was the minister of the defense department. This minister gave suggestions to the sultan regarding the military system and war.

Question 34.
What was told to the minister engaged in the duty of state postal information and he was engaged on which letter corresponding?
Answer:
“Diwan-E-Insa” was told to the minister engaged in the duty of state postal information. He was engaged in royal letter correspondence.

Question 35.
The minister who was engaged in military work was called what and which was he was maintained?
Answer:
The minister was engaged in military work called “Ariz-E-Malik”. He maintained the works like appointments, communication, weapons, military commodities -etc.

Question 36.
What was the designation of the Chief Justice of the Kingdom and by administering that department he also administered to which other departments?
Answer:
Kizi-E-Mamalik was the designation of the Chief Justice of the Kingdom. By administering that department he was also in charge of Madrasa, Philanthropic and common distribution work.

Question 37.
What was the designation of the spy and corresponding head in the sultan age and what was his chief work?
Answer:
Baird-E-Mamalik was the designation of the spy and corresponding head. His Chief work was to appoint spies in different regions of the country and to communicate the actual state of affairs.

Question 38.
What was the designation of the minister of agriculture and which work he performed?
Answer:
Amir-E-Koh was the designated of agriculture minister. His chief was to deal with various methods of cultivation, cultivators, and all works regarding this aspect.

Question 39.
What was the designation of the Urban Development Minister and which work of the country was in his custody?
Answer:
Mir-E-Amrat was the designated of urban development minister. Eminent construction works were held in his custody.

Question 40.
What was called to the Chief of the royal family and the royal palace and to which important work he had to deal?
Answer:
The Chief of the royal family and royal palace was called “Vakil”. His Chiefwork was to deal with the menu of the royal kitchen, deal with important festivals, and give hospitality to the royal guests.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 41.
In the sultan age what was the designation of the Hindu revenue collectors?
Answer:
In the sultan age, the Hindu revenue collectors were designated as Khat. Choudury and Mukaddum.

Question 42.
Who were the Chief foreign travelers in the sultan age?
Answer:
The Chief foreign travelers were Macro polo and Ibn-Battuta.

Question 43.
In Indian History, the Muslim administration was commonly divided into how many parts?
Answer:
In Indian History, the Muslim administration was commonly divided into two parts. They were the sultan Age and Mughal Age.

Question 44.
In the sultan Age who was the caretaker of religious institutions and which chief work, he had to deal with?
Answer:
In the sultan Age, the caretaker of the religious institutions was Sadar-Us-Sadar. His Chief work was to propagate and circulate religious principles.

Question 45.
What was the designation of the minister of punishment to manage the marriage customs of the girls of poor Muslim families?
Answer:
The designation of the minister of punishment and management of marriage customs of the poor Muslim family named “siyasat”

Question 46.
Which was the capital city in the Sultan Age and which dignitary was in change of administration?
Answer:
Delhi was the capital city of the sultan’s age. “Katual” dignitary was in charge of the administration of the capital.

Question 47.
What was called to the states in the Sultan administration and who was the chief of income-expenditure and revenue?
Answer:
“Beta” was called to the state in the sultan’s administration. Diwan-E-Wizarat was the Chief of income-expenditure and revenue.

Question 48.
Each state was divided into which units and who was the head of these units?
Answer:
Each state was divided into “Sik”. In each, a sirdar or Nazim was appointed.

Question 49.
What was the specialty in sultan age tributary states and mention the name of two main tributary states?
Answer:
The specialty in sultan age tributary states was that in a special condition they circulate their own coins. The name of two important tributary states was Ranthambar and Devagiri.

Question 50.
In the sultan’s administration what were the names of the union territories and what was the name of the administrative chief of this area?
Answer:
In the sultan’s administration “Khalsa” was the name of the union territories. Its administrative chief was Amir or Sahaba who was directly appointed by the sultan.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 51.
Which type of costly garments were used by the sultans in the sultan Age?
Answer:
The costly garments in the sultan Age were Diba-E-Hata (seven-color princely dresses) and Bishan-E-Jamuradi (Dress with gems) and so also foreign clothes were imported.

Question 52.
What was the name of the foreign traveler at the time of Jahangir and what is known regarding the menu of Mughals from his accounts?
Answer:
Sir Thomas Roe was a foreign traveler who came at the time of Jahangir. It is known in his account that in the Mughal age at a time twenty numbers of dishes can be found on the table of Amirs.

Question 53.
What was the name of the historian of Akbar’s court and what was the name of his written book?
Answer:
The name of the historian of Akbar’s court was Abul Fazil. The name of his written book was Ain -E-Akbari.

Question 54.
In 1563 AD and 1564 AD which takes were withdrawn from Hindus by Akbar?
Answer:
In 1563 AD and 1564 AD the taxes like pilgrimage tax were withdrawn from Hindus.

Question 55.
In 1575 where Samrat Akbar built a worship hall what was the name of that worship hall?
Answer:
In 1575 Samrat Akbar built a worship hall in the new city of Fatepur Sikri. That worship was named “Ibadutt Khanna”.

Question 56.
From the discussions of various religions which new “ism” came into existence and when Akbar declared this heavenly faith?
Answer:
From the discussions of various religions the new “ism” Din-I-Illahi or Heavenly faith.

Question 57.
Who built the tomb of Humayun and who was its architect?
Answer:
By the memory of Humayun, his widow-wife Hamidabanu Begum built the “ Humayan Tomb” in Delhi. The architect of this tomb was Miraz Mirzaliyas of Persia.

Question 58.
The reign of which Mughal monarch is considered the highest time of Mughal art and sculpture and this time is considered by historians as which time?
Answer:
The reign of Mughal monarch Sahajahan is considered the highest time of Mughal art and sculpture. This time is considered the “period of marble” by historians.

Question 59.
What was the eminent sculptural episode at Agra built by Sahajahan & for whose shake it was built?
Answer:
The name of the eminent sculptural episode at Agra built by Sahajahan is “Taj Mahal”. It was built as a tomb tower for the departed wife of Saha Jahan Aiju Mandbanu popularly known as Mumtaj Mahal.

Question 60.
Samrat Sahajahan to glorify his dignity and wealth built which eminent architect and how many years are required for this episode?
Answer:
Samrat Sahajahan to glorify his dignity and wealth built the “Peacock Throne”. At that time seven years were required for this episode.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 61.
Which son of Sahajahan has secured small pictures of the Mughal age in his album narrow these valued pictures are seen in the library of which city?
Answer:
The elder son of “Sahajahan Dara-Shiko has secured small pictures of Mughal age in his album. Now, these valuable pictures are seen in the library of London city.

Question 62. Which eminent stories in Ancient India were renewed in the Mughal world and which Mughal Kind or mousy picturized these stories which were widely accepted?
Answer:
The ancient Indian story “Pancha Tantra” was renowned in Mughal World. Mughal king Akbar enormously picturized these stories which were widely accepted.

Question 63.
Before the Muslim age in which century which Indian saints advocated the theory of “Omnism” derived from the philosophy of IJpanishad?
Answer:
Before the Muslim age, in the century A.D., the eminent Hindu saint Sankaracharya advocated the theory of “Omnism” derived from the philosophy of the Upanishad.

Question 64.
Who was the first preacher of “Sufism” in India and he was born at where and when?
Answer:
The first preacher of “Sufism” in India was Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti. He was bom at Seisthan in 1143 A.D.

Question 65.
When Khwaja Muinuddin was living in Ajmer who was the king of that area and the king sent which chief priest of Ajmer to Khwaja to evacuate Ajmer?
Answer:
When Khwaja Muinuddin was living in Ajmer the king of that area was Prithviraj Chowhan. He sent Chief Priest of Ajmer Ram Deo to Khwaja to accurate: Ajmer.

Question 66.
Who was the young disciple of Khwaja Mainuddin Chisti and what was his specialty?
Answer:
Shaikh Hammiduddin was the young disciple of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti. His importance was that he translated the principles of Sufism into local languages and preached them.

Question 67.
Who was the eminent disciple of Baba Farid and he was born where and in which A.D.?
Answer:
Nizamuddin Aulia was the eminent disciple of Baba Farid. He was bom at Badaun in 1236 A.D.

Question 68.
Which Sultan requested many times to meet Nizamuddin Aulia and which message was sent to him by Nizamuddin?
Answer:
Sultan Alauddin Khilji requested many times to meet Nizamuddin Aulia. Nizamuddin sends a message to him that “There are two doors in my home. If sultan enters my home through one door then I shall exit through another door”.

Question 69.
By viewing the religious impact of Nizamuddin Aulia which sultan was various to him and he ordered him to left Delhi. On return what Nizamuddin has told?
Answer:
By viewing the religious impact of Nizamuddin Aulia sultan Giyasuddin Tughlaq was favorable to him. He ordered him to left Delhi and in return got an answer that “Delhi is now so far from you”.

Question 70.
Which Sufi saint has come from Badaun to Delhi and he was titled as what?
Answer:
Sufi saint Nasiruddin Aulia has come from Badaun and settled in Delhi. He was titled “Pioneer of Delhi”.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 71.
Which Sufi saint was an eminent writer and philosopher and in which region in India he preached Sufism and popularise this movement?
Answer:
Saint Khwaja Banda Nawaz was an eminent writer and philosopher. In the southern region of India, he preached Sufism and popularize this movement.

Question 72.
Who was the introducer of the survey Vardi clan of Sufism and for the propagation of this movement to whom he engaged in India?
Answer:
Shaikh Sihabuddin Survavardi was the introducer of the survey of the Vardi clan of Sufism. For the propagation of this movement in India, he engaged his disciple Shaikh Bahauddin Zakaria.

Question 73.
The people of which country was much more interested in the principles of Sufism? Many people of which clan converted to Islam religion?
Answer:
The people of Bangladesh were much more interested in the principles of Sufism. Many people of the Hindu clan were converted to Islam religion.

Question 74.
At the beginning of the twelfth century which saint preached Vaishnavism and so also introduced the Bhakti Cult of India? He was born in which region of India?
Answer:
At the beginning of the twelfth-century saint Ramanuja preached Vaishnavism and so also introduced the Bhakti cult in India. He was born in the Andhra region of India.

Question 75.
After Ramanuja which saint in the Bhakti cult was the chief preacher and for which policy he was famous?
Answer:
After Ramanuja, the saint Nimbark in the Bhakti cult was the Chief Preacher. He was famous for his “Dividend Policy”.

Question 76.
In the thirteenth century which chief saint in the Bhakti cult was famous in south India? His Bhakti philosophy of him was narrated in which book?
Answer:
In the thirteenth century, the chief saint Madhaba was famous in south India. The Bhakti philosophy about him was narrated in the book “Sutra Bhasya”.

Question 77.
In the fourteenth century among the Vaishnav saints who was the chief preacher and he was born at where?
Answer:
In the fourteenth century among the Vaishnav saints saith Ramanand was the chief preacher. He was bom at prayag.

Question 78.
In Middle Ages among the Bhakti preachers which saint secured an eminent position? When he was born and when he was dead?
Answer:
In the Middle Ages among the Bhakti preachers, Sant Kabir secured an eminent position. He was born in 1440 A.D. and died in 1510 A.D.

Question 79.
What was told the Hindi Bhajans of Kabir and after Kabir, his disciples were named as what?
Answer:
The Hindi Bhajans of Kabir are known as “Doha”. After his disciples were known as “Kabirpanthi”.

Question 80.
The Bhakti preacher Guru Nanak of the Middle Ages was born in which village and when?
Answer:
The Bhakti preacher Gum Nanak of the Middle Ages was born in the village Talwandi near Lahore in 1469 A.D.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 81.
The published Bhajan text of Nanak was popular as which text and his disciples are regarded as what?
Answer:
The published Bhajan text of Nanak was popular as “Adigranth”. The disciples of Nanak are regarded as “Sikhs”.

Question 82.
When Nanak was dead and before his death to whom he chose as his successor?
Answer:
Nanak was dead in 1538 A.D. Before his death he choose Angad, one of his disciples as his successor.

Question 83.
Which Sikh Guru built the “Golden Temple” at Amritsar and which text was worshipped there?
Answer:
Fourth Sikh Gum Ram Das built the “Golden Temple” at Amritsar. The text “Adi Grantha” was worshipped there.

Question 84.
Who was the poet of the renowned “Ramcharita Manas” and in which part of India he was a famous saint?
Answer:
Saint Tulsi Das was the poet of the renowned “ Ramacharita Manas”. In North India, he was a famous saint.

Question 85.
Where Sri Chaitanya was born and what was his nickname?
Answer:
Sri Chaitanya was bom 1486 A.D. at Nahadwie of Bengal. His nickname was Biswambara.

Question 86.
Before the completion of which age Sri Chaitanya got initiation from which saint?
Answer:
Before the completion of 22 years of age, Sri Chaitanya got initiation from the saint Iswarapuri.

Question 87.
Was there a caste barrier before Sri Chaitanya? Which disciple of his was Primarily a Muslim?
Answer:
No there was no caste barrier before Sri Chaitanya. The disciple of him Yavana Haridasa was primarily a Muslim.

Question 88.
In which state did saith Jnaneswara the Chief of the Bhakti cult and in which language he wrote the Bhagavad Gita which was very popular?
Answer:
In the state of Maharastra Santh jnaneswara was the Chief of Bhakti cult. In the Marathi language, he wrote Bhagabat Gita which was very popular.

Question 89.
Which Bhakti cult saint was contemporary to Shivaji and he was born in which family?
Answer:
Bhakti cult saint Jukaram was contemporary to Shivaji. He was born near Poona in a scheduled caste family.

Question 90.
After the deterioration of which religion Bhakti movement was mostly broad and popular religious movement? For this movement which system was relaxed at the maximum point?
Answer:
After the deterioration of Buddhism, the Bhakti movement was a mostly broad and popular religious movement. For this movement caste system was relaxed to the maximum point.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Short-Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Role of Al Beruni in mathematics and astronomy?
Answer:
Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Beruni were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects mathematical geography. His religion contributed to our research of astronomy, as in Islam, Muslim customs require knowing the direction of certain sacred locations, which can actually be found through this type of scientific study.

Biruni’s major work on astrology is primarily an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication. His endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology as “sorcery”.

Question 2.
Al Biruni’s role in History and chronology?
Answer:
Biruni’s main essay on political history, vital at-Musa mare fi Akbar Kvarazm (book of highly conversation affairs of Karazm) is known only from quotations in Bayhaqi’s Tarikh-e mas. In addition to his various discussion of history and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-Athar-al-vaquita and in the Qanun as well as elsewhere in the Altar in India and scattered through his other works.

Brian’s study of history was not limited to the aforementioned topics, he also touched upon the topic of the earth’s creation. He elaborated upon the fact that the earth was created from the elements and not solely through divine creation. Even though Islam did influence his study, he did knowledge the ride of the elements.

Question 3.
Al Biruni as a pioneer in religion?
Answer:
Biruni is one of the most important Muslim authorities in the history of religion. All was a pioneer in the study of comparative religion. He studied Zoroastrianism, Jainism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other religions. He treated religions objectively, striving to understand them on their, own forms rather than trying to prove them wrong. His underlying concept was that all cultures at least district relatives of all other cultures because they are all human constructs.

What Al Biruni seems to be arguing is that there is a common human element in every culture that makes all cultures distant relatives, however foreign they might seem to one another. Al Biruni divides Hindus into an educated and uneducated class. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshipped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God.

Question 4.
Early life of Ibn Battuta?
Answer:
All that is known about Ibn Battuta’s life comes from the autobiographical information included in the account of his travels which records that he was of Berber descent, born into a family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier, Morocco, on 25 February 1304, during the reign of the Marinid dynasty. He claimed descent. from a Berber tribe known as the lowest. As a young man, he would have studied at Malikimadh’had (Islamic jurisprudence School) the dominant form of education in North Africa. Maliki Muslims requested Ibn Battuta serve as their religious judge as he was from or area where it was practiced.

Question 5.
Ibn Battuta’s travelling from Mecca to Aden?
Answer:
Ibn battuta remained in Mecca for some time (the Rihla suggests about three years, from September 1327 until autumn 1330). Problems with chronology, however, lead common factors to suggest that he may have left after the 1328 hajj. After the hajj in either 1328 or 1330, he made his way to the port of Jeddah on the Red sea coast. From there he followed the coast in a series of boats making slow progress against the prevailing south-easterly winds.

Once in Yemen visited said and later the highland town of Taiz, where he met the Rasulid dynasty king(malik) mujahid Nur al-din Ali. Ibn Battuta also mentions visiting sans’s, but whether he actually did so is doubtful. In all likelihood, he went directly from Taizz to the important trading port of Aden, arriving around the beginning of 1329 or 1331.

Question 6.
Ibn Battuta’s back journey to Morocco?
Answer:
After returning to Quanzhou in 1346, the Battuta began his journey back to Morocco. In Kozhikode, he once again considered throwing himself at the mercy of Mohammad bin Tughlaq in Delhi but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca. On his way to Basra, he passed through the Strait of Hormuz, where he learned that Abu said, the last ruler of the Dynasty had died in Persia, Abu said’s territories had subsequently lapsed due to a fierce civil war between the Persians and Mongols.

In 1348, Ibn Battuta arrived in Damascus with the intention of retracting the route of his first hajj. He then learned that his father had died 15 years earlier and death became the dominant theme for the next year or so. The black death had struck and he was on a wand as it spread through Syria, Palestine, and Arabica. After reaching Mecca he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter of a century after leaving home. On the way he made one last detour to Sardinia, then in 1349, returned to Tangier by way of Fez, only to discover that his mother Had also died a few months before.

Question 7.
Francois Bernier as a physician and traveler?
Answer:
Franco Bernier (25 September 1620-22 September 1688) was a Fresh Physician and traveler. He was bom at Joul-Etilaw in Anjou. He was briefly a personal physician to Mughal prince Darashikoh (28 October 1615 – 30 August 1659). The eldest son of the Mughal emperor shakti Jahan and after Dara Shikoh’s demise was attached to the court of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (1 4 October 1618-20 February 1707) for around 12 years during his stay in India.

His 1684 publication division Delatorre parlors different species once (A new division of the Earth) is considered the first published post-classical classification of humans into distinct races. He also wrote Travels in the Mughal Empire, which is mainly about the reigns of Dara Shiloh and Aurangzeb. It is based on his own extensive Journeys and observations, and on information from eminent Mughal courtiers who had witnessed the events firsthand.

Question 8.
Position of women during the sultanate period?
Answer:
In general, the status of women deteriorated in society. The Purdah system among Muslim women was strictly observed. Sati practice in Hindu society was continued, and polygamy was widely prevalent among Muslims. The nobles and rich Muslims kept a number of wives very little attention were paid to the education of women.

Question 9.
Slave system during the sultanate period?
Answer:
Slaves were sold like any other commodity. It is understood that there were slave markets also in a few towns. The sultans and the nobles kept slaves in large numbers. The slaves were provided education and training. They were also provided opportunities to rise in their careers. Several of them like Malik rose to eminent positions in the state. Thus, the slave system was a social practice during the sultanate period.

Question 10.
Taj Mahal?
Answer:
The most famous monument constructed by Shah Jahan is the Taj Mahal. He built it in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Its chief architect was Ustad Isa Khan. It took 22 years to build and was constructed at a cost of 32 million rupees. Over 20000 laborers worked on it day and night. It stands as one of the seven wonders of the World.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 11.
Peacock Throne?
Answer:
It is a wonderful monument constructed by Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan made a fabulous throne for himself to exhibit his wealth. It is famous as the Peacock Throne. The Mughal treasury was full of jewels. Shah Jahan wanted to display them on a throne to cause surprise the man. So he ordered to take out precious jewels worth 86 lakhs of rupees to be used in the throne. When finished the peacock throne became 3 yards by 21 yards and 5 yards in height.

Its canopy was covered with rubies and gems. The canopy was supported by twelve pillars made of emeralds. Two peacocks were designed on each pillar with gems fixed on them. But when each pair of peacocks a tree was designed with rubies diamonds emeralds and pearls fixed on it. Later on, it was taken away from India by Nadir Shah in 1739 A.D.

Question 12.
Mughal Paintings?
Answer:
The Mughal age is famous for the development of painting. The time of the Emperor. Jahangir had been described as the golden age of Mughal painting. Jahangir paid greater attention to painting than to architecture. The artists of his time were experts in painting natural scenes, landscapes, birds and beasts, and human beings. The pictures were small in size but looked realistic.

The emperor patronized the painters and honored them in the royal court. The memo is of Jahangir known as Tuzuk-Jahangir, containing many pictures of real scenes such as the scene of coronation, pictures of the emperor of the court, and of hunting of animals. The miniature painting was preserved inside picture albums.

Question 13.
Meaning of Sufism?
Answer:
Among Muslim society, Sufism carried a reform movement in the medieval period. Sufism is derived from two Arabic words i.e. safe and safe. The word means a carpet since the Sufis meditated upon God on a carpet, Sufism took its birth i.e. pure people who meditated on a carpet. ‘suF means work. The Muslim saints who wore garments of coarse wool began to be called Sufi saints.

Question 14.
Meaning of the Bhakti movement?
Answer:
The literal meaning of Bhakti is devotion. But the Bhakti movement implied the movement which emphasized intense devotion to God. This devotion was expressed by a devotee through the repetition of the name of the Almighty. The mode of expression was usually singing and dancing in the praise of God. The saints of the Bhakti movement emphasized that there was no distinction of class, color, caste, etc. All were equal the Bhakti movement believed in leading a pure and simple life.

Question 15.
Results of the Bhakti Movement?
Answer:
The Bhakti Movement led to significant results, Firstly it was a widespread religious upheaval. Though Kabir, Nanak, and Chaitanya were its Chief exponents, there were several other preachers to play part in it. Saints like Ramananda, Vallabhacharya, and Namadev left a large following. The movement covered all parts of India. Thus it developed an all-India base. The Bhakti Movement was not a movement of the wise few, but of the wider mass. It is said that after Buddhism the Bhakti cult saw the next most popular of all sections its effect was lasting. The most ignorant could think of getting God by uttering His Name.

Question 16.
Qutab Minar?
Answer:
It is a movement of the sultanate period in Delhi. Its construction was started by Qutatud-din Aibak in 1199 and was completed by Iltutmish in 1230 A.D. It was named after the Muslim saint Qutab-din of Ush (near Bagdad). It is a circular tower and is 72.5 meters high. The diameter of its base is 4 meters while that of its summit is 3.5 meters. The Qutab Minar is built of red sandstone & marble.

Question 17.
Agra Fort?
Answer:
Akbar built the Agra Fort on the banks of the Yamuna between 1565-73 AD. In its plan, it forms an irregular semi-circle. The fort is fortified by a 2.4 km long and 21 m. high wall made of red sandstone. It has two big ornamental getaways. One each on its southern & western sides. The whole gateway is decorated with patterns in white marble. Such decorative art has representations of winged dragons, elephants, and birds. This is a fine specimen of Islamic tradition and is not found in any Islamic building in India.

Question 18.
Fatehpur Sikri?
Answer:
It is a monument of the Mughals, built by Akbar in his new capital at Fathepur Sikhi situated 43 km away from Agra. The construction of this capital began in 1569 A.D. and was completed in 1584 AD Fatehpur Sikri had a wall on three sides with nine gateways & also had an artificial lake. The best examples of Akbar’s buildings are found in Fatehpur Sikri. It was designed as a grand capital with schools, public buildings, palaces, and mosques interspersed with terraces & gardens. The architectural styles of these buildings have Persian influence.

Question 19.
Jama Masjid?
Answer:
The Jama Masjid near the Red Fort was built by Shah Jahan in the 17th Century AD. It is the biggest mosque in India. It is built on a high platform with three onion-shaped a reservoir of water in the center. This courtyard can accommodate as many as 10000 people at a time. It is built with red sandstone with inlaid white marble. Its construction began in 1644-A.D. & was completed in 1658 A.D.

CHSE Odisha Class 12 History Unit 3 Perceptions of Society through the Eyes of the Travellers (10th to 17th Centuries) Short Answer Questions

Question 20.
Buland Darwaza?
Answer:
Buland Darwaza or the Gate of Magnificence was built in 1601 A.D. by Akbar to commemorate his conquest of Gujrat. Its gateway is approached by 42 steps. The Buland Darwaza is 40 m. high & 35 m. wide. It is the greatest gateway in the world. The gage way is read sandstone decorated by carving and interlaying of white marble. On the central face of the Buland Darwaza, there is an inscription in beautiful lettering that symbolizes Akbar’s religious broadmindedness. This inscription is a message from Jesus Christ advising his followers not to consider this world as their permanent home.